Juche (//; English pronunciation (help·info); Korean: 주체; lit. subject; Korean pronunciation: [tɕutɕʰe]; usually left untranslated or translated as "self-reliance") is the official ideology of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, described by the government as "Kim Il-sung's original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought". It postulates that "man is the master of his destiny", that the masses are to act as the "masters of the revolution and construction", and that by becoming self-reliant and strong, a nation can achieve true socialism.
|Revised Romanization||Juche sasang|
|Literally "subject(ive) thought"|
|North Korea portal|
Kim Il-sung (1912–1994) developed the ideology, which was originally viewed as a variant of Marxism–Leninism until it became a distinct ideology while it incorporated the historical materialist ideas of Marxism–Leninism and strongly emphasized the individual, the nation state and its sovereignty. Consequently, the North Korean government adopted Juche into a set of principles and it has used these principles to justify its policy decisions from the 1950s onwards. Such principles include moving the nation towards claimed jaju (자주; 自主; "independence") through the construction of a jarip (자립; 自立; "national economy") and an emphasis upon jawi (자위; 自衛; "self-defence") in order to establish socialism.
The ideology developed after losing its original Marxist–Leninist elements. According to North Korea: A Country Study by Robert L. Worden, Marxism–Leninism was abandoned immediately after the start of de-Stalinization in the Soviet Union and it has been totally replaced by Juche since at least 1974.