Kulturkampf (German: [kʊlˈtuːɐ̯kampf] (listen), 'culture struggle') was the conflict that took place from 1872 to 1878 between the government of Prussia led by Otto von Bismarck and the Roman Catholic Church led by Pope Pius IX. The main issues were clerical control of education and ecclesiastical appointments. A unique feature of Kulturkampf, compared to other struggles between the state and the Catholic Church in other countries, was Prussia's anti-Polish component.[1]

By analogy, the term Kulturkampf is sometimes used to describe any conflict between secular and religious authorities or deeply opposing values, beliefs between sizable factions within a nation, community, or other group.[2]