Java (Indonesian: Jawa, Indonesian pronunciation: [ˈdʒawa]; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese: ᮏᮝ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 151.8 million, including the inhabitants of its surrounding islands, principally Madura, Java constitutes 56.1 percent of the Indonesian population. 147.7 million people live on Java itself, making it the world's most populous island.[1]

Native name:
Jawa  (Indonesian)
ꦗꦮ  (Javanese)
ᮏᮝ  (Sundanese)
Topography of Java
Coordinates7°29′30″S 110°00′16″E
ArchipelagoGreater Sunda Islands
Area129,904 km2 (50,156 sq mi)
Area rank13th
Highest elevation3,676 m (12060 ft)
Highest pointSemeru
Special Capital Region of Jakarta,
West Java,
Central Java,
East Java,
Yogyakarta Special Region
Largest settlementJakarta (pop. 10,562,088)
Population147,795,436 (2020)
Pop. density1,121/km2 (2903/sq mi)
Ethnic groupsJavanese (inc. Tenggerese, Osing, Banyumasan, Cirebonese),
Sundanese (inc. Bantenese, Baduy, Cirebonese),
Madurese (inc. Pendalungan)
Betawi etc.

Indonesia's capital city, Jakarta, is on Java's northwestern coast. Much of the well-known part of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the centre of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java dominates Indonesia politically, economically and culturally. Four of Indonesia's eight UNESCO world heritage sites are located in Java: Ujung Kulon National Park, Borobudur Temple, Prambanan Temple, and Sangiran Early Man Site.

Formed by volcanic eruptions due to geologic subduction of the Australian Plate under the Sunda Plate, Java is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest in Indonesia by landmass at about 138,800 square kilometres (53,600 sq mi). A chain of volcanic mountains is the east–west spine of the island.

Four main languages are spoken on the island: Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, and Betawi, where Javanese and Sundanese are the most spoken.[2] Only two ethnic groups are native to the island—the Javanese in the central and eastern parts and Sundanese in the western parts. The Madurese in the Eastern salient of Java are migrants from Madura Island, while the Betawi in the capital city of Jakarta are hybrids from various ethnic groups in Indonesia. Most residents are bilingual, speaking Indonesian (the official language of Indonesia) as their first or second language. While the majority of the people of Java are Muslim, Java's population comprises people of diverse religious beliefs, ethnicities, and cultures.[3]

Java is divided into four administrative provinces: Banten, West Java, Central Java, and East Java, and two special regions, Jakarta and Yogyakarta.