Kingdom of Portugal

The Kingdom of Portugal (Latin: Regnum Portugalliae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the western part of Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of the modern Portuguese Republic. Existing to various extents between 1139 and 1910, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves after 1415, and United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves between 1815 and 1822. The name is also often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies.

Kingdom of Portugal[lower-alpha 1]
Regnum Portugalliae (Latin)
Reino de Portugal (Portuguese)
1139–1910
Coat of arms (1640–1910)
Anthem: "Hymno Patriótico" (1809–1834)
"Patriotic Anthem"

Hino da Carta (1834–1910)
"Anthem of the Charter"
The Kingdom of Portugal in 1800
CapitalCoimbra
(1139–1255)
Lisbon[a]
(1255–1808)
Angra do Heroísmo[b]
(1580–1582)
Rio de Janeiro
(1808–1821)
Lisbon
(1821–1910)
Angra do Heroísmo[c]
(1830–1834)
Common languagesOfficial languages: Unofficial languages:
Religion
Majority:
Roman Catholicism (official)
Minority:
Sephardic Judaism[lower-alpha 7]
Islam[lower-alpha 8]
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
(1139–1822; 1823–1826; 1828–1834)
Constitutional monarchy
(1822–1823; 1826–1828; 1834–1910)
Monarch 
 1139–1185 (first)
Afonso I
 1908–1910 (last)
Manuel II
Prime Minister 
 1834–1835 (first)
Marquis of Palmela
 1910 (last)
Teixeira de Sousa
LegislatureCortes Gerais
 Upper house
Chamber of Peers
 Lower house
Chamber of Deputies
History 
25 July 1139
1 December 1640
1 February 1908
5 October 1910
Area
1300[1]90,000 km2 (35,000 sq mi)
1910 (metro)92,391 km2 (35,672 sq mi)
Population
 1300[1]
800,000
 1910 (metro)
5,969,056
CurrencyPortuguese dinheiro,
(1139–1433)
Portuguese real
(1433–1910)
ISO 3166 codePT
Preceded by
Succeeded by
County of Portugal
Couto Misto
First Portuguese Republic
Empire of Brazil
a. ^ The capital was de facto located at Rio de Janeiro from 1808 to 1821.

b. ^ The seat of government of the Portuguese pretender António was de facto located at Angra do Heroísmo from 1580 to 1582.

c. ^ The capital of the constitutional government in exile was de jure located at Angra do Heroísmo during the Portuguese Civil War, from 1830 to 1834.

The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias. The county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, and the Counts of Portugal established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede. The kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz.

During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire. From 1580 to 1640, the Kingdom of Portugal was in personal union with Habsburg Spain.

After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the kingdom passed to the House of Braganza and thereafter to the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. From this time, the influence of Portugal declined, but it remained a major power due to its most valuable colony, Brazil. After the independence of Brazil, Portugal sought to establish itself in Africa, but was ultimately forced to halt its expansion due to the 1890 British Ultimatum, eventually leading to the collapse of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution and the establishment of the First Portuguese Republic.

Portugal was an absolute monarchy before 1822. It alternated between absolute and constitutional monarchy from 1822 until 1834, and was a constitutional monarchy after 1834.