List of countries by system of government


This is a list of countries by system of government. There is also a political mapping of the world that shows what form of government each country has, as well as a brief description of what each form of government entails. The list is colour-coded according to the type of government, for example: blue represents a republic with an executive head of state, and pink is a constitutional monarchy with a ceremonial head of state. The color-coding also appears on the following map, representing the same government categories. The legend of what the different colours represent is found just below the map.

It is noteworthy that some scholars in People's Republic of China claim that the country's system of government is a "Semi-presidential system combining party and government in actual operation".[1] Under China's constitution, the Chinese President is a largely ceremonial office with limited power.[2] However, since 1993, as a matter of convention, the presidency has been held simultaneously by the General Secretary of the Communist Party, the top leader in the one-party system who heads the Politburo Standing Committee.[3]

List of countries


Map

A colour-coded legend of forms of government.
Legend
  •   Presidential republic: Head of state is the head of government and is independent of legislature
  •   Semi-presidential republic: Head of state has some executive powers and is independent of legislature; remaining executive power is vested in ministry that is subject to parliamentary confidence
  •   Parliamentary republic with an executive presidency nominated by or elected by the legislature: President is both head of state and government; ministry, including the president, may or may not be subject to parliamentary confidence
  •   Parliamentary republic with a ceremonial presidency: Head of state is ceremonial; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  •   Constitutional monarchy: Head of state is executive; Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
  •   Constitutional parliamentary monarchy: Head of state is ceremonial; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  •   Absolute monarchy: Head of state is executive; all authority vested in absolute monarch
  •   One-party state: Head of state is executive or ceremonial; power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
  •   Countries in which constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g. military dictatorships)
  •   No constitutionally defined basis to current regime (e.g. transitional governments)
  •   Dependencies without a government

Note: this chart represent de jure systems of government, not the de facto degree of democracy. Several states that are constitutional republics are in practice ruled as authoritarian states

UN member states and observers

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
 Afghanistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Albania Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Algeria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Andorra Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Angola Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Argentina Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Armenia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Australia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Austria Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Azerbaijan Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Bahamas, The Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Bahrain Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Bangladesh Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Barbados Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Belarus Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Belgium Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Belize Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Benin Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Bhutan Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Bolivia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Botswana Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Brazil Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Brunei Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Bulgaria Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Burkina Faso Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Burundi Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Cambodia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cameroon Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Canada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cape Verde Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Central African Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Chad Provisional n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Chile Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 China, People's Republic of Republic Ceremonial Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement[note 1]
 Colombia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Comoros Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Congo, Republic of the Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Costa Rica Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Côte d'Ivoire Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Croatia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cuba Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Cyprus Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Czech Republic Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Denmark Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Djibouti Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Dominica Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Dominican Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 East Timor Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ecuador Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Egypt Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 El Salvador Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Equatorial Guinea Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Eritrea Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Estonia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Eswatini Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Ethiopia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Federated States of Micronesia Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Fiji Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Finland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 France Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Gabon Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Gambia, The Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Georgia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Germany Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ghana Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Greece Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Grenada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Guatemala Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Guinea Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Guinea-Bissau Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Guyana Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Haiti Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Honduras Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Hungary Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Iceland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 India Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Indonesia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Iran Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Iraq Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ireland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Israel Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Italy Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Jamaica Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Japan Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Jordan Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Kazakhstan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Kenya Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Kiribati Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Korea, North Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Korea, South Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Kuwait Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Kyrgyzstan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Laos Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Latvia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Lebanon Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Lesotho Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Liberia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Libya Provisional n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Liechtenstein Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Lithuania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Luxembourg Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Madagascar Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Malawi Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Malaysia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Maldives Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Mali Provisional n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Malta Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Marshall Islands Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mauritania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mauritius Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mexico Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Moldova Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Monaco Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Mongolia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Montenegro Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Morocco Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Mozambique Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Myanmar Provisional n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Namibia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Nauru Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
   Nepal Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Netherlands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 New Zealand Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Nicaragua Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Niger Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Nigeria Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 North Macedonia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Norway Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Oman Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Pakistan Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Palau Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Palestine Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Panama Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Papua New Guinea Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Paraguay Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Peru Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Philippines Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Poland Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Portugal Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Qatar Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Romania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Russia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Rwanda Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saint Lucia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Samoa Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 San Marino Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 São Tomé and Príncipe Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saudi Arabia Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Senegal Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Serbia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Seychelles Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Sierra Leone Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Singapore Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Slovakia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Slovenia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Solomon Islands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Somalia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 South Africa Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 South Sudan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Spain Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sri Lanka Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sudan Provisional n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Suriname Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sweden Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Switzerland Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Syria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Tajikistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Tanzania Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Thailand Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Togo Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Tonga Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Trinidad and Tobago Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Tunisia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Turkey Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Turkmenistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Tuvalu Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Uganda Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Ukraine Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 United Arab Emirates Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 United States Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Uruguay Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Uzbekistan Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Vanuatu Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Vatican City Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Venezuela Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Vietnam Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Yemen Provisional n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Zambia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Zimbabwe Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature

Partially recognized states

The following states control their territory and are recognized by at least one UN member state.

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
 Abkhazia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Cook Islands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Kosovo Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Niue Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Northern Cyprus Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Republic of China Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 South Ossetia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence

Unrecognized states

The following states/governments control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member state.

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
 Artsakh Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Donetsk People's Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Lugansk People's Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Somaliland Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Transnistria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence

Systems of governance


Italics indicate states with limited recognition.

Presidential systems

These are systems in which a president is the active head of the executive branch of government, and is elected and remains in office independently of the legislature.

In full presidential systems, the president is both head of state and head of government. There is generally no prime minister, although if one exists, in most cases, he or she serves purely at the discretion of the president.

The following list includes democratic and non-democratic states:

Presidential systems without a prime minister
Presidential systems with a prime minister

Semi-presidential systems

In semi-presidential systems, there is always both a president and a head of government, commonly but not exclusively styled prime minister. In such systems, the president has genuine executive authority, unlike in a parliamentary republic, but the role of a head of government may be exercised by the prime minister.

Premier-presidential systems

The president chooses the prime minister and cabinet, but only the parliament may remove them from office with a vote of no confidence. The president does not have the right to dismiss the prime minister or the cabinet.

President-parliamentary systems

The president chooses the prime minister and the cabinet without the confidence vote from the parliament, but must have the support of the parliament majority for their choice. In order to remove a prime minister or the whole cabinet from power, the president can dismiss them or the assembly can remove them by a vote of no confidence.

Parliamentary and related systems

In a parliamentary republic, the head of government is selected by, or nominated by, the legislature and is also accountable to it. The head of state is ordinarily called president, and in most parliamentary republics is separate from the head of government and serves as a largely apolitical, ceremonial figure. In these systems, the head of government is usually called prime minister, chancellor or premier. In mixed republican systems and directorial republican systems, the head of government also serves as head of state and is usually titled president.

Full parliamentary republican systems

In some full parliamentary systems, the head of state is directly elected by voters. Under some classification systems, however, these systems may instead be classed as semi-presidential systems, despite their weak presidency.[6] Full parliamentary systems that do not have a directly elected head of state usually use either an electoral college or a vote in the legislature to appoint the head of state.

Directly elected head of state
Indirectly elected head of state

Nations with limited recognition are in italics.

Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency

A combined head of state and government in the form of an executive president is either elected by the legislature or by the voters after a few candidates are nominated for the post by the legislature (in the case of Kiribati), and they must maintain the confidence of the legislature to remain in office.

Assembly-independent republican systems

A combined head of state and head of government (usually titled president) is elected by the legislature but is immune from a vote of no confidence, as is their cabinet, unlike a prime minister.[23] They may or may not hold a seat in the legislature.

Directorial republican systems

In the directorial system, a council jointly exercises the powers of both head of state and head of government. The council is elected by the parliament, but it is not subject to parliamentary confidence during its term which has a fixed duration.

Constitutional monarchies

These are systems in which the head of state is a constitutional monarch; the existence of their office and their ability to exercise their authority is established and restrained or held back by constitutional law.

Constitutional monarchies with ceremonial/non-executive monarchs

Systems in which a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government. In some cases the prime minister is also leader of the legislature, in other cases the executive branch is clearly separated from legislature although the entire cabinet or individual ministers must step down in the case of a vote of no confidence.[26][27][dubious ] The head of state is a constitutional monarch who normally only exercises his or her powers (some monarchs are given a limited number of discretionary 'reserve' powers, only to be used in certain circumstances; many monarchs are given the responsibility to defend the nation's constitution) with the consent of the government, the people and/or their representatives (except in emergencies, e.g. a constitutional crisis or a political deadlock).

Constitutional monarchies with active monarchs

The prime minister is the nation's active executive, but the monarch still has considerable political powers that can be used at their own discretion.

Absolute monarchies

Specifically, monarchies in which the monarch's exercise of power is unconstrained by any substantive constitutional law.

Traditional absolute monarchies
Absolute monarchies with democratically elected legislature

One-party states

States in which political power is by law concentrated within one political party whose operations are largely fused with the government hierarchy (as opposed to states where the law establishes a multi-party system but this fusion is achieved anyway through electoral fraud or simple inertia). However, some do ostensibly hold elections.

Military dictatorships

The nation's military controls the government and all high-ranking political executives are also members of the military hierarchy.

Transitional governments

States that have a system of government that is in transition or turmoil and are classified with the current direction of change.

Systems of internal structure


Unitary states

A state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states, 154 are governed as centralized unitary states, and an additional 12 are regionalized unitary states.

Centralized unitary states

States in which most power is exercised by the central government. What local authorities do exist have few powers.

Regionalized unitary states

States in which the central government has delegated some of its powers to regional authorities, but where constitutional authority ultimately remains entirely at a national level.

Federation

States in which the federal government shares power with regional governments with which it has legal or constitutional parity. The central government may or may not be (in theory) a creation of the regional governments.

European Union


The exact political character of the European Union is debated, some arguing that it is sui generis (unique), but others arguing that it has features of a federation or a confederation. It has elements of intergovernmentalism, with the European Council acting as its collective "president", and also elements of supranationalism, with the European Commission acting as its executive and bureaucracy.[34] But it is not easily placed in any of the above categories.[citation needed]

See also


Notes and references


Notes

  1. The President of China is legally a ceremonial office without considering the presidency held simultaneously by the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.[3]
  2. Iran combines the forms of a presidential republic, with a president elected by universal suffrage, and a theocracy, with a Supreme Leader who is ultimately responsible for state policy, chosen by the elected Assembly of Experts. Candidates for both the Assembly of Experts and the presidency are vetted by the appointed Guardian Council.
  3. Collective presidency consisting of three members; one for each major ethnic group.
  4. The president is elected by parliament and holds a parliamentary seat, much like a prime minister, but is immune from a vote of no confidence (but not their cabinet), unlike a prime minister. Although, if a vote of no confidence is successful and they do not resign, it triggers the dissolution of the legislature and new elections (per section 92 of the Constitution).
  5. Holds a parliamentary seat.
  6. Their two-person head of state and head of government, the Captains Regent, serve for six month terms, although they are not subject to parliamentary confidence during that time.
  7. The President of Switzerland serves in a primus inter pares capacity amongst the Swiss Federal Council, the seven-member executive council which constitutes both the presidency and the government.
  8. The Bishop of Urgell and President of France serve as ex officio co-princes who have their interests known through a representative.
  9. One of sixteen constitutional monarchies which recognize Elizabeth II as head of state, who presides over an independent government. She is titled separately in each country (e.g. Queen of Australia), and notionally appoints a Governor-General (GG) to each country other than the United Kingdom to act as her representative. The prime minister (PM) is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. These countries may be known as "Commonwealth realms".
    In many cases, the Governor-General or monarch has a lot more theoretical, or constitutional, powers than they actually exercise, except on the advice of elected officials, per constitutional convention. For example, the Constitution of Australia makes the GG the head of the executive branch (including commander-in-chief of the armed forces), although they seldom ever use this power, except on the advice of elected officials, especially the PM, which makes the PM the de facto head of government.
  10. The Cook Islands and Niue are under the sovereignty of the Monarch of New Zealand as self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. New Zealand and its associated states, along with Tokelau and the Ross Dependency, comprise the Realm of New Zealand.
  11. The Vatican is an elective absolute monarchy and a Roman Catholic theocracy; its monarch, the Pope, is the head of the global Roman Catholic Church. His power within the Vatican City State is unlimited by any constitution; however, as all its citizens and its residents are ordained Catholic clergy, members of the Swiss Guard, or their immediate family, they arguably have consented to obey the Pope or are minors. (Citizenship is jus officii, on the grounds of appointment to work in a certain capacity in the service of the Holy See and usually ceases upon cessation of the appointment. Citizenship is also extended to the spouse and children of a citizen, provided they are living together in the city; in practice, these are few in number, since the bulk of Vatican citizens are celibate Catholic clerics or religious. Some individuals are also authorized to reside in the city but do not qualify or choose not to request citizenship.)[30]

References

  1. Chen Hang (2018). "The New Development of the National President System in China——The Semi-Presidential System Combining Party and Government in the Actual Operation". Journal of Xinxiang University. 35 (1).
  2. "How the Chinese government works". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2019. Xi Jinping is the most powerful figure in China's political system, and his influence mainly comes from his position as the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.
  3. Chris Buckley and Adam Wu (10 March 2018). "Ending Term Limits for China's Xi Is a Big Deal. Here's Why. - Is the presidency powerful in China?". New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2019. In China, the political job that matters most is the general secretary of the Communist Party. The party controls the military and domestic security forces, and sets the policies that the government carries out. China’s presidency lacks the authority of the American and French presidencies.
  4. Kudelia, Serhiy (4 May 2018). "Presidential activism and government termination in dual-executive Ukraine". Post-Soviet Affairs. 34 (4): 246–261. doi:10.1080/1060586X.2018.1465251. S2CID 158492144.
  5. Zaznaev, Oleg (2005). "Атипичные президентские и полупрезидентские системы" [Atypical presidential and semi-presidential systems]. Uchenyye Zapiski Kazanskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta (in Russian). 147 (1): 62–64. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  6. Elgie, Robert (2 January 2013). "Presidentialism, Parliamentarism and Semi-Presidentialism: Bringing Parties Back In" (PDF). Government and Opposition. 46 (3): 392–409. doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.2011.01345.x. S2CID 145748468.
  7. "Austria's Constitution of 1920, Reinstated in 1945, with Amendments through 2009" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  8. "Bulgaria's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2015" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  9. "Croatia's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2010" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  10. "Czech Republic 1993 (rev. 2013)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  11. "Iceland's Constitution of 1944 with Amendments through 2013" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  12. "Ireland's Constitution of 1937 with Amendments through 2012" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  13. "Moldova (Republic of) 1994 (rev. 2016)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  14. "Montenegro 2007". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  15. "Serbia 2006". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  16. "Singapore 1963 (rev. 2016)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  17. "Slovakia 1992 (rev. 2017)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  18. "Slovenia 1991 (rev. 2013)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  19. "Kiribati's Constitution of 1979 with Amendments through 1995" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  20. "Marshall Islands 1979 (rev. 1995)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  21. "Nauru 1968 (rev. 2015)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  22. "South Africa's Constitution of 1996 with Amendments through 2012" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  23. Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns". French Politics. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087.
  24. "Micronesia (Federated States of)'s Constitution of 1978 with Amendments through 1990" (PDF). www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  25. "Scheda paese Repubblica di San Marino" (PDF) (in Italian). Segreteria di Stato Affari esteri. July 2012. p. 5.
  26. "The Constitution". Stortinget. 4 September 2019.
  27. "Europe :: Norway — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  28. Stewart, Dona J. (2013). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. London and New York: Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 978-0415782432.
  29. Day, Alan John (1996). Political Parties of The World. Stockton. p. 599. ISBN 1561591440.
  30. "Law on citizenship, residence and access" (in Italian). Vatican City State. 11 February 2011.
  31. Tofa, Moses (16 May 2013). "Swaziland: Wither absolute monarchism?". Pambazuka News (630). Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
  32. "Swaziland: Africa′s last absolute monarchy". Deutsche Welle. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
  33. "Q&A: Elections to Oman's Consultative Council". BBC News.
  34. For more detailed discussion, see John McCormick, European Union Politics (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), Chapters 1 and 2.