Jiangxi (/æŋˈʃ, iɒŋ-/;[4] 江西; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese: Kongsi, Hakka: Gong Si)[5] is a landlocked province in the east of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Nanchang. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest.[6]

Jiangxi Province
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese江西省 (Jiāngxī Shěng)
  AbbreviationJX / (pinyin: Gàn; Gan Chinese: Kōm)
  Hakka PinyimGong1 Si1 Sen3
Map showing the location of Jiangxi Province
Coordinates: 27°18′N 116°00′E
Named forShort for Jiangnanxi Circuit (江南西)
(and largest city)
Divisions11 prefectures, 99 counties, 1549 townships
  BodyJiangxi Provincial People's Congress
  CCP SecretaryLiu Qi
  Congress chairmanLiu Qi
  GovernorYi Lianhong
  CPPCC chairmanYao Zengke
  Total166,919 km2 (64,448 sq mi)
Area rank18th
Highest elevation2,158 m (7,080 ft)
  Density270/km2 (700/sq mi)
  Density rank16th
  Ethnic compositionHan – 99.7%
She – 0.2%
  Languages and dialectsGan, Hakka, Huizhou, Wu, Jianghuai Mandarin
ISO 3166 codeCN-JX
GDP (2020)CNY 2.569 trillion
USD 372 billion (15th)[2]
 - per capitaCNY 56,853
USD 8,240 (17th)
 • growth 3.8%
HDI (2018)0.727[3] (high) (23rd)
(in Chinese)
"Jiangxi" in Chinese characters
GanKong si
Literal meaning"Western Jiang[nan]"

The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (西; 'Circuit of Western Jiangnan'; Gan: Kongnomsitau).[7] The abbreviation for Jiangxi is "" (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".

After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Jiangxi became one of the earliest bases for the Communists and many peasants were recruited to join the growing people's revolution. The Nanchang Uprising took place in Jiangxi on August 1, 1927, during the Chinese Civil War. Later the Communist leadership hid in the mountains of southern and western Jiangxi, hiding from the Kuomintang's attempts to eradicate them. In 1931, the Chinese Soviet Republic's government was established in Ruijin, which is sometimes called the "Former Red Capital" (红色故都, Gan: Fūng-set Kū-tu), or just the "Red Capital". In 1935, after complete encirclement by the Nationalist forces, the Communists broke through and began the Long March to Yan'an.

The southern half of Jiangxi is hilly and mountainous, with ranges and valleys interspersed; notable mountains and mountains ranges include Mountain Lu, the Jinggang Mountains and Mount Sanqing. The northern half is comparatively lower in altitude. The Gan River flows through the province.

Although the majority of Jiangxi's population is Han Chinese, Jiangxi is linguistically diverse. It is considered the center of Gan Chinese; Hakka Chinese, a close variety of Gan, is also spoken to some degree. Jiangxi is rich in mineral resources, leading the provinces of China in deposits of copper, tungsten, gold, silver, uranium, thorium, tantalum, niobium.