Jinan

Jinan[1] (simplified Chinese: 济南; traditional Chinese: 濟南; pinyin: Jǐnán), alternately romanized as Tsinan,[lower-alpha 1] is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China.[3] With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the second-largest city in Shandong after Qingdao. The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilization and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub.[4] The city has held sub-provincial administrative status since 1994.[4][5] Jinan is often called the "Spring City" for its famous 72 artesian springs.[6]

Jinan
济南市
Tsinan, Chi-nan
Clockwise from top: Jinan's Skyline, Quancheng Square, Daming Lake, Jinan Olympic Sports Center and Baotu Spring
Nickname(s): 
City of Springs (泉城)
Location of Jinan City within Shandong
Jinan
Location in the North China Plain
Jinan
Jinan (North China Plain)
Jinan
Jinan (China)
Coordinates (Shandong People's Government): 36°40′13″N 117°01′15″E
CountryChina
ProvinceShandong
County-level divisions12
Township divisions166
Municipal seatLixia District
Government
  TypeSub-provincial city
  BodyJinan Municipal People's Congress
  CCP SecretarySun Licheng
  Congress ChairmanYin Luqian
  MayorSun Shutao
  CPPCC ChairmanLei Jie
Area
  Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city10,247 km2 (3,956 sq mi)
  Urban
6,122.4 km2 (2,363.9 sq mi)
  Metro
3,304 km2 (1,276 sq mi)
Elevation23 m (75 ft)
Population
 (2020 census for total, 2010 otherwise)
  Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city9,202,432
  Density900/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
  Urban
5,918,147
  Urban density970/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
  Metro
4,335,989
  Metro density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
250000
Area code(s)0531
ISO 3166 codeCN-SD-01
License plate prefixesA, 鲁S
GDP (2018)CNY 886.221 billion
 - per capitaCNY 101,864.5
Websitewww.jinan.gov.cn (Chinese)
City tree: Chinese Willow; City flower: Lotus

Jinan
"Jǐnán" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese济南
Traditional Chinese濟南
Literal meaning"South of the Ji [River]"

Its population (including Laiwu City merged recently) was 9,202,432 as of the 2020 census.[7] Its built-up (or metro) area made of 6 out of 10 urban districts (but Jiyang and Zhangqiu not yet conurbated and of course Laiwu City far away) was home to 4,335,889 inhabitants as of the 2010 census.[8] Jinan is also one of the top 100 cities in the world for scientific research as tracked by the Nature Index according to the Nature Index 2020 Science Cities.[9] The city is home to several major universities, notably Shandong University, one of China's most prestigious universities as a member of the Project 985. The city is rated Beta- by the biannual GAWC ratings in 2020.[10]