Jinan[1] (simplified Chinese: 济南; traditional Chinese: 濟南; pinyin: Jǐnán), alternately romanized as Tsinan,[lower-alpha 1] is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China.[3] With a population of 9.2 million (including Laiwu), it is the second-largest city in Shandong after Qingdao. The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilization and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub.[4] The city has held sub-provincial administrative status since 1994.[4][5] Jinan is often called the "Spring City" for its famous 72 artesian springs.[6]

Tsinan, Chi-nan
Clockwise from top: Jinan's Skyline, Quancheng Square, Daming Lake, Jinan Olympic Sports Center and Baotu Spring
City of Springs (泉城)
Location of Jinan City within Shandong
Location in the North China Plain
Jinan (North China Plain)
Jinan (China)
Coordinates (Shandong People's Government): 36°40′13″N 117°01′15″E
County-level divisions12
Township divisions166
Municipal seatLixia District
  TypeSub-provincial city
  BodyJinan Municipal People's Congress
  CCP SecretarySun Licheng
  Congress ChairmanYin Luqian
  MayorSun Shutao
  CPPCC ChairmanLei Jie
  Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city10,247 km2 (3,956 sq mi)
6,122.4 km2 (2,363.9 sq mi)
3,304 km2 (1,276 sq mi)
Elevation23 m (75 ft)
 (2020 census for total, 2010 otherwise)
  Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city9,202,432
  Density900/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
  Urban density970/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
  Metro density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
Area code(s)0531
ISO 3166 codeCN-SD-01
License plate prefixesA, 鲁S
GDP (2018)CNY 886.221 billion
 - per capitaCNY 101,864.5
Websitewww.jinan.gov.cn (Chinese)
City tree: Chinese Willow; City flower: Lotus

"Jǐnán" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese济南
Traditional Chinese濟南
Literal meaning"South of the Ji [River]"

Its population (including Laiwu City merged recently) was 9,202,432 as of the 2020 census.[7] Its built-up (or metro) area made of 6 out of 10 urban districts (but Jiyang and Zhangqiu not yet conurbated and of course Laiwu City far away) was home to 4,335,889 inhabitants as of the 2010 census.[8] Jinan is also one of the top 100 cities in the world for scientific research as tracked by the Nature Index according to the Nature Index 2020 Science Cities.[9] The city is home to several major universities, notably Shandong University, one of China's most prestigious universities as a member of the Project 985. The city is rated Beta- by the biannual GAWC ratings in 2020.[10]