Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (French: [ʒɑ̃ mɔnɛ]; 9 November 1888 – 16 March 1979) was a French political economist and diplomat. An influential supporter of European unity, he is considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union. Jean Monnet has been called "The Father of Europe" by those who see his innovative and pioneering efforts in the 1950s as the key to establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, the predecessor of today’s European Union. Never elected to public office, Monnet worked behind the scenes of American and European governments as a well-connected pragmatic internationalist. He was named patron of the 1980–1981 academic year at the College of Europe, in honour of his accomplishments.
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|President of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community|
10 August 1952 – 3 June 1955
|Succeeded by||René Mayer|
|Deputy Secretary-General of the League of Nations|
10 June 1919 – 31 January 1923
|Preceded by||Office created|
|Succeeded by||Joseph Avenol|
Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet
9 November 1888
Cognac, Charente, France
|Died||16 March 1979 90) (aged|
Houjarray, Bazoches-sur-Guyonne, France
|Resting place||Panthéon, Paris, France|
Silvia de Bondini (m. 1934)
|Profession||Politician, economist, diplomat|
Monnet was born in Cognac, a commune in the department of Charente in France, into a family of cognac merchants. At the age of sixteen, he abandoned his university entrance examinations part way through and moved to the United Kingdom, where he spent several years in London with Mr. Chaplin, an agent of his father's company. Subsequently, he travelled widely – to Scandinavia, Russia, Egypt, Canada, and the United States – for the family business.
World War I
Monnet firmly believed that the only path to an Allied victory lay in combining the war efforts of Britain and France, and he reflected on a concept that would coordinate war resources. In 1914, young Monnet was allowed to meet French Premier René Viviani on this issue and he managed to convince the French government to agree with him, in principle. However, during the first two years of the war, Monnet did not have much success pressing for a better organization of the allied economic cooperation. It was not until two years later that stronger combines like the Wheat Executive (end of 1916) and the Allied Maritime Transport Council (end of 1917) were set into motion, adding to the overall war effort.
At the Paris Peace Conference, Monnet was an assistant to the French minister of commerce and industry, Étienne Clémentel, who proposed a "new economic order" based on European cooperation. The scheme was officially rejected by the Allies in April 1919.
Due to his contributions to the war effort, Monnet, at the age of thirty-one, was named Deputy Secretary General of the League of Nations by French premier Georges Clemenceau and British statesman Arthur Balfour, upon the League's creation in 1919.
Soon disillusioned with the League because of its laborious and unanimous decision-making processes, Monnet resigned in 1923 and devoted himself to managing the family business, which was experiencing difficulties. In 1925, Monnet moved to America to accept a partnership in Blair & Co., a New York bank which merged with Bank of America in 1929, forming Bancamerica-Blair Corporation which was owned by Transamerica Corporation. He returned to international politics and, as an international financier, proved to be instrumental to the economic recovery of several Central and Eastern European nations. He helped stabilise the Polish złoty in 1927 and the Romanian leu in 1928. In November 1932, the Chinese Minister of Finance invited Jean Monnet to act as chairman of an East-West non-political committee in China for the development of the Chinese economy where he lived until 1936. During his time in China, Monnet's task of partnering Chinese capital with foreign companies led to the formal inauguration of the Chinese Development Finance Corporation (CDFC) as well as the reorganization of the Chinese railroads.
In 1935, when Monnet was still in Shanghai, he became a business partner of George Murnane (a former colleague of Monnet at Transamerica) in Monnet, Murnane & Co. Murnane was connected to the Wallenberg family in Sweden, the Bosch family in Germany, the Solvays and Boëls in Belgium, and John Foster Dulles, André Meyer, and the Rockefeller family in the United States. He was considered among the most connected persons of his time.
World War II
In December 1939, Monnet was sent to London to oversee the collectivization of the British and French war industries. In his memoirs, Monnet claims that his influence inspired Charles de Gaulle and Winston Churchill to agree on an Anglo-French union, ostensibly in an attempt to rival the alliance between Germany and Italy, an event, however, not mentioned in de Gaulle's or Churchill's memoirs on the war.
De Gaulle dined with Monnet on his first evening in Britain after his flight with Winston Churchill's envoy Edward Spears (17 June). Monnet broke with de Gaulle on 23 June, as he thought the general's appeal was "too personal" and that de Gaulle had broken "too far" with the collaborationist Pétain government. Monnet believed that French opinion would not rally to a man who was seen to be operating from British soil. He claimed to have shared his concerns about de Gaulle with the Foreign Office mandarins Alexander Cadogan and Robert Vansittart, and Spears.
In August 1940, Monnet resigned as head of the Inter-Allied Commission and was sent to the United States by the British Government, as a member of the British Supply Council, to negotiate the purchase of war supplies. Soon after his arrival in Washington, D.C., he became an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Convinced that America could serve as "the great arsenal of democracy", he persuaded the President to launch a massive arms production program, both as an economic stimulus and to supply the Allies with military resources. In 1941, Roosevelt, with Churchill's agreement, launched the Victory Program, which represented the involvement of the United States in the war effort. After the war, British economist John Maynard Keynes stated that Monnet, through his coordination work, had probably shortened World War II by a year.
In 1943, Monnet became a member of the National Liberation Committee, De Gaulle's French government-in-exile, stationed in Algiers, being designated Commissaire à l'Armement (Minister of Armaments). During a meeting on 5 August of that year, Monnet declared to the Committee:
There will be no peace in Europe, if the states are reconstituted on the basis of national sovereignty... The countries of Europe are too small to guarantee their peoples the necessary prosperity and social development. The European states must constitute themselves into a federation...
The Monnet Plan
Following World War II, France was in severe need of reconstruction and completely dependent on coal from Germany's main remaining coal-mining areas, the Ruhr and the Saar. (The German coal fields in Upper Silesia had been handed over to Polish administration by the Allies in 1945, see Oder-Neisse line.)
In 1945, Monnet proposed the Monnet Plan, also known as the "Theory of l'Engrenage" (not to be confused with the Schuman plan). It included taking control of the remaining German coal-producing areas and redirecting the production away from the German industry and into the French, thus permanently weakening Germany and raising the French economy considerably above its pre-war levels. The plan was adopted by Charles de Gaulle in early 1946.
Later that year, Monnet successfully negotiated the Blum–Byrnes agreement with the United States, which cleared France from a $2.8 billion debt (mostly World War I loans) and provided the country with an additional low-interest loan of $650 million. In return, France opened its cinemas to American movies.
In 1947 France removed the Saar from Germany, with U.S. support, and turned it into the Saar Protectorate, which was politically independent and under complete French economic control. The area returned to German political administration in 1957 (economic reunification would take many years longer), but France retained the right to mine from its coal mines until 1981. (See: The Europeanisation of the Saarland)
The Ruhr Agreement was imposed on the Germans as a condition for permitting them to establish the Federal Republic of Germany. The IAR controlled production levels, pricing, and the sales markets, thus ensuring that France received a considerable portion of the Ruhr coal production at low prices.
When tensions between France and Germany rose over the control of the then vital coal and steel industries, Monnet and his associates conceived the idea of a European Community. On 9 May 1950, with the agreement of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer of West Germany, French Minister of Foreign Affairs Robert Schuman made a declaration in the name of the French government. This declaration, prepared by Monnet for Schuman, proposed integration of the French and German coal and steel industries under joint control, a so-called High Authority, open to the other countries of Europe. Schuman declared:
Through the consolidation of basic production and the institution of a new High Authority, whose decisions will bind France, Germany and the other countries that join, this proposal represents the first concrete step towards a European federation, imperative for the preservation of peace.
When Germany agreed to join the European Coal and Steel Community according to the Schuman Plan in 1951, the ongoing dismantling of German industry was halted and some of the restrictions on German industrial output were lifted. West Germany joined the ECSC, alongside Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, while Britain refused, on grounds of national sovereignty.
In 1952, Jean Monnet became the first president of the High Authority and with the opening of the common market for coal under the ECSC in 1953, the last civilian production limitations placed on German industry were lifted, and the role of the IAR was taken over by the ECSC.
He was the first to be bestowed Honorary Citizen of Europe by the European Council of the European Union, for extraordinary work to promote European cooperation on 2 April 1976. Following this he became the first person then living to be pictured on a Federal Republic of Germany stamp who was not a German head of state.
In 1955, Monnet founded the Action Committee for the United States of Europe in order to revive European construction following the failure of the European Defence Community (EDC). It brought political parties and European trade unions together to become a driving force behind the initiatives which laid the foundation for the European Union as it eventually emerged: first the European Economic Community (EEC) (1958) (known commonly as the "Common Market"), which was established by the Treaty of Rome of 1957; later the European Community (1967) with its corresponding bodies, the European Commission and the European Council of Ministers, British membership in the Community (1973), the European Council (1974), the European Monetary System (1979), and the European Parliament (1979). This process reflected Monnet's belief in a gradualist approach for constructing European unity.
On 6 December 1963, Monnet was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with Special Distinction, by United States President Lyndon Johnson. In 1972, Queen Elizabeth II made him an honorary Companion of Honour.
In August 1929, during a dinner party in Paris, the 41-year-old Monnet met 22-year-old Italian painter Silvia Giannini (17 August 1907 – 22 August 1982) who had recently married Francisco Giannini, an employee of Monnet when he was a representative in Italy. In April 1931, Silvia gave birth to a daughter, Anna, whose legal father was Giannini.
Since divorce wasn't allowed in most European countries, Silvia and Jean Monnet met in Moscow. In 1934, he returned from China via the Trans-Siberian railway, she from Switzerland. He arranged for Silvia to obtain Soviet citizenship; she immediately divorced her husband and married Jean Monnet.
The idea for the Moscow marriage came from Dr. Ludwik Rajchman, whom Monnet had met during his time at the League of Nations (Rajchman was connected to the Soviet Ambassador to China, Dmitrij Bogomołow). It seems that the American and French ambassadors in Moscow, William Bullitt and Charles Aiphand, also played a role.
The custody of Anna was a problem; in 1935 Silvia took refuge with Anna in the Soviet consulate in Shanghai, where they were living at the time, because Francisco Giannini was trying to obtain custody of the child. The legal battle was decided in favour of Silvia in 1937 in New York, but the ruling wasn't recognized by some other countries. In 1941 Monnet and Silvia had another daughter, Marianne. The Monnet family returned to France in 1945 and, after the death of Francisco Giannini in 1974, the couple married canonically in the cathedral of Lourdes.
5 years later, in 1979, Jean Monnet died at the age of 90 in his home in Houjarray, Bazoches-sur-Guyonne, where he was writing his memoirs.
Several other European universities honour Monnet and his accomplishments: the University of Limerick, Ireland, has a lecture theatre named after him, and British educational institutions which honour Monnet include the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence at King's College London, the East Midlands Euro-Centre at Loughborough University, the European Research Institute at the University of Bath, the Jean Monnet Centre at the University of Birmingham, the Jean Monnet European Centre of Excellence at Cambridge, the Jean Monnet European Centre of Excellence at the University of Essex, the Centre for European Union Studies at the University of Hull, the Kent Centre for Europe at the University of Kent, the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, a partnership between the University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University and the University of Salford, the Jean Monnet Centre at Newcastle University, the Jean Monnet Centre for European Studies at the University of Wales and the Jean Monnet High School in Bucharest, Romania.
The European Commission named the Jean Monnet Building in Luxembourg after him, which houses the Directorate-General for Translation.
In April 2011, to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Paris, a new documentary, "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe" was produced. The documentary includes interviews with colleagues of Monnet such as Georges Berthoin, Max Kohnstamm and Jacques-René Rabier, as well as former member of the European Court of Justice David A.O. Edward of the United Kingdom.
The European Union itself maintains his memory with the Jean Monnet Activities, under the Erasmus+ programme of the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA). These activities promote knowledge on European integration and European studies on a worldwide scale, especially at the university level, through the Jean Monnet Centres of Excellence, as well as chairs, policy debates, and support to associations.
Several prizes also seek to honour Jean Monnet's life and achievements. The Jean Monnet Prize for European Literature, set up in 1995 by the department of Charente, rewards European authors for books written in, or translated to, French. The Jean Monnet Prize for European Integration, given by EuropeanConstitution.eu, a French association, rewards projects contributing to the promotion of European integration. Several universities and research centres also award prizes named after Jean Monnet.
Marie-France Garaud, a Gaullist advisor to French President Georges Pompidou and later Prime Minister Jacques Chirac, accused him of the destruction of the nation's sovereignty and reproached him for his wish of a federal Europe. She considers he was part of an American expectancy to build Europe in order to weaken France's power, and claimed in the talkshow Ce soir (ou jamais!): "He was an American agent. We even know how much he was paid, as it's now declassified".
The Jean Monnet House
The Jean Monnet House is located in Houjarray, Yvelines, 80 kilometres (50 miles) outside Paris. This old farm became Jean Monnet’s property in 1945, upon his return to France. It is here that Jean Monnet and his advisors, in the last days of April 1950, drew up the historic declaration that Robert Schuman used to address Europe on 9 May 1950, proposing the creation of the CECA (European Coal and Steel Community) as well as creating the basis of the European Community. In his office, Robert Schuman, Walter Hallstein, Paul-Henri Spaak, Konrad Adenauer, René Pleven, Helmut Schmidt, and many others exchanged their views with Jean Monnet on our common future. On Sundays, he had friends passing by come to his house; among them were Dwight Eisenhower, George Ball, and Edward Heath. He liked fireside conversations with famous journalists such as Walter Lippman, Hubert Beuve-Méry, or his neighbour Pierre Viansson-Ponté. This house was also where Jean Monnet died on 16 March 1979. In 1982, even though the house had deteriorated because of a lack of upkeep, the European Parliament considered Monnet’s home to be a symbolic place loaded with memories, thus being common heritage for Europeans. The Parliament acquired it and entrusted its reconstitution, management, and organization to the Jean Monnet Association. Since 2000, a multimedia conference room has welcomed bigger groups of visitors. The Jean Monnet Association team organizes about 250 conferences on European history and current events each year.
Jean Monnet Programme
Jean Monnet is the part of Erasmus+ dedicated to promoting excellence in EU studies in higher education around the world. Jean Monnet Actions aim to build bridges between academics, researchers and EU policymakers. There is an emphasis on the study of and research on EU integration and in understanding Europe's place in a globalised world. Jean Monnet Actions are organised and applied for via higher education institutions but, if you are an individual working in higher education, you may be interested in finding out what the different opportunities could mean for you.
Jean Monnet Chairs
Jean Monnet Chairs are teaching posts with a specialisation in European Union studies for university professors or senior lecturers. Jean Monnet Chairs can:
- enhance the teaching of EU studies at your institution through the curriculum
- conduct, monitor and supervise research on EU matters at all education levels
- be a mentor and advisor to the next generation of teachers and researchers
- provide expert guidance to future professionals about European matters
Jean Monnet Chairs are encouraged to:
- publish books within their university press during the grant period. The grant will cover part of the publication and, if need be, part of the translation costs
- participate in dissemination and information events in your country and around Europe
- organise events (lectures, seminars, workshops, etc.) with policymakers, civil society and schools
- network with other academics and institutions supported by Jean Monnet
- apply open educational resources, and publish the summaries, content, schedule and expected outcomes of your activities
Jean Monnet chairs have been established, for example, at the following universities (alphabetically):
- Universität Augsburg (Christoph Vedder)
- Freie Universität Berlin (Tanja A. Börzel)
- Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Sebastian Bersick)
- Universität Bremen (Ulrike Liebert)
- Technische Universität Chemnitz (Matthias Niedobitek)
- Universität Duisburg-Essen (Michael Kaeding und Ansgar Belke)
- Europa-Universität Viadrina (Matthias Pechstein)
- Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen (Mahulena Hofmann)
- Universität Hamburg (Gabriele Clemens)
- Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (Peter-Christian Müller-Graf)
- Universität Hildesheim (Michael Gehler)
- Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (Matthias Ruffert)
- Hochschule für Öffentliche Verwaltung Kehl (Annegret Eppler)
- Universität Konstanz (Daniel Thym)
- Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln (Jürgen Mittag)
- Universität zu Köln (Wolfgang Wessels)
- Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg (Wolfgang Renzsch)
- Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (Arne Niemann)
- Carl-von-Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg (Martin Heidenreich)
- Universität Osnabrück (Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence in European Studies)
- Universität Paderborn (Dieter Krimphove)
- Universität Passau (Daniel Göler)
- Universität Regensburg (Rainer Arnold)
- Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen (Rudolf Hrbek und Gabriele Abels)
- Universität des Saarlandes (Thomas Giegerich)
- Universiteit Utrecht (Sybe A. de Vries)
- Universität Wuppertal (Hans J. Lietzmann)
- Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (Gisela Müller-Brandeck-Bocquet)
The Jean Monnet Chair at the Faculty of East Asian Studies(RUB)
In September 2016, Prof. Dr. Sebastian Bersick was awarded a Jean Monnet Chair by the European Commission under the Erasmus+ Programme. The funding enables the Ruhr-University Bochum (RUB), the Faculty of East Asian Studies, and the department of International Political Economy of East Asia to intensify teaching and research activities, and to organize new initiatives.
- Fransen, Frederic J. (2001). The Supranational Politics of Jean Monnet. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-31829-0.
- Lacouture, Jean. De Gaulle: The Rebel 1890–1944 (1984; English ed. 1991), ISBN 978-0-841-90927-4
- Jean Monnet: Memoirs, London 1978.
- Jean Monnet: The First Statesman of Interdependence by Francois Duchene (1994); ISBN 0-393-03497-6
- Christophe Le Dréau, « Quelle Europe ? Les projets d’Union franco-britannique (1938–1940) », dans Actes du Colloque RICHIE de mars 2005, Quelle(s) Europe(s) ? Nouvelles approaches en histoire de l'intégration européenne, Bruxelles, Peter Lang, 2006.
- "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe" documentary by Don C. Smith, Denver, Colorado, 2011.
- Wells, Sherill Brown. Jean Monnet: Unconventional Statesman (Lynne Rienner Publishers; 2011) 279 pages; a political biography
- Alden Whitman, "Jean Monnet, 90, Architect of European Unity, Dies", New York Times, 17 March 1979
- Denver, Educational Technology, Sturm College of Law, University of. "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe - Sturm College of Law". www.law.du.edu. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- Times obituary
- College of Europe, "Promotions and Patrons"
- MacMillan, Margaret. "Paris 1919". Random House, 2002, p. 183
- "Le Cercle member: Jean Monnet". Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- ""Europe's founder" Jean Monnet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- 2003, Charles D. Ellis, James R. Vertin, 'Wall Street People: True Stories of the Great Barons of Finance', Volume 2, p. 28-30 (biography of Andre Meyer)
- Monnet, Jean (1 January 1976), Memoires, Paris: Arthème Fayard, pp. 20–21, ISBN 2-213-00402-1
- Lacouture 1991, pp219-23
- Lacouture 1991, pp236-7
- "Le Comité français de la libération nationale". Digithèque MJP. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- "Mr Jean Monnet", The Times, 16 November 1979
- Irwin M. Wall (1991). The United States and the Making of Postwar France, 1945–1954. Cambridge U.P. p. 55.
- Amos Yoder, "The Ruhr Authority and the German Problem", The Review of Politics, Vol. 17, No. 3 (July 1955), pp. 345–358
- Declaration of 9 May 1950 EUROPA – The official website of the European Union
- "The British foreign ministers' 1949 letter to Schuman". Cvce.eu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Information bulletin Frankfurt, Germany: Office of the US High Commissioner for Germany Office of Public Affairs, Public Relations Division, APO 757, US Army, January 1952 ''"Plans for terminating international authority for the Ruhr"'' , pp. 61–62". Digicoll.library.wisc.edu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- European Research Institute Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Jean Monnet Centre". Jeanmonnet.bham.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 20 August 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Jean Monnet European Centre of Excellence". Archived from the original on 1 June 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- Ariadni. "Jean Monnet European Centre of Excellence". Essex.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Centre for European Union Studies". Hull.ac.uk. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Kent Centre for Europe Archived 5 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Welcome Events Details of our events (2 October 2013). "Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence". Socialsciences.manchester.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Jean Monnet Centre Archived 26 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Jean Monnet Centre for European Studies Archived 13 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- "Liceul Teoretic "Jean Monnet" - Site-ul Liceului Teoretic "Jean Monnet" Bucure;ti". jmonnet.ro. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- "EU – DG Translation – Get in touch with us". Ec.europa.eu. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe". Law.du.edu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Erasmus+ Programme Guide" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "Prix Jean Monnet - LEC". Littératures Européennes Cognac. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "Jean Monnet Prize for European Integration". EuropeanConstitution.eu. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "Jean Monnet Student Research Paper Prize for EU Law". Stanford-Vienna Transatlantic Technology Law Forum. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "Jean Monnet Awards". Jean Monnet Centre Montréal. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "Jean Monnet Award for EU in Global Dialogue". Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence EU in Global Dialogue. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- Lehrstuhl für Volkswirtschaftslehre
- Archived [Date missing] at rewi.uni-jena.de [Error: unknown archive URL]
- Archived [Date missing] at jura.uni-konstanz.de [Error: unknown archive URL]