List of Roman wars and battles


The following is a List of Roman wars and battles[1] fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date.

8th century BC


The city of Rome in 753 BC

7th century BC


6th century BC


508 BC Siege by Etruscans (forces in blue) of Rome (forces in red).

5th century BC


4th century BC


3rd century BC


Roman conquest of Italy through the Latin War (red), Samnite Wars (pink/orange), Pyrrhic War (beige), and Punic Wars (green).
  • Wars with Gauls and Etruscans (285–282 BC)
    • 284 BC – Battle of Arretium – A Roman army under Lucius Caecilius is destroyed by the Gauls.
    • 283 BC – Battle of Lake Vadimo – A Roman army under P. Cornelius Dolabella defeats the Etruscans and Gauls.
    • 282 BC – Battle of Populonia – Etruscan resistance to Roman domination of Italy is finally crushed.
Expansion of Rome by 200 BC

2nd century BC


1st century BC


Expansion of Rome from 200 BC (green) to 100 BC (orange).
Roman holdings in the East (red), clients (pink), and other nations.
The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar's conquests.
  • Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC)
    • 49 BC, June – Battle of Ilerda – Caesar's army surround Pompeian forces and cause them to surrender.
    • 49 BC, 24 August – Battle of the Bagradas River – Caesar's general Gaius Curio is defeated in North Africa by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. Curio commits suicide.
    • 48 BC, 10 July – Battle of Dyrrhachium – Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat by Pompey in Macedonia
    • 48 BC, 9 August – Battle of Pharsalus – Caesar decisively defeats Pompey, who flees to Egypt
    • 47 BC, February – Battle of the Nile – Caesar defeats the forces of the Egyptian king Ptolemy XIII
    • 46 BC, 4 January – Battle of Ruspina – Caesar loses perhaps as much as a third of his army to Titus Labienus
    • 46 BC, 6 February – Battle of Thapsus – Caesar defeats the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in North Africa.
    • 45 BC, 17 March – Battle of Munda – In his last victory, Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompey the Younger in Hispania. Labienus is killed in the battle and the Younger Pompey captured and executed.
  • Liberators' civil war (44–42 BC)
    • 43 BC, 14 April – Battle of Forum Gallorum – Antony, besieging Caesar's assassin Decimus Brutus in Mutina, defeats the forces of the consul Pansa, who is killed, but is then immediately defeated by the army of the other consul, Hirtius
    • 43 BC, 21 April – Battle of Mutina – Antony is again defeated in battle by Hirtius, who is killed. Although Antony fails to capture Mutina, Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly thereafter.
    • 42 BC, 3 October – First Battle of PhilippiTriumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's assassins Marcus Brutus and Cassius. Although Brutus defeats Octavian, Antony defeats Cassius, who commits suicide.
    • 42 BC, 23 October – Second Battle of Philippi – Brutus's army is decisively defeated by Antony and Octavian. Brutus escapes, but commits suicide soon after.

1st century


The Roman Empire under Augustus: The Republic in 31 BC (yellow) and Augustus's conquests (shades of green). Client states are in pink.

2nd century


The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117) The Empire is in red and dependencies are in pink.[2]

3rd century


The Empires of Gaul (green), Rome (red), and Palmyra (yellow) in 271.

See Crisis of the Third Century

4th century


The Roman Empire under the Tetrarchy, with the territory of Constantius (yellow), Maximian (green), Galerius (pink), and Diocletian (purple)
The Roman Empire in 337, showing the Empire under Constantine (shaded purple) and other Roman dependencies (light purple).

The 4th century begins with civil war resulting in the ascendancy of Constantine I, then, after his death, the progressive Christianizatio of the empire, and wars with Persia and Germanic tribes, punctuated frequently with more civil wars.

5th century


Map showing the paths of invasion by various groups into Eastern and Western Roman territory

The 5th century involves the final fall of the Western Roman Empire to Goths, Vandals, Alans, Huns, Franks and other peoples.

6th century


The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (its vassals in pink)

The Eastern Roman emperor Justinian launched an ambitious reconquest of Italy, North Africa and parts of Spain. However, new invasors like the Avars, Lombards and Slavs, alongside the First plague pandemic and various volcanic winters ended his ambition of recuperate the West and consolidate the reconquest.

  • 572–591: War with Persia over the Caucasus.
  • 589: Franco-Lombard-Byzantine conflict over the Po Valley. The war was stopped by breaching dam in Cucca.
  • 582–602: War against the Avars and Slavs in the Balkans.

7th century and beyond


By 650 (pictured) the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) empire had lost all its southern provinces, except the Exarchate of Africa, to the Rashidun Caliphate. At the same time the Slavs invaded and settled in the Balkans.The losses continued in the next century

The Eastern Roman empire adopted the Greek language as official language under emperor Heraclius in 610. The Eastern empire shrunk to Greece and Anatolia, because of Persian, Avar and finally Arab invasions.

For the wars of the Eastern Roman Empire(Byzantine Empire) until 1453, see: List of Byzantine wars

References


  1. Jones, Jim. "ROMAN HISTORY TIMELINE". courses.wcupa.edu. West Chester University of Pennsylvania, 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  2. Bennett, J. Trajan: Optimus Princeps. 1997. Fig. 1

Sources


See also