Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; pronounced [ˈkoːnɪŋkrɛiɡ dɛr ˈneːdərlɑndə(n)] (listen)),[lower-alpha 7] commonly known as simply the Netherlands,[lower-alpha 8] is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with 98% of its territory and population in Western Europe and with several small West Indian island territories in the Caribbean (in the Leeward Islands and Leeward Antilles groups).

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Koninkrijk der Nederlanden  (Dutch)
Motto: "Je maintiendrai"  (French)[lower-alpha 1]
"I will uphold"
Anthem: "Wilhelmus"  (Dutch)
"'William"
noicon
Map of the four consitituent countries shown to scale
Capital
and largest city
Amsterdam[lower-alpha 2]
52°22′N 4°53′E
Government seatThe Hague[lower-alpha 2]
Official languagesDutch[lower-alpha 3]
Official regional languages[lower-alpha 3]
Recognised languages[lower-alpha 3]
Demonym(s)Dutch
Countries (non‑sovereign parts)
GovernmentDevolved unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 Monarch
Willem-Alexander
Mark Rutte
Guillfred Besaril
Anthony Begina
Rene Violenus
Independence from Spain and France
26 July 1581 (Declared)
30 January 1648 (Recognised)
19 January 1795
5 June 1806
 Annexation by First French Empire
1 July 1810
16 March 1815
 Secession of Belgium
4 October 1830 (Declared)
19 April 1839 (Recognised)
15 December 1954
Area
 Total
42,531[8] km2 (16,421 sq mi) (131st)
 Water (%)
18.96
Population
 1 November 2019 estimate
17,737,438 [9] (64th)
 Density
515/km2 (1,333.8/sq mi)
Currency
Time zoneUTC-4 (CET (UTC+1)
AST)
 Summer (DST)
UTC-4 (CEST (UTC+2)
AST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code
4 codes
  • +31      (Netherlands)
  • +297    (Aruba)
  • +599    (Curaçao / Caribbean)
  • +1 721 (Sint Maarten)
ISO 3166 codeNL
Internet TLD
5 TLDs

The four parts of the Kingdom—Aruba, Curaçao, metropolitan Netherlands and Sint Maarten—are constituent countries (landen in Dutch) and participate on a basis of equality as partners in the Kingdom.[10] In practice, however, most of the Kingdom's affairs are administered by the Netherlands—which comprises roughly 98% of the Kingdom's land area and population—on behalf of the entire Kingdom. Consequently, Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten are dependent on the Netherlands for matters like foreign policy and defence, but are autonomous to a certain degree, with their own parliaments.

The vast majority of land area of the constituent country of the Netherlands is in Europe, while its three special municipalities (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba) are located in the Caribbean, as are the other three constituent countries. The kingdom has a population of 17,737,438 as of November 2019.[9]