Line of Control

The Line of Control (LoC) is a military control line between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary, but serves as the de facto border. It was established as part of the Simla Agreement at the end of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, when the two nations agreed to rename the ceasefire line as "Line of Control" and pledged to respect it without prejudice to their respective positions.[4] The line is roughly the same as the original cease-fire line of 1949 except for minor details.

Line of Control
Political map of the Kashmir region showing the Line of Control (LoC)
Entities Pakistan India
Length740 km (460 mi)[1] to 776 km (482 mi)[2][lower-alpha 1]
Established2 July 1972
Resulting from the ceasefire of 17 December 1971 and after ratification of the Shimla Treaty
TreatiesSimla Agreement
United Nations map of the Line of Control. The LoC is not defined near Siachen Glacier.

The part of the former princely state that is under Indian control is divided into the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, while the Pakistani-controlled part is divided into Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan. The northernmost point of the Line of Control is known as NJ9842, beyond which lies the Siachen Glacier, which became a bone of contention in 1984. To the south of the Line of Control, (Sangam, Chenab River, Akhnoor), lies the border between Pakistani Punjab and the Jammu province, which has an ambiguous status: India regarding it as "international boundary" and Pakistan calling it a "working border".[5]

Another ceasefire line separates the Indian-controlled state of Jammu and Kashmir from the Chinese-controlled area known as Aksai Chin. Lying further to the east, it is known as the Line of Actual Control (LAC).[6]