Leaders of the Russian Civil War


The Leaders of the Russian Civil War listed below comprise the important political and military figures of the Russian Civil War. The conflict, fought largely from 7 November 1917 to 25 October 1922, though with some conflicts in the Far East lasting until late 1923 and in Central Asia until 1934, was fought between numerous factions, the two largest being the Bolsheviks (The "Reds") and the White Movement (The "Whites"). While the Bolsheviks were centralized under the administration of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), led by Vladimir Lenin, along with their various satellite and buffer states, the White Movement was more decentralized, functioning as a loose confederation of anti-Bolshevik forces united only in opposition to their common enemy, though from September 1918 to April 1920, the White Armies were nominally united under the administration of the Russian State, during which, for nearly two years, Admiral Alexander Kolchak served as the overall head of the White Movement and as the internationally recognized Head of State of Russia. In addition to the two primary factions, the war also involved a number of third parties, including the anarchists of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, and the non-ideological Green Armies.

Unlike the Bolsheviks and the White Movement, the various third party factions which took part in the conflict did not form a united front and often fought against each other as much as they fought against the larger belligerents, occasionally forming alliances when convenient, and breaking them almost as often. For instance, the Black Army fought alongside the Bolsheviks against the forces of Anton Denikin in South Russia, while the members of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party frequently cooperated with the White Army. A number of foreign nations also intervened against the Bolsheviks for various reasons, including the principal Allied Powers of World War I, and their German and Austro-Hungarian opponents. In addition, a number of independence movements took the opportunity to break free from Russian control in the aftermath of the collapse of the Russian Empire, primarily fighting against the Bolsheviks, as well as against the White Army on occasion.

Bolsheviks


Russian SFSR

Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets
Lev Kamenev
Yakov Sverdlov #
Mikhail Vladimirsky
Mikhail Kalinin

Council of People's Commissars
Vladimir Lenin

All-Russian Extraordinary Commission
Felix Dzerzhinsky
Yakov Peters

Red Army
Leon Trotsky
(People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs)
High Command:
Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko
Nikolai Podvoisky
Pavel Dybenko
Nikolai Krylenko
Jukums Vācietis
Sergey Kamenev
Alexander Svechin
Mikhail Bonch-Bruyevich
Nikolay Rattel
Navy:
Vasili Altfater #
Yevgeny Berens
Aleksandr Nemits
Eduard Pantserzhanskiy
Fyodor Raskolnikov
Alexey Schastny 
Air Service:
Konstantin Akashev
1st Cavalry Army:
Semyon Budyonny
Alexander Yegorov
Kliment Voroshilov
Iosif Apanasenko
Grigory Kulik
Alexander Parkhomenko 
Boris Dumenko 
Konstantin Trunov 
Aleksa Dundić 
Semyon Timoshenko
Ivan Tyulenev
Jefim Szczadienko
2nd Cavalry Army:
Oka Gorodovikov
Filipp Mironov 
Aleksandr Borczaninow
Western Army:
Andrei Snesarev
Alexander Novikov
Vasily Glagolev
Nikolai Sollogub
Alexander Kuk
Yevgeny Shilovsky
Latvian Riflemen:
Pēteris Stučka
Frīdrihs Kalniņš
Jānis Lācis
Reinholds Bērziņš
Antons Martusēvičs
Kirill Stutzka
Gustavs Mangulis
Eduard Berzin
Jānis Judiņš 
Red Cossacks:
Vitaly Primakov
Eastern Front:
Mikhail Muravyov 
Mikhail Tukhachevsky
Alexander Samoylo
Vladimir Olderogge
Rudolf Sivers 
Sergey Lazo 
Yakov Tryapitsyn 
Pavel Lebedev
Hayk Bzhishkyan
Vasily Chapayev 
Ivan Kutyakov
Yakov Korotayev
Sergei Mezheninov
Yan Gamarnik
Ivar Smilga
Ivan Smirnov
Sergey Gusev
Filipp Goloshchekin
Mikhail Alafuso
Ivan Strod
Pavel Khokhryakov 
Mullanur Waxitov 
Southern Front:
Joseph Stalin
Mikhail Levandovsky
Vladimir Yegoryev
Vladimir Gittis
Vladimir Azin 
Pavel Sytin
Pēteris Slavens #
Vladimir Selivachyov #
Semyon Pugachov
Fyodor Podtelkov 
Iona Yakir
Ivan Fedko
Dmitry Zhloba
Nikolay Kuibyshev
Mikhail Lashevich
Béla Kun
Caucasus Front:
Sergo Ordzhonikidze
Stepan Shaumian 
Grigory Korganov 
Ivan Sorokin 
Alexei Avtonomov #
Anatoliy Gekker
Valentin Trifonov
Mikhail Velikanov
Filipp Makharadze
Sergei Kirov
Nariman Narimanov
Northern Front:
Dmitry Nadyozhny
August Kork
Dmitri Parsky #
Semyon Nakhimson 
Yuri Guzarsky 
Ukrainian Front:
Nikolay Shchors 
Ivan Dubovoy
Stanislav Kosior
Grigory Kotovsky
Nikolai Krivoruchko
Anton Słucki 
Boris Shaposhnikov
Central Asian Front:
Mikhail Frunze
Grigori Sokolnikov
Vasily Shorin
Pyotr Kobozev
Ivan Belov
Alibi Dzhangildin
Amangeldy Imanov 
Fyodor Kolesov
Shalva Eliava
Fayzulla Khodzhayev

Far Eastern Republic

Alexander Krasnoshchyokov
Nikolay Matveyev
Genrich Eiche
Vasily Blyukher
Konstantin Avksentevsky
Ieronim Uborevich
Stepan Vostretsov
Yakiv Pokus

Ukrainian SSR

Yukhym Medvedev
Volodymyr Zatonsky
Grigory Petrovsky
Georgy Pyatakov
Serafima Hopner
Emanuel Kviring
Yevgenia Bosch
Mykola Skrypnyk
Christian Rakovsky
Vasyl Shakhrai 
Yuriy Kotsiubynsky
Fyodor Sergeyev 

Byelorussian SSR

Vilhelm Knorin
Alexander Chervyakov

Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic

Kullervo Manner
Yrjö Sirola
Ali Aaltonen 
Eero Haapalainen
Evert Eloranta
Adolf Taimi
Eino Rahja
August Wesley
Mikhail Svechnikov
Georgy Bulatsel 

Mongolian People's Party

Damdin Sükhbaatar
Soliin Danzan
Tseren-Ochiryn Dambadorj
Dambyn Chagdarjav 
Dogsomyn Bodoo 
Khorloogiin Choibalsan
Dansranbilegiin Dogsom
Darizavyn Losol
Rinchingiin Elbegdorj

White Movement


Russian State

Alexander Kolchak 
(Supreme Ruler of Russia)
Pyotr Vologodsky
Viktor Pepelyayev 
Mikhail Smirnov
Vasily Boldyrev
Northwestern Army:
Nikolai Yudenich
(Commander-in-Chief)
Anton Dzerozhinsky
Alexander Rodzyanko
Peter von Glasenapp
Alexei Vandam
Fyodor Keller 
Anatol von Lieven
Pavel Bermondt-Avalov
Aleksandr Dolgorukov
Northern Army:
Yevgeny Miller
(Commander-in-Chief)
Vladimir Marushevsky
Mikhail Kvetsinsky
Nikolai Tchaikovsky
Arctic Ocean Flotilla:
Leonid Ivanov
Boris Vilkitsky
Armed Forces of South Russia:
Anton Denikin
(Commander-in-Chief)
Vladimir May-Mayevsky #
Nikołaj Timanowski #
Ivan Romanovsky 
Alexander Lukomsky
Dmitry Shcherbachev
Mikhail Drozdovsky 
Nikolai Tretyakov 
Ignatiy Vasilchenko 
Viktor Betling #
Mikhail Rodzianko
Nikołaj Bredow
Abram Dragomirov
Vladimir Dragomirov
Vasily Flug
Konstantin Prisovskiy
Alexander Golubintzev
Yakov Yuzefovich
Pavel Chatilov
Viktor Pokrovsky
Black Sea Flotilla:
Vasily Kanin
Mikhail Sablin #
Dmitry Nenyukov
Andrei Pokrovsky
Nikolay Maksimov
Turkestan Army:
Ippolit Savitsky
Boris Kazanovich
Konstantin Osipov 
Konstantin Monstrov 
Army of Wrangel:
Pyotr Wrangel
(Commander-in-Chief)
Alexander Krivoshein
Vladimir Vitkovsky
Alexander Kutepov
Petr Makhrov
Ivan Barbovich
Alexander Borovsky
Mikhail Fostikov
Nikolai Shilling
Wrangel's Fleet:
Mikhail Kedrov
People's Army of Komuch:
Vladimir Kappel #
Andrei Bakich 
Konstantin Nechaev
Sergey Lyupov
Siberian Army:
Aleksey Grishin-Almazov 
Pavel Ivanov-Rinov
Alexey Matkovsky 
Vladimir Gulidov 
Boris Annenkov
Konstantin Sakharov
Mikhail Pleshkov
Ural Army:
Matvey Martynov 
Vladimir Akutin 
Nikolay Saveliev
Vladimir Tolstov
Orenburg Independent Army:
Alexander Dutov 
Ivan Akulinin
Amur Front:
Ivan Kalmykov 
Women's Battalion:
Maria Bochkareva 
Siberian Flotilla:
Sergey Timirev
Mikhail Berens
Georgy Stark

Volunteer Army

Lavr Kornilov 
(Commander-in-Chief)
Mikhail Alekseyev #
Sergey Markov 
Dmitri Miontxinski 
Mitrofan Nejentsev 
Vasily Simanovsky 

Don Army District

Alexey Kaledin 
Anatoly Nazarov 
Vasily Tchernetzov 

Don Republic

Pyotr Krasnov
Afrikan Bogaevsky
Great Don Army:
Svyatoslav Denisov
Vladimir Sidorin
Pyotr Popov
Ivan Popov 
Konstantin Mamontov #
Alexander Fitzchelaurov
Fyodor Kryukov #
Emmanuel Semiletov #
Georgiy Kargalskov
Aleksandr Moller
Mikhail Bazavov
Mikhail Khripunov
Isaak Bykadorov
Konstantin Sychev

Kuban People's Republic

Alexander Filimonov
Nikolay Bukretov
Kuban Army:
Andrei Shkuro
Yakov Slashchov
Sergei Ulagay

Far Eastern Army

Grigory Semyonov
(Commander-in-Chief)
Sergey Rozanov
Boris Khreschatitsky
Nikolai Lokhvitsky
Grigory Verzhbitsky
Konstantin Akintievsky
Dmitry Semyonov
Anatoly Pepelyayev
Lev Vlasyevskiy
Mikhail Pleshkov
Georgy Matsievsky
Mikhail Korobeinikov
Asiatic Cavalry Division:
Roman Ungern-Sternberg 
Boris Rezukhin 

Provisional Priamurye Government

Mikhail Diterikhs
(Commander-in-Chief)
Nikolai Merkulov
Spiridon Merkulov
Viktorin Molchanov
Innokentiy Smolin
Faddey Glebov
Pyotr Blokhin

Czechoslovak Legion

Sergei Wojciechowski
Radola Gajda
Jan Syrový
Stanislav Čeček
Vladimir Shokorov

Alash Autonomy

Alikhan Bukeikhanov

Turkestan Autonomy

Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpaev
Mustafa Shokay

Third Party Factions


Black Army

Nestor Makhno
Simon Karetnik 
Fedir Shchus 
Dmitry Popov 
Maria Nikiforova 
Viktor Belash
Lev Zadov
Ivan Markov
Iuda Grossman
Alexei Chubenko

Green Army

Nikifor Grigoriev 
Danylo Terpylo 
Pjotr Tokmakov 
Alexander Antonov 
Dmitry Antonov 
Ivan Kolesov 
Efim Mamontov 
Mikhail Kozyr
Konstantin Voskoboinik

Socialist-Revolutionary Party

Vladimir Volsky
Nikolai Avksentiev
Viktor Chernov
Fyodor Funtikov
Vladimir Zenzinov
Andrei Argunov
Piotr Derber
Yevgeny Rogovskiy
Boris Savinkov
Boris Donskoy 

Left Socialist-Revolutionary Party

Maria Spiridonova
Yakov Blumkin
Boris Kamkov
Mark Natanson #
Dmitry Ivanovich Popov 
Mikhail Artemyevich Muravyov 
Prosh Proshian #

Kronstadt Uprising

Stepan Petrichenko
Alexander Kozlovsky
Pavel Vilken

Independence Movements


Polish Republic

Józef Piłsudski
Ignacy Jan Paderewski
Polish Army:
Edward Rydz-Śmigły
Lucjan Żeligowski
Leonard Skierski
Władysław Sikorski
Jordan-Rozwadowski
Franciszek Latinik
Bolesław Roja
Blue Army:
Józef Haller

Kingdom of Finland

C.G.E. Mannerheim
Pehr Evind Svinhufvud
Karl Fredrik Wilkama
Hannes Ignatius
Ernst Linder
Ernst Löfström
Martin Wetzer
Hjalmar Frisell
Hans Kalm

Latvia

Jānis Čakste
Kārlis Ulmanis
Oskars Kalpaks 
Jānis Balodis

Estonia

Konstantin Päts
Andres Larka
Johan Laidoner
Ernst Põdder

Lithuania

Antanas Smetona
Aleksandras Stulginskis
Silvestras Žukauskas

Belarusian People's Republic

Jan Sierada
Pyotra Krecheuski
Jazep Losik
Vaclau Lastouski
Kyprian Kandratovich
Kastuś Jezavitaŭ
Anton Luckievich
Alés Harun #
Francišak Kušal
Paval Zhauryd
Bułak-Bałachowicz

Crimean People's Republic

Noman Çelebicihan 
Cafer Qırımer

Democratic Republic of Georgia

Noe Ramishvili
Noe Zhordania
Giorgi Kvinitadze
Nikolay Chkheidze
Giorgi Mazniashvili

Democratic Republic of Armenia

Aram Manukian #
Hovhannes Kajaznuni
Alexander Khatisian
Hamo Ohanjanyan
Simon Vratsian
Tovmas Nazarbekian
Andranik Ozanian
Garegin Nzhdeh
Drastamat Kanayan
Movses Silikyan

Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan

Mammad Amin Rasulzadeh
Fatali Khan Khoyski 
Nasib Yusifbeyli 
Mammad Hasan Hajinski
Khosrow Sultanov
Samad Mehmandarov

Ukrainian People's Republic

Central Council of Ukraine:
Mykhailo Hrushevsky
Directorate of Ukraine:
Volodymyr Vynnychenko
Symon Petliura
Ukrainian Army:
Mykola Porsh
Ivan Nemolovsky
Oleksandr Zhukovsky
Petro Bolbochan 
Zurab Natiev
Oleksander Hrekov
Vsevolod Petriv
Yevhen Konovalets
Mykola Yunakiv
Volodymyr Salsky
Oleksandr Udovychenko
Mykola Kapustiansky
Sergei Delwig
Iwan Omelianowicz-Pawlenko
Yuriy Tyutyunnyk
Vasyl Tyutyunnyk #
Galician Army:
Myron Tarnavsky
Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko
Osip Mikitka 
Dmytro Vitovsky 
Antin Kraws
Archduke Wilhelm
Ukrainian Navy:
Sviatoslav Shramchenko
Wołodymyr Sawczenko-Bilski
Mikhail Belinsky 
Far Eastern Ukrainian Army:
Yuri Hlushko-Mova

Ukrainian State

Pavlo Skoropadskyi
Alexander Ragoza 

Emirate of Bukhara

Mohammed Alim Khan

Khanate of Khiva

Isfandiyar Khan 
Sayid Abdullah
Junaid Khan

Basmachi Movement

Enver Pasha 
Selim Pasha
Ibrahim Bek
Muhiddinbek 
Mandamin Bek 
Irgash Bey
Faizal Maksum

Mongolia

Bogd Khan

Allied Expeditionary Forces


United States

William S. Graves
George E. Stewart
Robert L. Eichelberger

British Empire

Edmund Ironside
Alfred Knox
Frederick Poole
Wilfrid Malleson
Frederick Bailey
Lionel Dunsterville
James H. Elmsley

France

Maurice Janin
Louis d'Espèrey
Henri Berthelot
Philippe d'Anselme

Empire of Japan

Otani Kikuzo
Yui Mitsue

Greece

Konstantinos Nider

Romania

Ernest Broșteanu

Central Powers Intervention


German Empire

Paul von Hindenburg
Erich Ludendorff
Max Hoffmann
Rüdiger von Goltz
Hermann von Eichhorn 
Robert Kosch
Friedrich von Kressenstein

Austria-Hungary

Conrad von Hötzendorf
A. A. von Straußenburg

Ottoman Empire

Nuri Pasha
Mürsel Bey

References