The Kivu conflict began in 2004 in the eastern Congo as an armed conflict between the military of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) and the Hutu Power group Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has broadly consisted of three phases, the third of which is an ongoing conflict. Prior to March 2009, the main combatant group against the FARDC was the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP). Following the cessation of hostilities between these two forces, rebel Tutsi forces, formerly under the command of Laurent Nkunda, became the dominant opposition to the government forces.
|Part of the aftermath of the Second Congo War|
Approximate map of current military situation in Kivu.
For a detailed map, see here.
Islamic State (Central Africa Province)
Mai-Mai Kyandenga (2016–2017, 2019–present)
|Commanders and leaders|
|Jean-Marie Runiga Lugerero||
Joseph Kabila (to 2019)
6,000–8,000 CNDP (2007)|
5,500+ M23 (2012)
2013: 22,016 UN Monusco Uniformed personnel (2013)
Hundreds of FNL-Nzabampema
Several Thousand Raia Mutomboki Militia
10,000+ Other Armed Groups
|Casualties and losses|
|CNDP: 233 killed||: 17+ killed||Unknown||Unknown|
More than 1.4 million internally displaced persons,|
hundreds of thousands of excess deaths,
11,873+ people killed
(including civilians and combatants of each sides)
The United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO) has played a large role in the conflict. With a 21,000-strong force, the Kivu conflict constitutes the largest peacekeeping mission currently in operation. In total, 93 peacekeepers have died in the region, with 15 dying in a large-scale attack by an Islamist militia, the Allied Democratic Forces, in North Kivu in December 2017. The peacekeeping force seeks to prevent escalation of force in the conflict, and minimise human rights abuses like sexual assault and the use of child soldiers.
CNDP is sympathetic to the Banyamulenge in Eastern Congo, an ethnic Tutsi group, and to the Tutsi-dominated government of neighboring Rwanda. It was opposed by the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), by the DRC army, and by United Nations forces.