Lawrence Monsanto Ferlinghetti (March 24, 1919 – February 22, 2021) was an American poet, painter, social activist, and co-founder of City Lights Booksellers & Publishers. The author of poetry, translations, fiction, theatre, art criticism, and film narration, Ferlinghetti was best known for his first collection of poems, A Coney Island of the Mind (1958), which has been translated into nine languages and sold over a million copies. When Ferlinghetti turned 100 in March 2019, the city of San Francisco turned his birthday, March 24, into "Lawrence Ferlinghetti Day".
|Born||Lawrence Monsanto Ferling|
March 24, 1919
Yonkers, New York, U.S.
|Died||February 22, 2021 101) (aged|
San Francisco, California, U.S.
|Alma mater||University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill|
University of Paris
|Literary movement||Beat poetry|
Ferlinghetti was born on March 24, 1919, in Yonkers, New York. Shortly before his birth, his father, Carlo, a native of Brescia, died of a heart attack; and his mother, Clemence Albertine (née Mendes-Monsanto), of Sephardic Jewish descent, was committed to a mental hospital shortly after. He was raised by an aunt, and later by foster parents. He attended the Mount Hermon School for Boys (later Northfield Mount Hermon) graduating in 1937, then the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he earned a B.A. in journalism in 1941. He began his journalism career by writing sports for The Daily Tar Heel, and published his first short stories in Carolina Magazine, for which Thomas Wolfe had written.
He served in the U.S. Navy throughout World War II, as the captain of a submarine chaser in the Normandy invasion. In 1947, he earned an M.A. degree in English literature from Columbia University with a thesis on John Ruskin and the British painter J. M. W. Turner. From Columbia, he went to the University of Paris and earned a Ph.D. in comparative literature with a dissertation on Paris as a symbol in modern poetry.
Ferlinghetti met his wife-to-be, Selden Kirby-Smith, the granddaughter of Edmund Kirby-Smith, in 1946 aboard a ship en route to France. They were both heading to Paris to study at the Sorbonne. Kirby-Smith went by the name Kirby.
He moved to San Francisco in 1951 and founded City Lights in North Beach in 1953, in partnership with Peter D. Martin, a student at San Francisco State University. They both invested $500. In 1955 Ferlinghetti bought Martin's share and established a publishing house with the same name. The first series he published was the Pocket Poets Series. He was arrested for publishing Allen Ginsberg's Howl, resulting in a First Amendment trial in 1957, where Ferlinghetti was charged with publishing an obscene work—and acquitted.
If you would be a poet, create works capable of answering the challenge of
apocalyptic times, even if this meaning sounds apocalyptic.
You are Whitman, you are Poe, you are Mark Twain, you are Emily Dickinson and Edna St. Vincent Millay, you are Neruda and Mayakovsky and Pasolini, you are an American or a non-American, you can conquer the conquerors with words. ...— Lawrence Ferlinghetti. From Poetry as Insurgent Art [I am signaling you through the flames].
Ferlinghetti published many of the Beat poets and is considered by some as a Beat poet as well. Yet Ferlinghetti did not consider himself to be a Beat poet, as he said in the 2013 documentary Ferlinghetti: Rebirth of Wonder: "Don't call me a Beat. I was never a Beat poet."
Ferlinghetti penned much of his early poetry in the vein of T. S. Eliot. Ferlinghetti told poet and critic Jack Foley, "Everything I wrote sounded just like him." Yet, even in his poems inspired by Eliot such as Ferlinghetti's "Constantly Risking Absurdity," Ferlinghetti is ever the populist as he compares the poet first to a trapeze artist in a circus and then to a "little charleychaplin man."
Critics have noted that Ferlinghetti's poetry often takes on a highly visual dimension as befits this poet who was also a painter. As the poet and critic Jack Foley states, Ferlinghetti's poems "tell little stories, make 'pictures'." Ferlinghetti as a poet paints with his words pictures full of color capturing the average American experience as seen in his poem "In Golden Gate Park that Day: "In Golden Gate Park that day/ a man and his wife were coming along/ ... He was wearing green suspenders ... while his wife was carrying a bunch of grapes." In the first poem in A Coney Island of the Mind entitled, "In Goya's Greatest Scenes, We Seem To See," Ferlinghetti describes with words the "suffering humanity" that Goya portrayed by brush in his paintings. Ferlinghetti concludes his poem with the recognition that "suffering humanity" today might be painted as average Americans drowning in the materialism: "on a freeway fifty lanes wide/ a concrete continent/ spaced with bland billboards/ illustrating imbecile illusions of happiness."
Ferlinghetti took a distinctly populist approach to poetry, emphasizing throughout his work "that art should be accessible to all people, not just a handful of highly educated intellectuals." Larry Smith, an American author and editor, stated that Ferlinghetti is a poet, "of the people engaged conscientiously in the creation of new poetic and cultural forms." This perception of art as a broad socio-cultural force, as opposed to an elitist academic enterprise, is explicitly evident in Poem 9 from Pictures of the Gone World, wherein the speaker states: "'Truth is not the secret of a few' / yet / you would maybe think so / the way some / librarians / and cultural ambassadors and / especially museum directors / act" (1–8). In addition to Ferlinghetti's aesthetic egalitarianism, this passage highlights two additional formal features of the poet's work, namely, his incorporation of a common American idiom as well as his experimental approach to line arrangement which, as Crale Hopkins notes, is inherited from the poetry of William Carlos Williams.
Reflecting his broad aesthetic concerns, Ferlinghetti's poetry often engages with several non-literary artistic forms, most notably jazz music and painting. William Lawlor asserts that much of Ferlinghetti's free verse attempts to capture the spontaneity and imaginative creativity of modern jazz; the poet is noted for having frequently incorporated jazz accompaniments into public readings of his work.
Soon after settling in San Francisco in 1951, Ferlinghetti met the poet Kenneth Rexroth, whose concepts of philosophical anarchism influenced his political development. He self-identified as a philosophical anarchist, regularly associated with other anarchists in North Beach, and sold Italian anarchist newspapers at the City Lights Bookstore. A critic of U.S. foreign policy, Ferlinghetti took a stand against totalitarianism [clarification needed] and war. While Ferlinghetti said he was "an anarchist at heart", he conceded that the world would need to be populated by "saints" in order for pure anarchism to be lived practically. Hence he espoused what can be achieved by Scandinavian-style democratic socialism.
Ferlinghetti's work challenges the definition of art and the artist's role in the world. He urged poets to be engaged in the political and cultural life of the country. As he writes in Populist Manifesto: "Poets, come out of your closets, Open your windows, open your doors, You have been holed up too long in your closed worlds ... Poetry should transport the public / to higher places / than other wheels can carry it ..."
On January 14, 1967, he was a featured presenter at the Gathering of the tribes "Human Be-In," which drew tens of thousands of people and launched San Francisco's "Summer of Love." In 1968, he signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War.
In 1998, in his inaugural address as Poet Laureate of San Francisco, Ferlinghetti urged San Franciscans to vote to remove a portion of the earthquake-damaged Central Freeway and replace it with a boulevard. "What destroys the poetry of a city? Automobiles destroy it, and they destroy more than the poetry. All over America, all over Europe in fact, cities and towns are under assault by the automobile, are being literally destroyed by car culture. But cities are gradually learning that they don't have to let it happen to them. Witness our beautiful new Embarcadero! And in San Francisco right now we have another chance to stop Autogeddon from happening here. Just a few blocks from here, the ugly Central Freeway can be brought down for good if you vote for Proposition E on the November ballot." The result was Octavia Boulevard.
In 2009, Ferlinghetti became a member of the Honour Committee of the Italian artistic literary movement IMMAGINE&POESIA, founded under the patronage of Aeronwy Thomas. A retrospective of Ferlinghetti's artwork, 60 Years of Painting, was staged in Rome and Reggio Calabria in 2010.
Jack Kerouac Alley
In 1987, he was the initiator of the transformation of Jack Kerouac Alley, located at the side of his shop. He presented his idea to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors calling for repavement and renewal.
Ferlinghetti died of interstitial lung disease on February 22, 2021, at his home in San Francisco at age 101.
Ferlinghetti received numerous awards, including the Los Angeles Times' Robert Kirsch Award, the BABRA Award for Lifetime Achievement, the National Book Critics Circle Ivan Sandrof Award for Contribution to American Arts and Letters, and the ACLU Earl Warren Civil Liberties Award. He won the Premio Taormina in 1973, and thereafter was awarded the Premio Camaiore, the Premio Flaiano, the Premio Cavour, among other honors in Italy. The Career Award was conferred on October 28, 2017 at the XIV edition of the Premio di Arti Letterarie Metropoli di Torino in Turin.
Ferlinghetti was named San Francisco's Poet Laureate in August 1998 and served for two years. In 2003 he was awarded the Poetry Society of America's Frost Medal, the Author's Guild Lifetime Achievement Award, and was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters. The National Book Foundation honored him with the inaugural Literarian Award (2005), given for outstanding service to the American literary community. In 2007 he was named Commandeur, French Order of Arts and Letters. In 2008, Ferlinghetti was awarded the John Ciardi Award for Lifetime Achievement in Poetry. This award is handed out by the National Italian American Foundation to honor the author who has made the greatest contribution to the writing of Italian American poetry.
In 2012, Ferlinghetti was awarded the inaugural Janus Pannonius International Poetry Prize from the Hungarian PEN Club. After learning that the government of Hungary under Prime Minister Viktor Orbán is a partial sponsor of the €50,000 prize, he declined to accept the award. In declining, Ferlinghetti cited his opposition to the "right-wing regime" of Prime Minister Orbán, and his opinion that the ruling Hungarian government under Mr. Orbán is curtailing civil liberties and freedom of speech for the people of Hungary.
In popular culture
This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2020)
The Italian band Timoria dedicated the song "Ferlinghetti Blues" (from the album El Topo Grand Hotel) to the poet, where Ferlinghetti recites one of his poems. Recordings of Ferlinghetti reading want ads, as featured on radio station KPFA in 1957, were recorded by Henry Jacobs and are featured on the Meat Beat Manifesto album 'At the Center'. Ferlinghetti gave Canadian punk band Propagandhi permission to use his painting The Unfinished Flag of the United States, which features a map of the world painted in the stars and stripes, as the cover of their 2001 release Today's Empires, Tomorrow's Ashes. Before this, the same painting was used for the cover of Michael Parenti's 1995 book, Against Empire, which was published by City Lights.
Ferlinghetti recited the poem Loud Prayer at The Band's final performance; the concert was filmed by Martin Scorsese and released as a documentary entitled The Last Waltz, which included Ferlinghetti's recitation. Julio Cortázar, in his Rayuela (Hopscotch) (1963), references a poem from A Coney Island of the Mind in Chapter 121. He appears as himself in the 2006 comedy film The Darwin Awards. Bob Dylan used Ferlinghetti's "Baseball Canto" on the Baseball show of Theme Time Radio Hour. Roger McGuinn, the former leader of the Byrds, refers to Ferlinghetti and "A Coney Island of the Mind" in his song "Russian Hill", from his 1977 album Thunderbyrd. Cyndi Lauper was inspired by A Coney Island of the Mind to write the song "Into the Nightlife" for her 2008 album Bring Ya to the Brink. Seamus McNally's 2007 filmed adaptation of Jacques Prévert's "To Paint the Portrait of a Bird" uses Ferlinghetti's English translation as its narrative text. The Residents mention Ferlinghetti in the lyrics of their song "Sinister Exaggerator" (from the EP Duck Stab!).
The Blue Devils Drum and Bugle Corps's 2008 marching show was entitled "Constantly Risking Absurdity", with movements entitled after various lines in Ferlinghetti's poem. The corps took second place at the Drum Corps International Finals. Aztec Two-Step is an American folk-rock band formed by Rex Fowler and Neal Shulman at a chance meeting on open stage at a Boston coffee house, the Stone Phoenix, in 1971. The band was named after a line from the poem "A Coney Island of the Mind" by Ferlinghetti. Bristol Sound band Unforscene used Ferlinghetti's poem "Pictures of the Gone World 11" (or "The World is a Beautiful Place ...") in the song "The World Is" on its 2002 album New World Disorder.
Ferlinghetti was played in the 2010 film Howl by Andrew Rogers.
In 2011, Ferlinghetti contributed two of his poems to the celebration of the 150th anniversary of Italian unification, Song of the Third World War and Old Italians Dying inspired by the artists of the exhibition Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Italy 150 held in Turin, Italy (May–June 2011). On the book of lithographs The Sea Within Us first published in Italy as Il Mare Dentro in 2012, Ferlinghetti collaborated with lithographer and abstract artist James Claussen.
Christopher Felver made the 2013 documentary on Ferlinghetti Lawrence Ferlinghetti: A Rebirth of Wonder.
|Library resources about |
|By Lawrence Ferlinghetti|
- Ferlinghetti, Lawrence (1955). Pictures of the Gone World, (enlarged, 1995). San Francisco: City Lights. ISBN 9780872863033.
- Ferlinghetti, Lawrence (1958). A Coney Island of the Mind. New Directions. ISBN 9780872863033.
- Tentative Description of a Dinner Given to Promote the Impeachment of President Eisenhower (Golden Mountain Press, 1958) Broadside poem
- Her (New Directions, 1960) Prose
- One Thousand Fearful Words for Fidel Castro (City Lights, 1961) Broadside poem
- Starting from San Francisco (New Directions, 1961) Poetry (HC edition includes LP of author reading selections)
- Journal for the Protection of All Beings (City Lights, 1961) Journal
- Unfair Arguments with Existence (New Directions, 1963) Short Plays
- Where is VietNam? (Golden Mountain Press, 1963) Broadside poem
- Routines (New Directions, 1964) 12 Short Plays
- Two Scavengers in a Truck, Two Beautiful People in a Mercedes (1968)
- On the Barracks: Journal for the Protection of All Beings 2 (City Lights, 1968) Journal
- Tyrannus Nix? (New Directions, 1969) Poetry
- The Secret Meaning of Things (New Directions, 1970) Poetry
- The Mexican Night (New Directions, 1970) Travel journal
- Back Roads to Far Towns After Basho (City Lights, 1970) Poetry
- Love Is No Stone on the Moon (ARIF, 1971) Poetry
- Open Eye, Open Heart (New Directions, 1973) Poetry
- Who Are We Now? (New Directions, 1976) Poetry
- Northwest Ecolog (City Lights, 1978) Poetry
- Landscapes of Living and Dying (1980) ISBN 0-8112-0743-9
- Endless Life, Selected Poems (A New Directions Paperbook, 1981)
- Over All the Obscene Boundaries (1986)
- Love in the Days of Rage (E. P. Dutton, 1988; City Lights, 2001) Novel
- A Buddha in the Woodpile (Atelier Puccini, 1993)
- These Are My Rivers: New & Selected Poems, 1955–1993 (New Directions, 1993) ISBN 0-8112-1252-1
- City Lights Pocket Poets Anthology (City Lights, 1995) ISBN 978-0-87286-311-8
- A Far Rockaway Of The Heart (New Directions, 1998) ISBN 0-8112-1347-1
- How to Paint Sunlight: Lyrics Poems & Others, 1997–2000 (New Directions, 2001) ISBN 0-8112-1463-X
- San Francisco Poems (City Lights Foundation, 2001) Poetry ISBN 978-1-931404-01-3
- Life Studies, Life Stories (City Lights, 2003) ISBN 978-0-87286-421-4
- Americus: Part I (New Directions, 2004)
- A Coney Island of the Mind (Arion Press, 2005), with portraiture by R.B. Kitaj
- Poetry as Insurgent Art (New Directions, 2007) Poetry
- A Coney Island of the Mind: Special 50th Anniversary Edition with a CD of the author reading his work (New Directions, 2008)
- 50 Poems by Lawrence Ferlinghetti 50 Images by Armando Milani (Rudiano, 2010) Poetry and Graphics ISBN 978-88-89044-65-0
- Time of Useful Consciousness, (Americus, Book II) (New Directions, 2012) ISBN 978-0-8112-2031-6, 88p.
- City Lights Pocket Poets Anthology: 60th Anniversary Edition (City Lights, 2015)
- I Greet You At The Beginning Of A Great Career: The Selected Correspondence of Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Allen Ginsberg 1955–1997. (City Lights, 2015)
- Pictures of the Gone World: 60th Anniversary Edition (City Lights, 2015)
- Writing Across the Landscape: Travel Journals, 1960-2010 (Norton, 2015) ISBN 978-1-63149-001-9
- Ferlinghetti, Lawrence (2019). Little Boy. Doubleday. ISBN 9780385544795. Novel
- Lawrence Ferlinghetti with Helium (1997). "Track 8: Dream: On A Sunny Afternoon ...". Kerouac: Kicks Joy Darkness. Rykodisc.
- Kenneth Rexroth & Lawrence Ferlinghetti (1957). Poetry Readings in the Cellar (with the Cellar Jazz Quintet) (LP). Fantasy Records. 7002.
- Lawrence Ferlinghetti (1958). The Impeachment of Eisenhower (LP). Fantasy Records. 7004.
- Lawrence Ferlinghetti (1970). Tyrannus Nix? / Assassination Raga / Big Sur Sun Sutra / Moscow in the Wilderness (LP). Fantasy Records. 7014.
- Lawrence Ferlinghetti (1999). A Coney Island of the Mind (LP). Rykodisc.
- Lawrence Ferlinghetti with David Amram (2005). Pictures of the Gone World. Synergy.
- "Lawrence Ferlinghetti Biography". Notablebiographies.com. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- Brown, Emma (February 23, 2021). "Lawrence Ferlinghetti, literary citadel of San Francisco, dies at 101". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- Mark Howell (September 30, 2007). "About The Beats: The Key West Interview: Lawrence Ferlinghetti, 1994". Abouthebeats.blogspot.com. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- Veltman, Chloe (March 20, 2019). "City Lights founder Lawrence Ferlinghetti: 'The US isn't ready for a revolution'". The Guardian. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
- "Academic.Brooklyn". Lawrence Ferlinghetti's italianita. Retrieved October 30, 2006.
- Robinson, Janice S. (1984). "Review of Lawrence Ferlinghetti: Poet-at-Large". American Literature. 56 (1): 119–20. doi:10.2307/2925929. JSTOR 2925929.
- Zinser, Lynn (January 20, 2012). "Lawrence Ferlinghetti Revives His Love of the 49ers at 92". The New York Times.
- Robinson, Shannon (February 24, 2021). "Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Fearless Poet, Publisher, and Bookseller, Is Dead at 101". The Daily Beast. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- ""On the Road," "Howl" and Poetry as Insurgent Art: Legendary Bookseller Lawrence Ferlinghetti on the Beat Generation". Democracy Now!. September 3, 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
- Julian Guthrie (September 24, 2012). "Lawrence Ferlinghetti's indelible image". SFGate. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- Whiting, Sam. "Lawrence Ferlinghetti, poet and founder of City Lights, dead at 101". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- Oscar Holland. "Lawrence Ferlinghetti, celebrated Beat poet and publisher, dies aged 101". CNN. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- Kaplan, Fred (September 24, 2010). "How 'Howl' Changed the World". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339.
- Gold, Daniel (February 7, 2013). "A Beat Generation Star Who Won't Answer to that Name". The New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
- Foley, Jack (2008). "A Second Coming". Contemporary Poetry Review. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
- Landauer, Susan and Carl (March 1, 2015). "Open Eye, Open Palette: The Art of Lawrence Ferlinghetti". Confrontation. Vol. 117 no. 17. pp. 93–108.
- Foley, Jack (2008). "A Second Coming". Contemporary Poetry Review. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
- Ferlinghetti, Lawrence (2015). A Coney Island of the Mind (50th Anniversary ed.). New Directions. p. 1. ISBN 9780811217477.
- "Lawrence Ferlinghetti". Poetry Foundation. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- Hopkins, Crale (1974). "The Poetry of Lawrence Ferlinghetti: A Reconsideration". Italian Americana. 1 (1): 59–76. JSTOR 29775818.
- Lawlor, William (2005). Beat Culture: Lifestyles, Icons, and Impact. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. pp. 34–37. ISBN 9781851094059. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- Kelly, Kevin (Winter 1988). "Lawrence Ferlinghetti – interview". Whole Earth Review (61). Archived from the original on June 28, 2009. "I'm in the anarchist tradition. By "anarchist" I don't mean someone with a homemade bomb in his pocket. I mean philosophical anarchism in the tradition of Herbert Reed in England."
- Felver, Christopher. 1996 The Coney Island of Lawrence Ferlinghetti. San Francisco: Mystic Fire Video [documentary film].
- "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" January 30, 1968, New York Post
- "Poetry and City Culture". Address at the San Francisco Public Library, October 13, 1998. Accessed February 19, 2016.
- "Lawrence Ferlinghetti Wins the John Ciardi Award for Lifetime Achievement in Poetry". Italian Americana. 26 (2): 167–170. 2008. JSTOR 41353794.
- Lawrence Ferlinghetti: 60 years of painting, edited by Giada Diano and Elisa Polimeni, Silvana Editoriale, Cinisello Balsamo (MI), 2009
- Nolte, Carl (March 30, 2007). "Kerouac Alley has face-lift". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 18, 2007.
- "Arte Città Amica". Arte Città Amica. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- "Lawrence Ferlinghetti Wins the John Ciardi Award for Lifetime Achievement in Poetry". Italian Americana. 26 (2): 167–170. 2008. JSTOR 41353794.
- Christopher Young (October 12, 2012). "Beat this: Lawrence Ferlinghetti refuses Hungarian cash award". New York Daily News. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Carolyn Kellogg (October 11, 2012). "Lawrence Ferlinghetti declines Hungarian award over human rights". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Ron Friedman and AP (October 13, 2012). "Following Elie Wiesel's Lead, US Poet Rejects Hungarian Award". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on July 5, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Harriet Staff (October 11, 2012). "Lawrence Ferlinghetti Declines 50,000 Euro Prize from Hungarian PEN Club". Poetry Foundation. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Bonet, Juan Manuel (May 2013). "Para un diccionario Cortázar-París" (PDF). Rayuela: El París de Cortázar. Instituto Cervantes París: 131. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
- "Evento Ferlinghetti: La poesia incontra l'arte" (PDF). LA STAMPA. Arte Citta' Amica. June 3, 2001. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- "James Claussen".
- The Sea Within Us. Aletti Editore. February 14, 2013.
- "A Beat-Generation Star Who Won't Answer to the Name". The New York Times. February 7, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- Charters, Ann, ed. (1992). The Portable Beat Reader. New York: Penguin Books.
- Cherkovski, Neeli (1979). Ferlinghetti: A Biography. New York: Doubleday.
- Collins, Ronald; Skover, David (2013). Mania: The Story of the Outraged & Outrageous Lives that Launched a Cultural Revolution. Top-Five Books.
- Morgan, Bill, ed. (2015). I Greet You at the Beginning of a Great Career: The Selected Correspondence of Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Allen Ginsberg, 1955–1997. San Francisco: City Lights Publishers.
- Pescara, Walter (2005). Lawrence Ferlinghetti – Italian Tour. Nicolodi.
2006 – special edition, not for sale
- Silesky, Barry (1990). Ferlinghetti: The Artist in His Time. New York: Warner Books.
- Silverberg, Ira (2018). "Lawrence Ferlinghetti on the old San Francisco, his new novel, and his first 100 years". Document Journal. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
- Skau, Michael (1989). Constantly Risking Absurdity: The Writings of Lawrence Ferlinghetti. Whitson.
- Smith, Larry R. (1983). Lawrence Ferlinghetti: Poet-at-Large. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
- Theado, Matt (2003). The Beats: A Literary Reference. New York: Carroll & Graf.