Khmelnytsky Uprising

The Khmelnytsky Uprising (Polish: powstanie Chmielnickiego; in Ukraine known as Khmelʹnychchyna or Ukrainian: повстання Богдана Хмельницького; Lithuanian: Chmelnickio sukilimas; Belarusian: Паўстанне Багдана Хмяльніцкага; Russian: восстание Богдана Хмельницкого), also known as the Cossack-Polish War,[1] the Chmielnicki Uprising, the Khmelnytsky massacre[2] or the Khmelnytsky insurrection,[3] was a Cossack rebellion that took place between 1648 and 1657 in the eastern territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukraine. Under the command of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Zaporozhian Cossacks, allied with the Crimean Tatars and local Ukrainian peasantry, fought against Polish domination and against the Commonwealth forces. The insurgency was accompanied by mass atrocities committed by Cossacks against the civilian population, especially against the Roman Catholic clergy and the Jews.[4]

Khmelnytsky Uprising
Part of the Deluge

Entrance of Bohdan Khmelnytsky to Kyiv, Mykola Ivasyuk
Date1648–1657
Location
Result

Emergence of Cossack Hetmanate under Russian protection

Territorial
changes
Cossack lands in Ukraine fall under Russian hegemony
Belligerents
Zaporozhian Host
Crimean Khanate (1649–1654, 1656–1657)
 Poland-Lithuania
Crimean Khanate (1654–1656)
Commanders and leaders
Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Ivan Bohun
Maxym Kryvonis
İslâm Giray
Tugay Bey 
John II Casimir
Mikołaj Potocki
Jeremi Wiśniowiecki
Stefan Czarniecki
Marcin Kalinowski 

The uprising has a symbolic meaning in the history of Ukraine's relationship with Poland and Russia. It ended the Polish Catholic Szlachta′s domination over the Ukrainian Orthodox population; at the same time, it led to the eventual incorporation of eastern Ukraine into the Tsardom of Russia initiated by the 1654 Pereyaslav Agreement, whereby the Cossacks would swear allegiance to the Tsar while retaining a wide autonomy. The event triggered a period of political turbulence and infighting in the Hetmanate known as the Ruin. The success of anti-Polish rebellion, along with internal conflicts in Poland as well as concurrent wars waged by Poland with Russia and Sweden (Russo-Polish War (1654–1667) and Second Northern War (1655–1660) respectively), ended the Polish Golden Age and caused a secular decline of Polish power during the period known in Polish history as the Deluge.

In Jewish history, the Uprising is known for the concomitant outrages against the Jews who, in their capacity as leaseholders (arendators), were seen by the peasants as their immediate oppressors.[4][5] However, Shmuel Ettinger argues that both Ukrainian and Polish accounts of the massacres overemphasize the importance of the Jewish role as landlords, while downplaying the religious motivation for Cossack violence.[6]