List of countries by Human Development Index


The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) compiles the Human Development Index (HDI) of 189 countries in the annual Human Development Report. The index considers the health, education and income in a given country to provide a measure of human development which is comparable between countries and over time.[1][2]

World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2019 data, published in 2020)
  •   Very high (≥ 0.800)
  •   High (0.700–0.799)
  •   Medium (0.550–0.699)
  •   Low (≤ 0.549)
  •   Data unavailable
World map of countries or territories by Human Development Index scores in increments of 0.050 (based on 2019 data, published in 2020)
  •   ≥ 0.900
  •   0.850–0.899
  •   0.800–0.849
  •   0.750–0.799
  •   0.700–0.749
  •   0.650–0.699
  •   0.600–0.649
  •   0.550–0.599
  •   0.500–0.549
  •   0.450–0.499
  •   0.400–0.449
  •   ≤ 0.399
  •   Data unavailable

The HDI was first published in 1990 with the goal of being a more comprehensive measure of human development than purely economic measures such as gross domestic product. The index incorporates three dimensions of human development, a long and healthy life, knowledge, and decent living standards. Various indicators are used to quantify how countries perform on each dimension. The indicators used in the 2020 report were life expectancy at birth; expected years of schooling for children; mean years of schooling for adults; and gross national income per capita. The indicators are used to create a health index, an education index and an income index each with a value between 0 and 1. The geometric mean of the three indices, the cube root of the product of the indices, is the human development index. A value above 0.800 is classified as very high, between 0.700 and 0.799 as high, 0.550 to 0.699 as medium and below 0.550 as low.[1][3][4]

The data used to calculate HDI comes mostly from United Nations agencies and international institutions, such as United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Rarely, when one of the indicators is missing, cross-country regression models are used. Due to improved data and methodology updates, HDI values are not comparable across human development reports; instead, each report recalculates the HDI for some previous years.[4][5]

The HDI is the most widely used indicator of human development and changed how people view the concept.[6][7] However, several aspects of the index have received criticism. Some scholars have criticized how the factors are weighed, in particular how an additional year of life expectancy is valued differently between countries;[7][8] and the limited factors it considers, noting the omission of factors such as the levels of distributional and gender inequality.[9][10] In response to the former the UNDP introduced the inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI) in its 2010 report and in response to the latter the Gender Development Index (GDI) was introduced in the 1995 report.[11][12] Others have criticized the perceived oversimplification of using a single number per country.[13][14] To reflect developmental differences within countries, a subnational HDI (SHDI) featuring data for more than 1600 regions was introduced in 2018 by the Global Data Lab at Radboud University in the Netherlands.[14] In 2020, the UNDP introduced another index, the planetary pressures–adjusted HDI (PHDI), which decreases the scores of countries with a higher ecological footprint.[15]

Countries


Average annual HDI growth from 2010 to 2019 (published in 2020)
  •   ≥ 1.4%
  •   1.2%–1.4%
  •   1%–1.2%
  •   0.8%–1%
  •   0.6%–0.8%
  •   0.4%–0.6%
  •   0.2%–0.4%
  •   0%–0.2%
  •   −0.5%–0%
  •   −1%–−0.5%
  •   < −1%
  •   No data

The Human Development Report includes the 193 United Nations member states as well as Palestine and Hong Kong. The index is however not calculated for 6 UN member states, namely Monaco, Nauru, North Korea, San Marino, Somalia, and Tuvalu. Some components of the index may be calculated for these countries though. Other non-UN members, such as Vatican City, Kosovo, Macao, and Taiwan, are also not included. In total, the HDI is available for 189 nations.[2]

HDI values above 0.800 are classified as very high, between 0.700 and 0.800 as high, between 0.550 and 0.700 as medium, and estimates below 0.550 as low.[4]

Table of countries by HDI
Rank Nation HDI
2019 data (2020 report)[2] Change over 5 years (2014)[16] 2019 data (2020 report)[2] Average annual growth (2010–2019)[16]
1  Norway 0.957 0.20%
2 (7)  Ireland 0.955 0.65%
2   Switzerland 0.955 0.16%
4 (7)  Hong Kong 0.949 0.54%
4 (4)  Iceland 0.949 0.62%
6 (3)  Germany 0.947 0.24%
7 (3)  Sweden 0.945 0.41%
8 (2)  Australia 0.944 0.17%
8 (1)  Netherlands 0.944 0.32%
10 (6)  Denmark 0.940 0.28%
11 (2)  Finland 0.938 0.26%
11  Singapore 0.938 0.35%
13  United Kingdom 0.932 0.24%
14 (1)  Belgium 0.931 0.25%
14 (3)  New Zealand 0.931 0.30%
16 (1)  Canada 0.929 0.34%
17 (3)  United States 0.926 0.12%
18  Austria 0.922 0.22%
19 (1)  Israel 0.919 0.29%
19 (2)  Japan 0.919 0.39%
19  Liechtenstein 0.919 0.18%
22 (2)  Slovenia 0.917 0.35%
23  Luxembourg 0.916 0.22%
23 (1)  South Korea 0.916 0.33%
25 (1)  Spain 0.904 0.40%
26 (1)  France 0.901 0.28%
27 (1)  Czech Republic 0.900 0.38%
28 (2)  Malta 0.895 0.54%
29 (2)  Estonia 0.892 0.51%
29 (1)  Italy 0.892 0.16%
31 (6)  United Arab Emirates 0.890 0.91%
32 (3)  Greece 0.888 0.29%
33  Cyprus 0.887 0.40%
34  Lithuania 0.882 0.66%
35  Poland 0.880 0.52%
36 (4)  Andorra 0.868 0.40%
37 (3)  Latvia 0.866 0.55%
38 (1)  Portugal 0.864 0.46%
39 (2)  Slovakia 0.860 0.38%
40 (1)  Hungary 0.854 0.30%
40 (4)  Saudi Arabia 0.854 0.60%
42 (6)  Bahrain 0.852 0.70%
43  Chile 0.851 0.65%
43 (2)  Croatia 0.851 0.48%
45  Qatar 0.848 0.19%
46 (2)  Argentina 0.845 0.21%
47 (6)  Brunei 0.838 0.15%
48 (2)  Montenegro 0.829 0.37%
49 (2)  Romania 0.828 0.31%
50 (3)  Palau 0.826 0.55%
51 (7)  Kazakhstan 0.825 0.86%
52 (1)  Russia 0.824 0.60%
53 (4)  Belarus 0.823 0.39%
54 (5)  Turkey 0.820 1.16%
55 (1)  Uruguay 0.817 0.49%
56 (2)  Bulgaria 0.816 0.39%
57 (5)  Panama 0.815 0.58%
58 (3)  Bahamas 0.814 0.12%
58 (6)  Barbados 0.814 0.23%
60 (3)  Oman 0.813 0.43%
61 (7)  Georgia 0.812 0.87%
62 (3)  Costa Rica 0.810 0.64%
62 (1)  Malaysia 0.810 0.54%
64 (5)  Kuwait 0.806 0.25%
64 (3)  Serbia 0.806 0.57%
66 (2)  Mauritius 0.804 0.76%
67 (2)  Seychelles 0.796 0.46%
67 (1)  Trinidad and Tobago 0.796 0.17%
69 (4)  Albania 0.795 0.72%
70 (5)  Cuba 0.783 0.03%
70 (1)  Iran 0.783 0.60%
72  Sri Lanka 0.782 0.41%
73 (8)  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.780 0.88%
74 (2)  Grenada 0.779 0.36%
74 (4)  Mexico 0.779 0.45%
74  Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.779 0.48%
74 (1)  Ukraine 0.779 0.35%
78 (1)  Antigua and Barbuda 0.778 0.22%
79  Peru 0.777 0.83%
79 (8)  Thailand 0.777 0.79%
81 (4)  Armenia 0.776 0.42%
82 (2)  North Macedonia 0.774 0.46%
83 (2)  Colombia 0.767 0.57%
84 (2)  Brazil 0.765 0.57%
85 (12)  China 0.761 0.95%
86 (4)  Ecuador 0.759 0.50%
86 (6)  Saint Lucia 0.759 0.43%
88 (1)  Azerbaijan 0.756 0.45%
88 (10)  Dominican Republic 0.756 0.76%
90  Moldova 0.750 0.56%
91  Algeria 0.748 0.41%
92 (6)  Lebanon 0.744 0.32%
93 (1)  Fiji 0.743 0.43%
94 (6)  Dominica 0.742 0.03%
95 (8)  Maldives 0.740 0.86%
95 (7)  Tunisia 0.740 0.37%
97 (3)  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.738 0.31%
97 (5)  Suriname 0.738 0.43%
99 (3)  Mongolia 0.737 0.64%
100 (5)  Botswana 0.735 1.15%
101 (2)  Jamaica 0.734 0.03%
102 (3)  Jordan 0.729 0.12%
103 (1)  Paraguay 0.728 0.50%
104 (2)  Tonga 0.725 0.41%
105 (4)  Libya 0.724 1.08%
106 (4)  Uzbekistan 0.720 0.82%
107 (6)  Bolivia 0.718 0.82%
107 (6)  Indonesia 0.718 0.86%
107 (3)  Philippines 0.718 0.76%
110 (3)  Belize 0.716 0.33%
111 (3)  Samoa 0.715 0.27%
111 (4)  Turkmenistan 0.715 0.79%
113 (44)  Venezuela 0.711 0.69%
114 (2)  South Africa 0.709 0.73%
115 (6)  Palestine 0.708 0.38%
116 (1)  Egypt 0.707 0.63%
117NA[lower-alpha 1]  Marshall Islands 0.704NA[lower-alpha 1]
117 (1)  Vietnam 0.704 0.70%
119  Gabon 0.703 0.84%
120 (4)  Kyrgyzstan 0.697 0.57%
121 (2)  Morocco 0.686 1.20%
122 (2)  Guyana 0.682 0.55%
123 (4)  Iraq 0.674 0.65%
124 (3)  El Salvador 0.673 0.08%
125 (2)  Tajikistan 0.668 0.51%
126 (4)  Cape Verde 0.665 0.57%
127 (1)  Guatemala 0.663 1.00%
128 (3)  Nicaragua 0.660 0.66%
129 (1)  Bhutan 0.654 1.46%
130 (2)  Namibia 0.646 1.03%
131 (1)  India 0.645 1.21%
132  Honduras 0.634 0.43%
133 (8)  Bangladesh 0.632 1.41%
134 (3)  Kiribati 0.630 0.67%
135 (1)  São Tomé and Príncipe 0.625 1.21%
136 (2)  Micronesia 0.620 0.35%
137 (1)  Laos 0.613 1.17%
138 (5)  Eswatini 0.611 2.03%
138 (1)  Ghana 0.611 0.87%
140 (5)  Vanuatu 0.609 0.35%
141 (12)  East Timor 0.606 0.40%
142    Nepal 0.602 1.28%
143 (3)  Kenya 0.601 0.97%
144  Cambodia 0.594 1.09%
145 (6)  Equatorial Guinea 0.592 0.30%
146  Zambia 0.584 1.15%
147 (3)  Myanmar 0.583 1.39%
148 (4)  Angola 0.581 1.31%
149 (2)  Republic of the Congo 0.574 1.10%
150 (1)  Zimbabwe 0.571 1.90%
151 (3)  Solomon Islands 0.567 0.61%
151 (2)  Syria 0.567 1.87%
153 (1)  Cameroon 0.563 1.22%
154 (2)  Pakistan 0.557 0.94%
155 (2)  Papua New Guinea 0.555 0.68%
156 (4)  Comoros 0.554 0.68%
157 (2)  Mauritania 0.546 0.87%
158 (1)  Benin 0.545 1.10%
159 (2)  Uganda 0.544 0.99%
160 (1)  Rwanda 0.543 1.10%
161 (3)  Nigeria 0.539 1.25%
162 (7)  Ivory Coast 0.538 1.56%
163 (1)  Tanzania 0.529 1.06%
164 (4)  Madagascar 0.528 0.36%
165 (2)  Lesotho 0.527 1.52%
166 (3)  Djibouti 0.524 1.61%
167 (1)  Togo 0.515 1.12%
168 (3)  Senegal 0.512 1.00%
169 (5)  Afghanistan 0.511 0.89%
170 (1)  Haiti 0.510 0.89%
170 (5)  Sudan 0.510 0.94%
172 (1)  Gambia 0.496 0.87%
173 (5)  Ethiopia 0.485 1.58%
174  Malawi 0.483 1.27%
175  Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.480 1.10%
175 (1)  Guinea-Bissau 0.480 1.07%
175 (3)  Liberia 0.480 0.60%
178 (1)  Guinea 0.477 1.53%
179 (16)  Yemen 0.470 0.82%
180 (3)  Eritrea 0.459 0.57%
181 (2)  Mozambique 0.456 1.44%
182 (3)  Burkina Faso 0.452 1.83%
182 (2)  Sierra Leone 0.452 1.40%
184  Mali 0.434 0.69%
185 (5)  Burundi 0.433 0.58%
185 (3)  South Sudan 0.433 0.61%
187 (1)  Chad 0.398 0.84%
188 (1)  Central African Republic 0.397 0.94%
189 (1)  Niger 0.394 1.95%

Regions and groups


The Human Development Report also reports the HDI for various groups of countries. These include regional groupings based on the UNDP regional classifications,[17] HDI groups including the countries currently falling into a given HDI bracket, OECD members and various other UN groupings.[18] The aggregate HDI values are calculated in the same way as for individual countries with the input data being the weighted average for all countries with available data in the group.[19]

Table of regions and groups by HDI[20]
Region or group1990200020102015201720182019
OECD 0.7860.8350.8740.8910.8960.8980.900
Very high human development 0.7820.8260.8700.8890.8940.8960.898
Europe and Central Asia 0.6620.6750.7390.7750.7850.7870.791
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.6320.6900.7360.7590.7620.7640.766
High human development 0.5670.6290.7050.7350.7440.7480.753
East Asia and the Pacific 0.5170.5950.6880.7240.7350.7400.747
World 0.6010.6440.6990.7240.7320.7340.737
Small Island Developing States 0.5990.6460.7060.7200.7240.7260.728
Arab states 0.5560.6140.6760.6910.6990.7020.705
Developing countries 0.5170.5710.6420.6730.6830.6850.689
South Asia 0.4370.5010.5800.6200.6350.6370.641
Medium human development 0.4330.4920.5710.6090.6240.6270.631
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.4040.4260.5010.5350.5420.5440.547
Least developed countries 0.3530.4030.4890.5200.5310.5340.538
Low human development 0.3450.3810.4680.5000.5070.5090.513

See also


Notes


  1. Data not available before 2017

References


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  9. "The inequality-adjusted human development index: A constructive proposal". World Development. 25 (8): 1283–1298. 1 August 1997. doi:10.1016/S0305-750X(97)00034-X. ISSN 0305-750X. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  10. Sharma, Shalendra D. (1 February 1997). "Making the Human Development Index (HDI) gender-sensitive". Gender & Development. 5 (1): 60–61. doi:10.1080/741922304. ISSN 1355-2074. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  11. Human Development Report 2010 (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 2010. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-230-28445-6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 July 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
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  13. Castles, Ian (1998). "The Mismeasure of Nations: A Review Essay". Population and Development Review. 24 (4): 834–836. doi:10.2307/2808029. ISSN 0098-7921. Archived from the original on 14 March 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  14. Iñaki, Permanyer; Jeroen, Smits (31 May 2018). "The Subnational Human Development Index: Moving beyond country-level averages | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  15. Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 291–231. ISBN 978-9-211-26442-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
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  18. "Human Development Report 2020 – Technical notes" (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  19. Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. p. 350. ISBN 978-9-211-26442-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.