Kingdom of Gwynedd

The Kingdom of Gwynedd (Medieval Latin: Venedotia or Norwallia; Middle Welsh: Guynet[4]) was a Roman Empire successor state that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.

Kingdom of Gwynedd
Teyrnas Gwynedd
450–1216
Traditional Banner of the Aberffraw House of Gwynedd
Anthem: Unbennaeth Prydain
"The Monarchy of Britain"[1][2][3]
Medieval kingdoms of Wales.
CapitalChester (?)
Deganwy (6th century)
Llanfaes (9th century)
Aberffraw
Rhuddlan (11th century)
Abergwyngregyn
Common languagesWelsh,[nb 1] Latin[nb 2]
Religion
Celtic Christianity
GovernmentMonarchy
 450–460
Cunedda
 520–547
Maelgwn Gwynedd
 625–634
Cadwallon ap Cadfan
 1081–1137
Gruffudd ap Cynan
 1137–1170
Owain Gwynedd
 1195–1240
Llywelyn the Great
 1253–1282
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd
 1282–1283
Dafydd ap Gruffydd
Historical eraMiddle Ages
 Established
450
 Declaration of the Principality of Wales
1216
Currencyceiniog cyfreith
ceiniog cwta
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sub-Roman Britain
Principality of Wales
Today part of
^ In Latin, Gwynedd was often referred to in official medieval charters and acts of the 13th century as Principatus Norwallia (Principality of North Wales).

Based in northwest Wales, the rulers of Gwynedd repeatedly rose to dominance and were acclaimed as "King of the Britons" before losing their power in civil wars or invasions. The kingdom of Gruffydd ap Llywelynthe King of Wales from 1055 to 1063was shattered by a Saxon invasion in 1063 just prior to the Norman invasion of Wales, but the House of Aberffraw restored by Gruffudd ap Cynan slowly recovered and Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd was able to proclaim the Principality of Wales at the Aberdyfi gathering of Welsh princes in 1216. In 1277, the Treaty of Aberconwy between Edward I of England and Llewelyn's grandson Llywelyn ap Gruffudd granted peace between the two but would also guarantee that Welsh self-rule would end upon Llewelyn's death, and so it represented the completion of the first stage of the conquest of Wales by Edward I.[5]

Welsh tradition credited the founding of Gwynedd to the Brittonic polity of Gododdin (Old Welsh Guotodin, earlier Brittonic form Votadini) from Lothian invading the lands of the Brittonic polities of the Deceangli, Ordovices, and Gangani in the 5th century.[6] The sons of their leader, Cunedda, were said to have possessed the land between the rivers Dee and Teifi.[7] The true borders of the realm varied over time, but Gwynedd proper was generally thought to comprise the cantrefs of Aberffraw, Cemais, and Cantref Rhosyr on Anglesey and Arllechwedd, Arfon, Dunoding, Dyffryn Clwyd, Llŷn, Rhos, Rhufoniog, and Tegeingl at the mountainous mainland region of Snowdonia opposite.