Kingdom of Ends

The Kingdom of Ends (German: Reich der Zwecke) is a part of the categorical imperative theory of Immanuel Kant. It is regularly discussed in relation to Kant's moral theory and its application to ethics and philosophy in general.

The kingdom of ends centers on the second and third formulations of the categorical imperative. These help form the basis for Kant's universalizing ethical theory for society. Kant introduced the concept in his Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (4:439), considering a world in which all human beings are treated as ends (meaning treated as if they and their well-being are the goal), not as mere means to an end for other people.


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