Jordan (Arabic: الأردن, tr. Al-ʾUrdunn [al.ʔur.dunː]), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,[lower-alpha 1] is a country in Western Asia. It is situated at the crossroads of Asia, Africa, and Europe,[8] within the Levant region, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south and east, Iraq to the northeast, Syria to the north, and the Palestinian West Bank, Israel, and the Dead Sea to the west. It has a 26 km (16 mi) coastline in its southwest on the Gulf of Aqaba's Red Sea, which separates Jordan from Egypt.[9] Amman is Jordan's capital and largest city, as well as its economic, political, and cultural centre.[10]

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية (Arabic)
Al-Mamlakah Al-’Urdunniyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah
Motto: الله، الوطن، الملك
Allāh, Al-Waṭan, Al-Malik
"God, Country, King"[1]
Anthem: السلام الملكي الأردني
As-Salām Al-Malakī Al-ʾUrdunī
"The Royal Anthem of Jordan"
Location of Jordan
and largest city
31°57′N 35°56′E
Official languagesArabic[2]
Ethnic groups
1% others
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Abdullah II
Bisher Khasawneh
House of Representatives
11 April 1921
25 May 1946
11 January 1952
89,342 km2 (34,495 sq mi) (110th)
 Water (%)
 2023 estimate
11,180,568[3] (84th)
 2015 census
114/km2 (295.3/sq mi) (70th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
Increase $122.180 billion[5] (93rd)
 Per capita
Increase$11,861 [5] (117th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
Increase$47.745 billion[5] (93rd)
 Per capita
Increase $4,635[5] (103rd)
Gini (2011)35.4[6]
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.720[7]
high · 102nd
CurrencyJordanian dinar (JOD)
Time zoneUTC+3
Driving sideright
Calling code+962
ISO 3166 codeJO

Modern-day Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon, Moab and Edom. In the third century BC, the Arab Nabataeans established their Kingdom with Petra as the capital. Later rulers of the Transjordan region include the Assyrian, Babylonian, Roman, Byzantine, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, and the Ottoman empires. After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I, the Greater Syria region was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the Hashemite, then Emir, Abdullah I, and the emirate became a British protectorate. In 1946, Jordan gained independence and became officially known in Arabic as the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.[11] The country captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967. Jordan renounced its claim to the territory in 1988, and became the second Arab state to sign a peace treaty with Israel in 1994.[12]

Jordan is a semi-arid country, covering an area of 89,342 km2 (34,495 sq mi), with a population of 10 million, making it the eleventh-most populous Arab country. The dominant majority, or around 95% of the country's population, is Sunni Muslim, with a mostly Arab Christian minority. Jordan was mostly unscathed by the violence that swept the region following the Arab Spring in 2010.[13] From as early as 1948, Jordan has accepted refugees from multiple neighbouring countries in conflict. An estimated 2.1 million Palestinian and 1.4 million Syrian refugees are present in Jordan as of a 2015 census; with most Palestinian refugees holding Jordanian citizenship.[4] The kingdom is also a refuge for thousands of Christian Iraqis fleeing persecution by the Islamic State.[14][15] While Jordan continues to accept refugees, the recent large influx from Syria placed substantial strain on national resources and infrastructure.[16]

The sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers. Jordan is a founding member of the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation. The country has a high Human Development Index, ranking 102nd, and is considered an upper middle income economy. The Jordanian economy, one of the smallest economies in the region, is attractive to foreign investors based upon a skilled workforce.[17] The country is a major tourist destination, also attracting medical tourism due to its well developed health sector.[18] Nonetheless, a lack of natural resources, large flow of refugees, and regional turmoil have hampered economic growth.[19]

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