Julian Schwinger

Julian Seymour Schwinger (/ˈʃwɪŋər/; February 12, 1918 – July 16, 1994) was a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist. He is best known for his work on quantum electrodynamics (QED), in particular for developing a relativistically invariant perturbation theory, and for renormalizing QED to one loop order. Schwinger was a physics professor at several universities.

Julian Schwinger
Julian Seymour Schwinger

(1918-02-12)February 12, 1918
New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedJuly 16, 1994(1994-07-16) (aged 76)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
NationalityUnited States
Alma materCity College of New York
Columbia University
Known forQuantum electrodynamics
Electroweak interaction
Cavity perturbation theory
Spin–statistics theorem
MacMahon Master theorem
Mutually unbiased bases
Keldysh formalism
List of things named after Julian Schwinger
Spouse(s)Clarice Carrol (m. 1947)
AwardsAlbert Einstein Award (1951)
National Medal of Science (1964)
Nobel Prize in Physics (1965)
Scientific career
FieldsQuantum field theory
InstitutionsUniversity of California, Berkeley
Purdue University
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Harvard University
University of California, Los Angeles
ThesisOn the magnetic scattering of neutrons (1939)
Doctoral advisorIsidor Isaac Rabi
Doctoral studentsRichard Arnowitt
Roy Glauber
Ben R. Mottelson
Eugen Merzbacher
Sheldon Lee Glashow
Walter Kohn
Bryce DeWitt
Daniel Kleitman
Sam Edwards
Gordon Baym
Lowell S. Brown
Stanley Deser
Lawrence Paul Horwitz
Margaret G. Kivelson
Tung-Mow Yan
Charles M. Sommerfield

Julian Schwinger, winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics. Original caption: "His laboratory is his ballpoint pen."

Schwinger is recognized as one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, responsible for much of modern quantum field theory, including a variational approach, and the equations of motion for quantum fields. He developed the first electroweak model, and the first example of confinement in 1+1 dimensions. He is responsible for the theory of multiple neutrinos, Schwinger terms, and the theory of the spin-3/2 field.