Jiangxi (/ -/,; 江西; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese: Kongsi, Hakka: Gong Si) is a landlocked province in the east of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Nanchang. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest.
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|• Chinese||江西省 (Jiāngxī Shěng)|
|• Abbreviation||JX / 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan Chinese: Kōm)|
|• Hakka Pinyim||Gong1 Si1 Sen3|
|Named for||Short for Jiangnanxi Circuit (江南西道)|
(and largest city)
|Divisions||11 prefectures, 99 counties, 1549 townships|
|• Body||Jiangxi Provincial People's Congress|
|• CCP Secretary||Liu Qi|
|• Congress chairman||Liu Qi|
|• Governor||Yi Lianhong|
|• CPPCC chairman||Yao Zengke|
|• Total||166,919 km2 (64,448 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,158 m (7,080 ft)|
|• Density||270/km2 (700/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||16th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han – 99.7% |
She – 0.2%
|• Languages and dialects||Gan, Hakka, Huizhou, Wu, Jianghuai Mandarin|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-JX|
|GDP (2020)||CNY 2.569 trillion |
USD 372 billion (15th)
|- per capita||CNY 56,853 |
USD 8,240 (17th)
|HDI (2018)||0.727 (high) (23rd)|
|Literal meaning||"Western Jiang[nan]"|
The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (江南西道; 'Circuit of Western Jiangnan'; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The abbreviation for Jiangxi is "赣" (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Jiangxi became one of the earliest bases for the Communists and many peasants were recruited to join the growing people's revolution. The Nanchang Uprising took place in Jiangxi on August 1, 1927, during the Chinese Civil War. Later the Communist leadership hid in the mountains of southern and western Jiangxi, hiding from the Kuomintang's attempts to eradicate them. In 1931, the Chinese Soviet Republic's government was established in Ruijin, which is sometimes called the "Former Red Capital" (红色故都, Gan: Fūng-set Kū-tu), or just the "Red Capital". In 1935, after complete encirclement by the Nationalist forces, the Communists broke through and began the Long March to Yan'an.
The southern half of Jiangxi is hilly and mountainous, with ranges and valleys interspersed; notable mountains and mountains ranges include Mountain Lu, the Jinggang Mountains and Mount Sanqing. The northern half is comparatively lower in altitude. The Gan River flows through the province.
Although the majority of Jiangxi's population is Han Chinese, Jiangxi is linguistically diverse. It is considered the center of Gan Chinese; Hakka Chinese, a close variety of Gan, is also spoken to some degree. Jiangxi is rich in mineral resources, leading the provinces of China in deposits of copper, tungsten, gold, silver, uranium, thorium, tantalum, niobium.