Judaea (Roman province)

Judaea (Latin: Iūdaea; Greek: Ἰουδαία Iudaia; Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yəhūda Tiberian Yehūḏā) was a Roman province which incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea. It was named after Herod Archelaus's Tetrarchy of Judaea, but the Roman province encompassed a much larger territory. The name "Judaea" was derived from the Kingdom of Judah of the 6th century BCE.

Ἰουδαία
Province of the Roman Empire
6 CE–135 CE

CapitalCaesarea Maritima
Area
  Coordinates32°30′N 34°54′E
Government
Prefects before 41, Procurators after 44 
 6–9 CE
Coponius
 26–36 CE
Pontius Pilate
 64–66 CE
Gessius Florus
 117 CE
Lusius Quietus
 130–132 CE
Tineius Rufus
King of the Jews 
 41–44
Agrippa I
 48–93/100
Agrippa II
LegislatureSynedrion/Sanhedrin
Historical eraRoman Principate
6 CE
c. 30/33 CE
 Crisis under Caligula
37–41 CE
 Incorporation of Galilee and Peraea
44 CE
70 CE
 Governor of praetorian rank and given the 10th Legion
c. 74 CE
132–135 CE 135 CE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tetrarchy (Judea)
Syria Palaestina
Before 4 August 70 is referred to as Second Temple Judaism, from which the Tannaim and Early Christianity emerged.

Following the deposition of Herod Archelaus in 6 CE, Judea came under direct Roman rule,[1] during which time the Roman governor was given authority to punish by execution. The general population also began to be taxed by Rome.[2] The province of Judea was the scene of unrest at its founding in 6 CE during the Census of Quirinius, the crucifixion of Jesus circa 30–33 CE, and several wars, known as the Jewish–Roman wars, were fought during its existence. The Second Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE near the end of the First Jewish–Roman War, and the Fiscus Judaicus was instituted. After the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–135), the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and the name of the city of Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina, which certain scholars conclude was an attempt to disconnect the Jewish people from their homeland.[3][4]