Karachay-Balkar


Karachay-Balkar (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til), or Mountain Turkic[2][3] (Таулу тил, Tawlu til), is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia, European Russia, as well as by an immigrant population in Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey. It is divided into two dialects: Karachay-Baksan-Chegem, which pronounces two phonemes as /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ and Malkar, which pronounces the corresponding phonemes as /ts/ and /z/. The modern Karachay-Balkar written language is based on the Karachay-Baksan-Chegem dialect. The language is closely related to Kumyk.[4]

Karachay-Balkar
къарачай-малкъар тил
таулу тил
Native toNorth Caucasus
RegionKabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Turkey
EthnicityKarachays, Balkars
Native speakers
310,000 (2010 census)[1]
Turkic
Dialects
  • Karachay
  • Balkar
Cyrillic
Latin in diaspora
Official status
Official language in
Kabardino-Balkaria (Russia)
Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia)
Language codes
ISO 639-2krc
ISO 639-3krc
Glottologkara1465
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Koran Karachay-Balkar-language version

Writing


Historically, the Arabic alphabet had been used by first writers until 1924. Handwritten manuscripts of the Balkar poet Kazim Mechiev and other examples of literature have preserved to this day. First printed books in Karachay-Balkar language were published In the beginning of 20th century.

After the October Revolution as part of a state campaign of Latinisation Karachay and Balkar educators developed a new alphabet based on Latin letters. In 1930s, the official Soviet policy was revised and the process of Cyrillization the languages of USSR peoples was started. In 1937–38 the new alphabet based on Cyrillic letters was officially adopted.

Alphabet

Modern Karachay-Balkar Cyrillic alphabet:

А а
/a/
Б б
/b/
В в
/v/
Г г
/g/
Гъ гъ
Д д
/d/
Дж дж
/dʒ/
Е е
/je/
Ё ё
/ø, jo/
Ж ж**
/ʒ/
З з
/z/
И и
/i/
Й й
/j/
К к
/k/
Къ къ
/q/
Л л
/l/
М м
/m/
Н н
/n/
Нг нг
/ŋ/
О о
/o/
П п
/p/
Р р
/r/
С с
/s/
Т т
/t/
У у
/u, w/
Ф ф*
/f/
Х х
/x/
Ц ц
/ts/
Ч ч
/tʃ/
Ш ш
/ʃ/
Щ щ
ъ
Ы ы
/ɯ/
ь
Э э
/e/
Ю ю
/y, ju/
Я я
/ja/
* Not found in native vocabulary
** Not found in native vocabulary apart from дж

Karachay-Balkar Latin alphabet:

A a B в C c Ç ç D d E e F f G g
Ƣ ƣ I i J j K k Q q L l M m N n
N̡ n̡ O o Ө ө P p R r S s Ş ş T t
Ь ь U u V v Y y X x Z z Ƶ ƶ

Phonology


Vowels[5]
FrontBack
Close i y ɯ u
Mid e ø o
Open ɑ
Consonants[5]
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p b t d k ɡ (q) (ɢ)
Fricative [f] s z ʃ x (ɣ) h
Affricate [ts] tʃ dʒ
Nasal m n ŋ
Liquid l r
Approximant w j

Parentheses indicate allophones.

Grammar


Nominals

Cases
CaseSuffix
Nominative
Accusative-NI
Genitive-NI
Dative-GA
Locative-DA
Ablative-DAн
Possessive suffixes
1st person2nd person3rd person
Singular-Iм-Iнг-(s)I(n)
Plural-IбIз-IгIз-(s)I(n)

Language example


Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Karachay-Balkar:

In CyrillicTransliterationYañalif

Translation

Бютеу адамла эркин болуб эмда сыйлары бла хакълары тенг болуб тууадыла. Алагъа акъыл бла намыс берилгенди эмда бир-бирлерине къарнашлыкъ халда къараргъа керекдиле.Bütew adamla erkin bolub emda sıyları bla haqları teñ bolub tuwadıla. Alağa aqıl bla namıs berilgendi emda bir-birlerine qarnaşlıq halda qararğa kerekdile.Byteu adamla erkin ʙoluʙ emda sьjlarь ʙla xalqlarь ten̡ ʙoluʙ tuuadьla. Alaƣa aqьl ʙla namьs ʙerilgendi emda ʙir-ʙirlerine qarnaşlьq xalda qararƣa kerekdile.All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Numerals


NumeralKarachay-BalkarKumykNogay
0нольнольноль
1бирбирбир
2экиэкиэки
3ючуьчуьш
4тёртдёртдоьрт
5бешбешбес
6алтыалтыалты
7джетиеттийети
8сегизсегизсегиз
9тогъузтогъузтогыз
10ононон

Loanwords


Loanwords from Ossetian, Kabardian, Arabic, and Persian are fairly numerous.[4]

In popular culture


Russian filmmaker Andrei Proshkin used Karachay-Balkar for The Horde (2012 film), believing that it might be closest language to original Kipchak language which was spoken during the Golden Horde.[6]

Bibliography


  • Chodiyor Doniyorov and Saodat Doniyorova. Parlons Karatchay-Balkar. Paris: Harmattan, 2005. ISBN 2-7475-9577-3.
  • Steve Seegmiller (1996) Karachay (LINCOM)

References


  1. Row 102 in Приложение 6: Население Российской Федерации по владению языками [Appendix 6: Population of the Russian Federation by languages used] (XLS) (in Russian). Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service).
  2. Rudolf Loewenthal (2011). The Turkic Languages and Literatures of Central Asia: A Bibliography. p. 83.
  3. Языки мира: Тюркские языки (in Russian). 2. Институт языкознания (Российская академия наук). 1997. p. 526.
  4. Campbell, George L.; King, Gareth (2013). Compendium of the World Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-1362-5846-6. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  5. Seegmiller, Steve. Phonological and Orthographical Information in Dictionaries: The Case of Pröhle's Karachay Glossary and its Successors.
  6. "Максим Суханов стал митрополитом" (in Russian). 14 September 2010.