List of Seleucid rulers


The Seleucid dynasty or the Seleucidae (from Greek: Σελευκίδαι, Seleukídai) was a Greek Macedonian royal family, founded by Seleucus I Nicator ("the Victor"), which ruled the Seleucid Empire centered in the Near East and regions of the Asian part of the earlier Achaemenid Persian Empire during the Hellenistic period.

Seleucus I Nicator

Background


Seleucus (ca. 358 – 281 BC) served as an officer of Alexander the Great, commanding the élite infantry corps in the Macedonian army: the "Shield-bearers" (Hypaspistai), later known as the "Silvershields" (Ἀργυράσπιδες / Argyraspides). After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, the Partition of Triparadisus assigned Seleucus as satrap of Babylon in 321 BC. Antigonus, the satrap of much of Asia Minor, forced Seleucus to flee from Babylon, but, supported by Ptolemy, the Satrap of Egypt, Seleucus returned in 312 BC. Seleucus' later conquests included Persia and Media. He formed an alliance with the Indian King Chandragupta Maurya (reigned 324-297 BC). Seleucus defeated Antigonus in the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC and Lysimachus (King of Thrace, Macedon and Asia Minor) in the battle of Corupedium (near Sardis) in 281 BC. Ptolemy Ceraunus assassinated Seleucus later in the same year. Seleucus' eldest son Antiochus I succeeded him as ruler of the Seleucid territories.

Seleucid rulers


Seleucid Rulers
PortraitKingReign (BC)Consort(s)Comments
Seleucus I NicatorSatrap 320–315, 312–305 BC
King 305–281 BC
Apama
Antiochus I Soterco-ruler from 291, ruled 281–261 BCStratonice of SyriaCo-ruler with his father for 10 years
Antiochus II Theos261–246 BCLaodice I
Berenice
Berenice was a daughter of Ptolemy II of Egypt. Laodice I had her and her son murdered.
Seleucus II Callinicus246–225 BCLaodice II
Seleucus III Ceraunus (or Soter)225–223 BCSeleucus III was assassinated by members of his army.
Antiochus III the Great223–187 BCLaodice III
Euboea of Chalcis
Antiochus III was a brother of Seleucus III
Seleucus IV Philopator187–175 BCLaodice IVThis was a brother-sister marriage.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes175–163 BCLaodice IVThis was a brother-sister marriage.
Antiochus V Eupator163–161 BC
Demetrius I Soter161–150 BCApama ?
Laodice V?
Son of Seleucus IV Philopator and Laodice IV
Alexander I Balas150–145 BCCleopatra TheaSon of Antiochus IV and Laodice IV
Demetrius II Nicatorfirst reign, 145–138 BCCleopatra TheaSon of Demetrius I
Antiochus VI Dionysus (or Epiphanes)145–140 BC?Son of Alexander Balas and Cleopatra Thea
Diodotus Tryphon140–138 BCGeneral who was a regent for Antiochus VI Dionysus. Took the throne after murdering his charge.
Antiochus VII Sidetes (or Euergetes)138–129 BCCleopatra TheaSon of Demetrius I
Demetrius II Nicatorsecond reign, 129–126 BCCleopatra TheaDemetrius was murdered at the instigation of his wife Cleopatra Thea.
Alexander II Zabinas129–123 BCCounter-king who claimed to be an adoptive son of Antiochus VII Sidetes
Cleopatra Thea126–121 BCDaughter of Ptolemy VI of Egypt. Married to three kings: Alexander Balas, Demetrius II Nicator, and Antiochus VII Sidetes. Mother of Antiochus VI, Seleucus V, Antiochus VIII Grypus, and Antiochus IX Cyzicenus. Coregent with her son Antiochus VIII Grypus. Gorgias (Greek General) and War against Jews
Seleucus V Philometor126/125 BCMurdered by his mother Cleopatra Thea
Antiochus VIII Grypus125–96 BCTryphaena of Egypt
Cleopatra Selene I of Egypt
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus114–96 BCCleopatra IV of Egypt
Cleopatra Selene I of Egypt
Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator96–95 BC
Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator95–92 BC or 83 BCCleopatra Selene I
Demetrius III Eucaerus (or Philopator)95–87 BC
Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus95–92 BCE
Philip I Philadelphus95–84/83 BC
Antiochus XII Dionysus87–84 BC
Seleucus VII Kybiosaktes or Philometor83–69 BC
Antiochus XIII Asiaticus69–64 BC
Philip II Philoromaeus65–63 BC

Family tree


AntiochusLaodice
Seleucus I Nicator
Kg. 305–281
Apama
AchaeusStratoniceAntiochus I Soter
Kg. 281–261
AndromachusAntiochus II Theos
Kg. 261–246
Laodice I
Achaeus
Kg. 220–213
Laodice IISeleucus II Callinicus
Kg. 246–226
Antiochus Hierax
Kg. 240–228
Seleucus III Ceraunus
Kg. 226–223
Antiochus III the Great
Kg. 223–187
Laodice III
Seleucus IV Philopator
Kg. 187–175
Laodice IVAntiochus IV Epiphanes
Kg. 175–163
Laodice VDemetrius I Soter
Kg. 161–150
Antiochus V Eupator
Kg. 163–161
Alexander I Balas
Kg. 150–146
Cleopatra Thea
Qu. 125–121
Demetrius II Nicator
Kg. 145–125
Antiochus VII Sidetes
Kg. 138–129
Antiochus VI Dionysus
Kg. 144–142
Seleucus V Philometor
Kg. 126–125
Antiochus VIII Grypus
Kg. 125–96
TryphaenaAntiochus IX Cyzicenus
Kg. 116–96
Seleucus VI Epiphanes
Kg. 96–95
Antiochus XI Epiphanes
Kg. 95–92
Philip I Philadelphus
Kg. 95–83
Demetrius III Eucaerus
Kg. 95–88
Antiochus XII Dionysus
Kg. 87–84
Antiochus X Eusebes
Kg. 95–83
Philip II Philoromaeus
Kg. 69–63
Seleucus VII Philometer
Kg. 83–69
Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
Kg. 69–64

See also


References


    • Glanville Downey (8 December 2015). History of Antioch. Princeton University Press. pp. 735–736. ISBN 978-1-4008-7773-7.
    • Mehrdad Kia (27 June 2016). The Persian Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 287–311. ISBN 978-1-61069-391-2.