List of French monarchs
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the West Franks in 843 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions. Between the period from King Charles the Bald in 843 to King Louis XVI in 1792, France had 45 kings. Adding the 7 emperors and kings after the French Revolution, this comes to a total of 52 monarchs of France.
In August 843 the Treaty of Verdun divided the Frankish realm into three kingdoms, one of which (Middle Francia) was short-lived; the other two evolved into France (West Francia) and, eventually, Germany (East Francia). By this time the eastern and western parts of the land already had different languages and cultures.
Initially, the kingdom was ruled primarily by two dynasties, the Carolingians and the Robertians, who alternated rule from 843 until 987, when Hugh Capet, the scion of the Capetian dynasty, took the throne. The kings use the title "King of the Franks" util the late twelfth century; the first to adopt the title of "King of France" was Philip II (r. 1180–1223). The Capetians ruled continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois (until 1589), Bourbon (from 1589 until 1792 and from 1814 until 1830), and the Orléans (from 1830 until 1848).
During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style of "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy, which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France.