Kharkiv (Ukrainian: Харків, pronounced [ˈxɑrkiu̯]), also known as Kharkov is the second-largest city in Ukraine.[5] Located in the northeast of the country, it is the largest city of the historic Slobozhanshchyna region. Kharkiv is the administrative centre of Kharkiv Oblast and of the surrounding Kharkiv Raion. It hosts the administration of Kharkiv urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.[6] The latest population is 1,433,886 (2021 est.).[7].

Ukrainian transcription(s)
Counterclockwise: Assumption Cathedral (big image), Kharkiv city council, National University of Kharkiv, Taras Shevchenko monument, Kharkiv Railway station, Derzhprom
Smart City
Coordinates: 50°0′16″N 36°13′53″E
Country Ukraine
Oblast Kharkiv Oblast
RaionKharkiv Raion
List of 9[2]
  • Shevchenkivskyi Raion
  • Novobavarskyi Raion
  • Kyivskyi Raion
  • Slobidskyi Raion
  • Kholodnohirskyi Raion
  • Moskovskyi Raion
  • Nemyshlianskyi Raion
  • Industrialnyi Raion
  • Osnovianskyi Raion
  MayorCity council secretary Ihor Terekhov (Mayor Hennadiy Kernes died on 17 December 2020, since then his powers are temporarily exercised by the city council secretary[3])
  City of regional significance350 km2 (140 sq mi)
152 m (499 ft)
  City of regional significance1,433,886
  Density4,500/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
Licence plateAX, KX, ХА (old), 21 (old)
Sister citiesBelgorod, Bologna, Cincinnati, Kaunas, Lille, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Nuremberg, Poznań, St. Petersburg, Tianjin, Jinan, Kutaisi, Varna, Rishon LeZion, Brno, Daugavpils

Kharkiv was founded by Russian settlers in 1654 as a Kharkov fortress [ru] to protect the southern borders of the Tsardom of Russia, and after humble beginnings as a small fortress, it grew to be a major centre of industry, trade and culture in the Russian Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century the city was predominantly Russian in population, but after the Soviet government's policy of Ukrainization the city became populated mainly by Ukrainians with a significant number of Russians.[8][9] Kharkiv was the first capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, from December 1919 to January 1934, after which the capital relocated to Kiev (Modern day Kyiv).[10]

Presently, Kharkiv is a major cultural, scientific, educational, transport and industrial centre of Ukraine, with numerous museums, theatres and libraries, including the Annunciation and Dormition Cathedrals, the Derzhprom building in Freedom Square, and the National University of Kharkiv. Kharkiv was a host city for UEFA Euro 2012.

Industry plays a significant role in Kharkiv's economy, specialized primarily in machinery and electronics. There are hundreds of industrial facilities throughout the city, including the Morozov Design Bureau and the Malyshev Tank Factory (leaders in world tank production from the 1930s to the 1980s); Khartron (aerospace, nuclear power plants and automation electronics); Turboatom (turbines for hydro-, thermal- and nuclear-power plants); and Antonov (the multipurpose aircraft manufacturing plant).