Kingdom of Bulgaria

The Tsardom of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Царство България, romanized: Tsarstvo Balgariya), also referred to as the Third Bulgarian Tsardom (Bulgarian: Трето Българско Царство, romanized: Treto Balgarsko Tsarstvo), sometimes translated in English as Kingdom of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Крáлство България, romanized: Kralstvo Balgariya), was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908, when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a Tsardom.[1]

Tsardom of Bulgaria
Царство България
Tsarstvo Balgariya
Motto: Съединението прави силата
Saedinenieto pravi silata
("Unity makes strength")
Anthem: Шуми Марица
Shumi Maritsa
("Maritsa Rushes")

Shumi Maritsa (1886-1944)

Royal anthem: Химн на Негово Величество Царя
Himn na Negovo Velichestvo Tsarya
("Anthem of His Majesty the Tsar")
The Kingdom of Bulgaria in 1914, at the eve of World War I
The Kingdom of Bulgaria in May 1918 after the Treaty of Bucharest
and largest city
Official languagesBulgarian
Bulgarian Orthodoxy
Tsar (King) 
Boris III
Simeon II
Chairman of the Council of Ministers 
 1908–1911 (first)
Aleksandar Malinov
 1944–1946 (last)
Kimon Georgiev
LegislatureNational Assembly
5 October 1908
10 August 1913
27 November 1919
7 September 1940
9 September 1944
15 September 1946
190895,223 km2 (36,766 sq mi)
1946110,994 km2 (42,855 sq mi)
The Kingdom of Bulgaria in 1941, after the annexation of Eastern Yugoslavia and Northern Greece.
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Principality of Bulgaria
People's Republic of Bulgaria

Ferdinand, founder of the royal family, was crowned a Tsar at the Declaration of Independence, mainly because of his military plans and for seeking options for unification of all lands in the Balkans region with an ethnic Bulgarian majority (lands that had been seized from Bulgaria and given to the Ottoman Empire in the Treaty of Berlin).

The state was almost constantly at war throughout its existence, lending to its nickname as "the Balkan Prussia". For several years Bulgaria mobilized an army of more than 1 million people from its population of about 5 million, and in the 1910s, it engaged in three wars – the First and Second Balkan Wars, and the First World War. Following the First World War, the Bulgarian army was disbanded and forbidden to exist by the Allied Powers, and all plans for national unification of the Bulgarian lands failed.

Less than two decades later, Bulgaria once again went to war for national unification as part of the Second World War, and once again found itself on the losing side, until it switched sides to the Allies in 1944. In 1946, the monarchy was abolished, its final Tsar was sent into exile, and the Kingdom was replaced by the People's Republic of Bulgaria.