List of enclaves and exclaves


In political geography, an enclave is a piece of land that is totally surrounded by a foreign territory. An exclave is a piece of land that is politically attached to a larger piece but not physically conterminous (having the same borders) with it because of surrounding foreign territory. Many entities are both enclaves and exclaves.

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Enclaves that are also exclaves


Each enclave listed in this section has the equivalent administrative level as the one other entity that entirely surrounds it. Each enclave is also a part of a main region; hence, it is an exclave of that region.

National level

Name[1][2] Area (km2) Exclave of Enclaved within Coordinates Notes
Apipé Islands[3] (4)~320 Argentina (Corrientes ProvinceItuzaingó Department) Paraguay (Misiones Department – Ayolas District)27°31′S 56°51′WFour adjacent islands (Isla Apipé Grande, Isla Apipé Chico, Isla Los Patos and Isla San Martín) with territorial water borders in the Río Paraná, 39 km east of Isla Entre Rios. Island areas are about 276, 23.8, 11.8 and 3.7 km², respectively.
Isla Entre Ríos [es][3]~36 Argentina (Corrientes ProvinceBerón de Astrada Department) Paraguay (Ñeembucú Department – Cerrito District)27°25′S 57°30′WUninhabited island with territorial water border in the Río Paraná, 39 km west of Isla Apipé.
Isla Martín García1.84 Argentina (Buenos Aires ProvinceLa Plata Partido) Uruguay34°10′47″S 58°15′0″WTerritorial water border on the Uruguay side of Río de la Plata. Designated as a nature reserve under the jurisdiction of Argentina in 1973.
Artsvashen~40 Armenia (Gegharkunik Province) Azerbaijan40°38′N 45°30′EControlled by Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1992.
Torres Strait Islands (7)~2,200 (including water area) Australia (QueenslandShire of Torres and Torres Strait Island Region) Papua New Guinea9°25′23″S 142°32′10″EThe islands of Anchor Cay, Aubusi Island, Black Rocks, Boigu Island (89.6 km²), Bramble Cay (0.036 km²), Dauan Island (4 km²), Deliverance Island, East Cay, Kaumag Island, Kerr Islet, Moimi Island, Saibai Island (107.9 km²), Turnagain Island (12 km²) and Turu Cay, along with their territorial seas, form seven enclaves within the maritime area of Papua New Guinea under a treaty effective in 1985. The territorial sea of each island does not extend beyond three nautical miles.[4][5] The mainland of Papua New Guinea is only 6 km from Boigu.
Jungholz7.05 Austria (Tyrol state – Reutte District) Germany (Bavaria state – Swabia administrative region)47°34.3′N 10°27.3′EConnected at a quadripoint at the summit of the mountain Sorgschrofen (1636 m); accessible only through Germany. Vinokurov (2007) states, "For all purposes, a connection in a single point does not mean anything. It is just like being completely separated. One cannot pass through a single point, nor is it possible to transport goods. It is not even possible to lay a telephone line."[3]
Yukhari Askipara~37 Azerbaijan (Qazakh District) Armenia (Tavush Province)41°03′58″N 45°01′24″EA destroyed village controlled by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992; west of the town of Qazax.
Barkhudarli~22 Azerbaijan (Qazakh District) Armenia (Tavush Province)40°59′36″N 45°13′31″EControlled by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992; west-southwest of the town of Qazax.
Karki19 Azerbaijan (Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Sadarak District) Armenia (Ararat Province)39°47.3′N 44°57′EControlled by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992; north of Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan.
Yaradullu (north and south)0.12 and 0.06 Azerbaijan (Aghstafa District) Armenia (Tavush Province)41°00′51.8″N 45°26′12.2″ETwo farmland enclaves just across the border from the village of Yaradullu[6][7] (55 m at the closest point). They are 750 m and 1500 m southwest of the municipality of Tatli on the west bank of the Akhum River; approximately 300x400 m and 300x200 m. The surrounding Armenian territory has been occupied by Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992, so that these two small pockets of land are de facto no longer exclaves.
Dahagram-Angarpota25.95 Bangladesh (Rangpur DivisionLalmonirhat district) India (West Bengal state – Cooch Behar district)26°18′N 88°57′EDahagram–Angarpota is a composite enclave of two adjoining chhits. It is separated from the contiguous area of Bangladesh at its closest point by 178 metres (584 ft). The enclave has an estimated population of 20,000. After the exchange of enclaves with India under the Land Boundary Agreement on 31 July 2015, Bangladesh retained it as an exclave. The Tin Bigha Corridor, a strip of Indian territory 85 metres (279 ft) wide running from the enclave to the Bangladesh mainland at its nearest approach, was leased to Bangladesh for 999 years for access to the enclave.[1][8][9]
Baarle-Hertog (22 parcels)2.3448 Belgium (Antwerp province – Baarle-Hertog municipality) Netherlands (North Brabant province – Baarle-Nassau municipality)51°26′13″N 4°55′43″E (H1)A group of 22 Belgian enclaves in the southern Netherlands. Enclaves H1 and H2 are connected at a single point.
Međurečje3.9584 Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republika SrpskaRudo municipality) Serbia (Zlatibor DistrictPriboj municipality)43°33′30″N 19°25′30″EHome land of Bosnia-Herzegovina is 1,130 meters to the north. Sastavci is the name of the neighboring village in Serbia.
Quitasueño3,577, including water area[10] Colombia (San Andrés y Providencia Department) Nicaragua14°24′1″N 81°7′47″W[11] (QS32)[10]On 19 November 2012, the International Court of Justice upheld Colombia's claim to Quitasueño, plus a 12-NM territorial zone, and re-defined Nicaragua's EEZ, thus surrounding the island bank.[12] It deemed one of the bank's 54 features to be an island at high tide (elevation 70 cm, area 1 m²)[13] and created enclaves as an equitable solution.[14] The area of the bank, excluding the 12-mile zone, is ~290 km².[15]
Serrana~2,800, including water area Colombia (San Andrés y Providencia Department) Nicaragua14°17′13″N 80°21′48″W (Southwest Cay)On 19 November 2012, ICJ upheld Colombia's claim to Serrana, plus a 12-NM territorial zone, and re-defined Nicaragua's EEZ, surrounding the island bank.[12] The land area is ~0.11 km², and the area of the bank, excluding the 12-mile zone, is ~322 km².[15] Colombia decried the loss of maritime areas and creation of "'enclaves' around Quitasueño and Serrana that could restrict" access.[12]
Brezovica Žumberačka (2)0.0183+ Croatia (Karlovac CountyOzalj town) Slovenia (Metlika municipality)45°41′22″N 15°18′12″EThe first enclave contains four dwellings surrounded by agricultural land near the Slovenian village of Brezovica pri Metliki. It is about 437 m long and 60 m wide covering 1.83 ha. Confirmed by both Croatian and Slovenian cadaster maps, it lies about 100 meters away from the main border at the closest point.[6][7][16][17]

A second enclave lies within 300 meters of the first. It was created on 29 June 2017 when the Permanent Court of Arbitration decided that a disputed 2.4 ha parcel is part of Slovenia and that the border follows Slovenian cadastral limits, thus completing the encirclement of the second Croatian enclave.[18][19] Croatia has stated that it will ignore the arbitration decision.[20]

Ormidhia1.694 Cyprus (Larnaca District) Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area34°59′33″N 33°46′49″ESmall exclave surrounded by Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory in southeastern Cyprus.
Xylotymbou0.947 Cyprus (Larnaca District) Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area35°01′03″N 33°44′37″ESmall exclave surrounded by Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory.
"Electricity Authority of Cyprus" Refugee Settlement~0.28 Cyprus (Larnaca District) Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area34°59′04″N 33°44′37″ENorth of Dhekelia Power Station from which it is separated by a British road; the closest point between the two territories is 21 meters.
Dhekelia Power Station~0.161 Cyprus (Larnaca District) Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area34°58′49″N 33°44′45″EPartially borders the coast but enclosed by UK land and waters disputed between Cyprus and the UK elsewhere; the power station is owned by the Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC); no permanent population.
Münsterbildchen [de]1.826 Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Roetgen municipality) Belgium (Liège province – Raeren municipality)50°39′36″N 6°11′24″EWest of Vennbahn trackbed; northernmost German enclave, mainly home to industrial and warehouse structures.
Roetgener Wald [de]9.98 Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Roetgen and Simmerath municipalities) Belgium (Liège province)50°38′12″N 6°14′32″EWestern part of Lammersdorf [de], southern part of Roetgen, and intervening forest (Forst Rötgen); west and south of Vennbahn trackbed. From 1922 to 1958, the center portion (between Grenzweg and a boundary with three turning points west of the Schleebach stream) was Belgian territory. Until 1949, the east–west road that connected the two outer (German) portions was also German territory; therefore, the German land formed one oddly-shaped enclave (that also included the road to Konzen). In 1949, it was split into two enclaves when Germany ceded the roads to Belgium;[21] in 1958, Belgium returned the east–west road and also ceded the center section of the current enclave to Germany.
Rückschlag [de]0.016 Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Monschau town) Belgium (Liège province – Eupen municipality)50°35′52″N 6°14′53″EPart of city of Monschau, west of Vennbahn trackbed; smallest German exclave, consisting of a house and a garden.
Mützenich [de]12.117 Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Monschau town) Belgium (Liège province)50°33′54″N 6°13′5″EWest of Belgium's Vennbahn trackbed.
Ruitzhof [de]0.937 Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Monschau town) Belgium (Liège province)50°31′29″N 6°11′39″EPart of city of Monschau, west of Vennbahn trackbed; southernmost Vennbahn enclave after 1949 (when Belgium annexed the Hemmeres [de] enclave).
Büsingen am Hochrhein7.62 Germany (Baden-Württemberg state – Konstanz district)  Switzerland47°42′N 8°42′EAt its closest, less than 700 metres (2,300 ft) from Germany proper (to the east). Part of Swiss customs
Campione d'Italia1.6 Italy (Lombardy region – Province of Como)  Switzerland (Canton TicinoLugano District)45°58′10″N 8°58′25″EUses the Swiss franc, Former part of swiss customs (until 2020). Separated by less than 1 km, at the shortest distance, from the rest of Italy by Lake Lugano and mountains, but the terrain requires a 14 km road journey to reach the nearest Italian town, Lanzo d'Intelvi.
Barak (de facto)2.07[22] Kyrgyzstan (Kara-Suu DistrictOsh Province) Uzbekistan (Andijan Province)40°40′N 72°46′EKyrgyzstan's 1991 pre-independence border is the de jure international border, but much of it is hotly disputed with its neighbors. In August 1999, the area around Barak was occupied by Uzbekistan, cutting it off from Kyrgyz territory. Uzbek forces dug up and blockaded the road to Ak-Tash[23] while also allegedly seizing large areas of Kyrgyz land that had been loaned in the Soviet era but never returned.[24] They entrenched themselves within much of Kyrgyz border territory and refused to leave.[25] Barak became a de facto enclave only 1.5 km from the shifted main border.[26] Four Uzbek enclaves and Barak are major sticking points in delimitation talks,[27] and disputes have centered on the areas of Barak, Sokh, Gava and Gavasay (stream).[28] (Map) In August 2018 Kyrgyz and Uzbek authorities agreed to a land swap that would eliminate the exclave. The exchange process may take up to two years.[29]
Likoma Island130.0 (incl a territorial water area) Malawi (Northern Region - Likoma District) Mozambique (Niassa ProvinceLago District)12°04′S 34°44′ELacustrine enclave, including smaller islets, with territorial water border in Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa); only ~5 kilometers from the Mozambique shore; combined land area of Likoma Is. and the smaller Chizumulu Is. is 18 km².
Chizumulu Island (incl Lundu Is., Papia Is., Ngkyvo Is.)101.4 (incl 2-NM territorial water area) Malawi (Northern Region - Likoma District) Mozambique (Niassa ProvinceLago District)12°01′0″S 34°37′14″ELacustrine enclave with territorial water border in Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa); Malawian mainland is 46 km away.
Baarle-Nassau (8 parcels)0.150684 Netherlands (North Brabant province – Baarle-Nassau municipality) Belgium (Antwerp province – Baarle-Hertog municipality)51°24′43″N 4°52′16″E (N8)Seven of the eight Dutch enclaves are counter-enclaves inside two Belgian enclaves (H1 and H8); one is in the main body of Belgium (N8).
Laguna Los Portillos and beach~0.46 Nicaragua (Río San Juan Department) Costa Rica (Limón Province)10°55′55.1″N 83°40′12.4″WOn 2 Feb 2018, the ICJ rendered a decision in a border dispute between Nicaragua and Costa Rica regarding Isla Portillos [es]. Nicaragua was left with just the Laguna Los Portillos and its short strip of beach. The court also decided that the sea just outside of the lagoon would be Costa Rican waters. The ICJ concluded that the whole beach is Costa Rican except for the part directly between the lagoon and the Caribbean Sea – now a tiny enclave of Nicaraguan territory separated from the rest of the country.[30]
Madha~75 Oman (Musandam Governorate) United Arab Emirates25°17′N 56°17′EHalfway between the Omani fragment on the Musandam Peninsula and the rest of Oman; surrounds the UAE counter-enclave of Nahwa.
San'kovo-Medvezh'e4.54 Russia (Bryansk OblastZlynkovsky District) Belarus (Gomel RegionDobrush Raion)52°28′48″N 31°33′51″EContains two small villages that have been depopulated since the 1986 Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine.
Llívia12.84 Spain (Catalonia autonomous community – Province of Girona/Cerdanya comarca) France (Occitania region – Pyrénées-Orientales department)42°28′N 1°59′ETo the east of Andorra, separated from the rest of Spain by a corridor about 2 km wide containing the French communes of Ur and Bourg-Madame.
Vorukh~96.7 Tajikistan (Sughd ProvinceIsfara District) Kyrgyzstan (Batken ProvinceBatken District)39°51′04″N 70°38′00″ESouth of the mountain Ak-Tash; population is 95% Tajik and the rest Kyrgyz.
"Kayragach"~0.88 Tajikistan (Sughd ProvinceIsfara District) Kyrgyzstan (Batken ProvinceLeilek District)40°04′05″N 69°32′41″ENear the railway station of Stantsiya Kayragach, next to the Kyrgyz–Tajik border; also referred to as "Western Qal'acha" due to proximity to the Tajik town of Qal'acha; apparently there is no named settlement.
Sarvan (also Sarvaksoi, Sarvaki-bolo)8.4 Tajikistan (Sughd ProvinceAsht District) Uzbekistan (Namangan Province – Pap district)40°58′00″N 70°36′56″ELong, narrow territory located in the Fergana and Isfara valleys region where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan meet.
Nahwa~5.2 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah emirate) Oman (Musandam Governorate)25°16′N 56°16′EA counter-enclave surrounded by Madha, reported to consist of around forty houses.[31]
Filomena Islands [es] (5 islands)~23 Uruguay (Río Negro Department) Argentina (Entre Ríos ProvinceGualeguaychú and Uruguay departments)32°59′S 58°6′WFive adjacent islands (Isla Filomena Grande, Isla Filomena Chica, Isla Palma Chica, Isla Bassi, Isla Tres Cruces) with territorial water borders in the Uruguay River. Uninhabited islands that form part of the Esteros de Farrapos [es] National Park.
Sokh~234 Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Sokh district) Kyrgyzstan (Batken Province)40°02′39″N 71°05′39″ELarge enclave with 99% Tajik population, the rest Kyrgyz and almost no ethnic Uzbeks.
Shakhimardan~38.2 Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Fergana district) Kyrgyzstan (Batken ProvinceKadamjay District)39°58′59″N 71°48′18″ELocated in a narrow valley in the Alay Mountains where the rivers Ok-su [ru] and Kok-su [ru] meet to form the Shakhimardan-sai [ru].[6][7][32]
Chon-Qora or Qalacha (the 2 Uzbek villages in the enclave)~3 Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Sokh district) Kyrgyzstan (Batken Province)40°14′37″N 71°02′14″ETiny enclave lying on the Sokh River, immediately north of Sokh; measures about 3 km long by 1 km wide, with the Uzbek villages of Chon-Qora (or Chongara 40°15′03″N 71°02′15″E) and Qalacha (40°14′10″N 71°02′12″E) at either end; the Kyrgyz village of Chong-Kara (or Chon-Kara 40°15′37″N 71°00′41″E) lies 2 km northwest.[6][7][32] [Note: The Kyrgyz Cyrillic alphabet contains three characters not present in the Uzbek alphabet. One of these characters is romanized from Kyrgyz as the digraph "ng," which is not present in romanized Uzbek words.][33]
Jani-Ayil (also Jangy-ayyl or Khalmion)~0.8 Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Fergana district) Kyrgyzstan (Batken ProvinceKadamjay District)40°12′09″N 71°39′58″ETiny enclave north-northwest of the Shakhimardan enclave; within 1 km of the Uzbek main border; the Kyrgyz towns of Jani-Ayil (40°10′56″N 71°40′49″E) and Kalmion (40°12′44″N 71°37′58″E) lie outside opposite edges of this enclave.[6][7][32]
High Seas~180,000 International waters Japan26°19′N 135°52′ESurrounded by Japan's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of Honshu, Shikoku, the Bonin Islands, Okino-tori-shima and Okinawa Island
High Seas~1,300 International waters New Zealand44°19′S 178°12′ESurrounded by New Zealand's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of the Chatham Islands, North Island and the Bounty Islands
High Seas~14,000 International waters New Zealand49°32′S 173°6′ESurrounded by New Zealand's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of Campbell Island, South Island and the Antipodes Islands
High Seas~3,700 International waters French Polynesia24.2°S 143.3°W / -24.2; -143.3Surrounded by France's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of the Bass Islands, Raivavae, Nukutepipi, and Tematagi

First-order subnational level

NameArea (km2)Parent CountryExclave ofEnclaved withinCoordinatesNotes
Qobu AzerbaijanAbsheron RayonBaku40°24′N 49°42′EMap showing Absheron rayon and Qobu; another showing Çeyildağ also
Çeyildağ[34] AzerbaijanBakuAbsheron Rayon40°16′57″N 49°16′45″EÇeyildağ at GEOnet Names Server
 (near Maçkalaşen) and Yuxarı Veysəlli[35][36][37] AzerbaijanFüzuli RayonXocavənd Rayon39°41′32.03″N 47°2′11.83″E, 39°44′24.6″N 47°7′22.6″EXocavənd Rayon is a de facto part of the breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which is unrecognized by any member states of the United Nations. Füzuli Rayon is partially occupied and controlled by its forces. (Yuxarı Veysəlli at GEOnet Names Server)
 (includes Aşağı Quşçular, Yuxarı Quşçular, Malıbəyli)[37][38] AzerbaijanŞuşa RayonXocalı Rayon39°49′52.7″N 46°48′7.2″ELocated near Xankəndi (Stepanakert), capital of the de facto Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which includes Şuşa and Xocalı Rayons. (Aşağı Quşçular at GEOnet Names Server, Yuxarı Quşçular at GEOnet Names Server, Malıbəyli at GEOnet Names Server)
 (northeast of Deşdahat, north of Başarat)[37][39] AzerbaijanXocavənd RayonQubadlı Rayon39°31′40″N 46°43′54″EMap showing exclave. Qubadlı Rayon is occupied and controlled by forces of the breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which includes Xocavənd Rayon.
 (main part of the city)
 Minsk National Airport
 Sokol [be]
409.5 BelarusMinskMinsk Region (Minsk and Smalyavichy Raions)53°54′N 27°34′E, 53°53.5′N 28°2.8′E, 53°52.6′N 27°53.9′E
 (1 parcel)~0.11 BelarusMinsk Region (Minsk Raion)Minsk (Maskowski District)53°50′24″N 27°28′17″E
 (southeast of Jogir village), • (south of Arjo village) and (northwest of Uke)~620 EthiopiaBenishangul-Gumuz Region (Kamashi ZoneBelo Jegonfoy)Oromia Region (Misraq Welega Zone)8°56′N 36°7′E, 8°57′N 36°17′E, 9°26′N 36°25′EThe first two of the three enclaves are close in distance and lie near or on the Highway 5 route between Jogir and Arjo.
 (includes Gardères, Luquet) and (includes Séron, Escaunets, Villenave-près-Béarn)42.02 FranceOccitania (Hautes-PyrénéesArrondissement of TarbesCanton of Ossun and Canton of Vic-en-Bigorre)Nouvelle-Aquitaine (Pyrénées-AtlantiquesArrondissement of Pau)43°16′N 0°7′W, 43°20′N 0°5′WSéron is less than 300 meters from the neighboring enclave to its south that includes Gardères and Luquet; they, along with Séron, are part of Canton d'Ossun. Escaunets and Villenave-près-Béarn are in the same enclave with Séron, but unlike Séron, they are part of Canton de Vic-en-Bigorre.
Canton of Valréas124.91 FranceProvence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (VaucluseArrondissement of Avignon)Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (DrômeArrondissement of Nyons)44°21′N 4°58′EKnown as the Enclave des Papes, it was part of the possessions of the Pope in France near Avignon;[40] it was attached to Vaucluse when annexed after the départements were created (see Comtat Venaissin).
(2 parcels)~0.043 GermanyBaden-Württemberg (KarlsruheRhein-Neckar-KreisLaudenbach)Hesse (DarmstadtBergstraßeHeppenheim)49°37′08.8″N 8°40′58.3″E
49°36′31.9″N 8°40′44.5″E
One of these is a counter enclave.
 Hansestadt Bremen (south) and Hansestadt Bremen (north)408 GermanyFreie Hansestadt BremenLower Saxony53°7′N 8°45′E 53°34.5′N 8°34′EBremerhaven and Überseehafengebiet comprise Bremen's northern part, which is 60 km downstream of Bremen's larger southern part on the River Weser. Both parts of Hansestadt Bremen are enclaves within Lower Saxony, as well as exclaves of each other.
Fehrmoor [de] (part)~0.57 GermanyFreie Hansestadt Bremen (Bremerhaven Stadt – Nord StadtbezirkLeherheide [de] Stadtteil – Fehrmoor)Lower Saxony (Cuxhaven)53°36.4′N 8°39.1′EFehrmoor is a part of Leherheide, which is a sub-division of Bremerhaven. Part of Fehrmoor is separated by a narrow strip of Lower Saxony from the rest of Bremerhaven, making it an exclave of the city and of the state.
Ober-Laudenbach (part)~0.58 GermanyHesse (DarmstadtBergstraßeHeppenheim)Baden-Württemberg (KarlsruheRhein-Neckar-KreisLaudenbach)49°37′02.3″N 8°40′39.6″EContains a counter enclave.
Choto Pokalagi0.549 IndiaAssam (Dhubri district)West Bengal (Cooch Behar district)26°18.5′N 89°44.1′EA national level enclave prior to the incorporation of Cooch Behar into India in 1949
Gobrarkuthi0.149 IndiaAssam (Dhubri district)West Bengal (Cooch Behar district)26°14.5′N 89°42.5′EA national level enclave prior to the incorporation of Cooch Behar into India in 1949
Ramrayerkuthi0.084 IndiaAssam (Dhubri district)West Bengal (Cooch Behar district)26°9.7′N 89°42.4′EA national level enclave prior to the incorporation of Cooch Behar into India in 1949
Dadra~26 IndiaDadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (Dadra and Nagar Haveli district)Gujarat (Valsad district)20°19′N 72°58′EDadra was part of the former Portuguese India.
Maghval [41][42]  IndiaGujarat (Valsad districtKaparada Taluka)Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (Dadra and Nagar Haveli district - Nagar Haveli taluka)20°13′N 73°2′EFormerly "Bombay Enclave," Maghval was a British counter-enclave within the Portuguese enclave within British India until independence.
Yanam district20 IndiaPuducherryAndhra Pradesh (East Godavari district)16°43′N 82°16′EThe four districts of Puducherry (Pondicherry, Mahe, Yanam and Karaikal) constituted a French colony until 1954.
 Cherukallayi and (includes Palloor, Chalakkara, Pandakkal) IndiaPuducherry (Mahe district)Kerala (Kannur district)11°42′44″N 75°32′1″E, 11°44′N 75°32.5′EMahe district consists of these two true enclaves and Mahé municipality.
 Bahour PS-Karaiyambuthur OP (3 enclaves), • Dhanvantry Nagar PS-Alankuppam OP, • Thirubuvanai PS/Thirukkanur PS (part), • Kattery Kuppam PS/Thirukkanur PS (part), • Nettapakkam PS (west), • Mangalam PS (part), • Thirukkanur PS (part)[43] IndiaPuducherry (Pondicherry district)Tamil Nadu (Cuddalore and Viluppuram districts)11°57′N 79°38′E (the largest part)These 9 parcels along with three coastal pene-exclaves comprise all of Pondicherry district.
Kilinjikuppam and Singirikudi (part)~7.4 IndiaTamil Nadu (Cuddalore districtCuddalore taluk)Puducherry (Pondicherry district)11°53.3′N 79°47.3′EThis enclave is surrounded by one of the three coastal pene-exclaves in Pondicherry district.
Bara Lowkuthi5.47 IndiaWest Bengal (Cooch Behar district)Assam (Kokrajhar district)26°20.5′N 89°48′EA national level enclave prior to the incorporation of Cooch Behar into India in 1949
 (includes Ortale)~15 ItalyTuscany (Province of ArezzoBadia Tedalda)Emilia-Romagna (Province of Rimini)43°47.4′N 12°12.2′EOne enclave
Monte Ruperto [it]2.7 ItalyUmbria (Province of PerugiaCittà di Castello)Marche (Province of Pesaro and Urbino)43°36.1′N 12°25.4′EThis enclave consists of hills, cropland and few structures.
 Lama and Valle Inferiore ~0.29 and ~0.11 ItalyEmilia Romagna (Province of PiacenzaCorte Brugnatella)Lombardy (Province of Pavia)44.70344°N 9.29495°E / 44.70344; 9.29495, 44.69374°N 9.30190°E / 44.69374; 9.30190Two tiny rural enclaves very close to each other. There is just one house in Valle Inferiore and none in Lama.
San Pellegrino in Alpe [it] ItalyEmilia Romagna (Province of ModenaFrassinoro)Tuscany (Province of Lucca)44.18990°N 10.48074°E / 44.18990; 10.48074Enclave including part of the village of San Pellegrino in Alpe. map
(1 parcel)~0.18 ItalyLombardy (Province of PaviaPieve del Cairo)Piedmont (Province of Alessandria)45.018488°N 8.813027°E / 45.018488; 8.813027The enclave is a small plot of cropland
Wes LiechtensteinPlankenSchaan47°11′3″N 9°32′1″EOne of the 4 exclaves of Planken (map)
Brunnenegg LiechtensteinSchaanPlanken47°10′44″N 9°33′1″EOne of the 4 exclaves of Schaan (map)
Rüttistein LiechtensteinVaduzPlanken47°11′13″N 9°33′2″EOne of the 6 exclaves of Vaduz (map)
Forst LiechtensteinVaduzSchaan47°10′34″N 9°31′34″EOne of the 6 exclaves of Vaduz (map)
(2 parcels) MoldovaDubăsari DistrictTransnistrian-controlled Dubăsari District47°20.2′N 29°12.5′E, 47°22′9″N 29°17′42″ETransnistria is de facto independent, but not recognized by any member states of the United Nations. Control of two highways (east of Roghi, west of Vasilievca) by Transnistria in this frozen conflict created these two neighboring enclaves.
Condrița Moldova Chișinău municipalityStrășeni District47°03′20.4″N 28°34′13.6″E
Văduleni Moldova Chișinău municipalityCriuleni district47°4′12″N 29°4′53″E
 Central Ulaanbaatar and Bagakhangai4084.2 MongoliaUlan BatorTöv Province47°57′N 107°0′E, 47°21′N 107°29′ETwo enclaves
Sambú1296.4 PanamaComarca Emberá-WounaanDarién Province (Chepigana District)7°51′N 78°8′W
El Bale PanamaNgäbe-Buglé Comarca (Ñürüm [es])Veraguas Province (Cañazas District)8°21′N 81°22′W
 Cerro Pelado and (near El Piro) PanamaNgäbe-Buglé Comarca (Müna [es])Veraguas Province (Las Palmas District)8°10′N 81°32′W, 8°13′30″N 81°31′22.37″WThe unnamed parcel is a crescent-shaped forested area bordered by streams.
 Bakama and (includes Trinidad) PanamaNgäbe-Buglé Comarca (Müna [es])Chiriquí Province (Tolé District)8°15.5′N 81°36′W, 8°13.9′N 81°34.7′WThe village of Trinidad appears to be the only population center in the unnamed parcel.
Zelenogradsky Administrative Okrug37.22 RussiaMoscowMoscow Oblast55°59.3′N 37°11.7′E
Vostochny (2 parcels)[44][45][46]3.20 RussiaMoscow (Eastern Administrative OkrugVostochny District)Moscow Oblast (Balashikha Urban Okrug)55°48.9′N 37°52.1′EThese two enclaves within Moscow Oblast are separated only by the width of the road between them.
Akulovo (2 parcels)[47][48]~0.16 and ~0.024 RussiaMoscow (Eastern Administrative OkrugVostochny District)Moscow Oblast56°0.42′N 37°47.74′E, 55°59.9′N 37°47.6′ETwo small enclaves
Machikhino [ru] RussiaMoscow (Troitsky Administrative OkrugKiyevsky Settlement [ru])Moscow Oblast (Naro-Fominsky DistrictNaro-Fominsky Urban Settlement [ru])55°19.2′N 36°54.9′EMachikhino became part of "New Moscow [ru]" on 1 July 2012.
Arkhangelsky [ru]2.33 RussiaMoscow (Western Administrative OkrugKuntsevo District)Moscow Oblast (Krasnogorsky District)55°48′N 37°17.9′EArkhangelsky became part of "New Moscow [ru]" on 1 July 2012.
Konezavod, VTB [ru] (i.e., "Stud Farm, VTB")27.18 RussiaMoscow (Western Administrative OkrugKuntsevo District)Moscow Oblast55°43.8′N 37°0.8′EThis enclave became part of "New Moscow [ru]" on 1 July 2012, with bizarrely twisting borders that touch Krasnogorsky and Odintsovsky Districts and Zvenigorod Urban Okrug. Two landowners, MKZ "Moscow Stud Farm N1" (about 1100 hectares) and VTB Bank with 1,082 hectares,[49] own nearly all of it.
(2 parcels)~1.7 RussiaTatarstan (Agryzsky District)Udmurtia (Kiyasovsky District)56°11.574′N 53°4.29′E, 56°11.826′N 53°5.418′ETwo enclaves
Novaya Kokshan [ru] RussiaTatarstan (Mendeleyevsky District)Udmurtia (Grakhovsky District)56°3.6′N 52°12.96′ELies on the Kokshanka River [ru]
(3 parcels) RussiaTatarstan (Drozhzhanovsky District)Chuvashia (Shemurshinsky District)54°52.854′N 47°18.36′E, 54°50.91′N 47°18.732′E, 54°52.344′N 47°20.858′EThree enclaves
upper Inesh valley RussiaTatarstan (Kaybitsky District)Chuvashia (Yantikovsky District)55°22.908′N 47°43.11′E
Novoye Bayderyakovo RussiaChuvashia (Shemurshinsky District)Tatarstan (Buinsky District)55°0.972′N 48°6.18′E
Chuvashskiye Entugany - Maksim Gorkiy RussiaChuvashia (Shemurshinsky District)Tatarstan (Buinsky District)54°54.66′N 47°50.1′E
west of Malaya Tsilna (1 parcel) RussiaChuvashia (Shemurshinsky District)Tatarstan (Drozhzhanovsky District)54°45.648′N 47°50.76′E
(1 parcel) RussiaChuvashia (Krasnochetaysky District)Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Pilninsky District)55°34.104′N 46°8.178′EOne enclave
(3 parcels) RussiaNizhny Novgorod Oblast (Pilninsky District)Chuvashia (Krasnochetaysky District)55°31.584′N 46°8.55′E, 55°33.102′N 46°8.922′E, 55°32.484′N 46°7.4184′EThree enclaves
(3 parcels) RussiaOmsk Oblast (Krutinskiy District)Tyumen Oblast (Abatskiy District)56°0′54.97″N 70°46′36.01″E, 55°56′37.75″N 70°45′51.52″E, 56°22′40.08″N 70°47′35.34″EThree enclaves
(2 parcels) RussiaTyumen Oblast (Abatskiy District)Omsk Oblast (Krutinskiy District)56°20′36.85″N 71°3′18.4″E, 56°18′32.8″N 71°13′31.44″ETwo enclaves
(1 parcel) RussiaKemerovo Oblast (Novokuznetskiy District)Altai Krai (El'tsovskiy District)53°18′37.33″N 86°44′30.73″EOne enclave
(1 parcel) RussiaTatarstan (Arsky District – Shurabashky Urban Settlement)Mari El Republic (Morkinsky District)56°29′32″N 49°32′29″EOne enclave
(1 parcel) RussiaTyumen Oblast (Nizhnetavdinsky District)Sverdlovsk Oblast (Slobodo-Turinsky DistrictSlobodo-Turinsky Rural Settlement [ru])57°35′22″N 64°55′07″EOne enclave
(1 parcel) RussiaPenza Oblast (Mokshansky District)Mordovia (Insarsky District)53°41′09″N 44°28′12″EOne enclave
(1 parcel) RussiaMordovia (Narovchatsky District)Penza Oblast (Narovchatsky District)53°49′45.3″N 43°52′8.5″EOne enclave
(1 parcel) RussiaMordovia (Tengushevsky DistrictDachny [ru])Ryazan Oblast (Kadomsky District)54°31′57.6″N 42°36′8″EOne enclave
(1 parcel) RussiaRyazan Oblast (Kadomsky District)Mordovia (Tengushevsky DistrictDachny [ru])54°33′39.3″N 42°39′50″EOne enclave
(1 parcel) RussiaKaluga Oblast (Mosalsky DistrictShakhovsky [ru])Smolensk Oblast (Ugransky DistrictKlyuchikovsky Rural Settlement [ru])54°41′7″N 34°25′24.5″EOne enclave
(1 parcel) RussiaArkhangelsk Oblast (Kargopolsky DistrictUkhotsky [ru])Vologda Oblast (Vytegorsky DistrictKemsky Rural Settlement [ru])61°2′31″N 38°4′0″EOne enclave
(1 parcel) RussiaSverdlovsk Oblast (Achitsky District)Perm Krai (Suksunsky District)57°4′0″N 57°52′3″EOne enclave
Valle de Villaverde19.53 SpainCantabriaBasque Country (Biscay)43°14′N 3°17′W
 Sajuela [es] and El Ternero [es]3.5 SpainCastile and León (Province of BurgosMiranda de Ebro)La Rioja42°36.6′N 2°59.4′W, 42°36.1′N 2°56.1′WTwo enclaves
Enclave de Treviño279.58 SpainCastile and León (Province of Burgos)Basque Country (Álava)42°44′N 2°42′W
 Cezura [es] and Lastrilla [es] ~1.7 and ~5.0 SpainCastile and León (Province of PalenciaPomar de Valdivia)Cantabria (Valderredible)42°49′N 4°10.2′W, 42°48.7′N 4°5.9′WTwo enclaves
La Canaleja SpainCastile-La Mancha (Province of GuadalajaraTorrejón del Rey)Community of Madrid40°38′N 3°22.3′W
Dehesa de la Cepeda SpainCommunity of Madrid (Santa María de la Alameda)Castile and León40°39.8′N 4°17.3′WOn the northern slopes of Sierra de Guadarrama
 Petilla de Aragón and Los Bastanes27.55 SpainNavarreAragon (Province of Zaragoza)42°27.5′N 1°5.5′W, 42°25.3′N 1°10′WPetilla de Aragón is also a municipality in northern Spain formed by these two enclaves.
Fahr Abbey0.0148  SwitzerlandAargau (Baden DistrictWürenlos)Canton of Zurich (Dietikon DistrictUnterengstringen)47°24′30″N 8°26′21″EFrom 1803 through 2007 this Benedictine convent was not part of a municipality.
Kloster Grimmenstein [de]  SwitzerlandAppenzell Innerrhoden (Oberegg District)Appenzell Ausserrhoden (Walzenhausen)47°26′36″N 9°36′46″E
Kloster Wonnenstein [de]  SwitzerlandAppenzell Innerrhoden (Schlatt-Haslen)Appenzell Ausserrhoden (Teufen)47°23′11″N 9°21′45″E
Münchenwiler2.5  SwitzerlandCanton of Bern (Bern-Mittelland)Canton of Fribourg (See District)46°54.7′N 7°7.5′E
 Surpierre and Vuissens10.43  SwitzerlandCanton of Fribourg (Broye District)Vaud46°44.7′N 6°50.5′E, 46°44.1′N 6°46.2′ESurpierre includes the villages of Surpierre, Villeneuve, Cheiry and Prèvond-avaux.
Wallenbuch [de]1.4  SwitzerlandCanton of Fribourg (See DistrictGurmels)Canton of Bern (Bern-Mittelland)46°55.9′N 7°13.5′E
La Grande/La Petite Coudre (Céligny)  SwitzerlandCanton of Geneva (Céligny)Vaud (Nyon District)46°20′54″N 6°10′24″EThe municipality of Céligny consists of two exclaves of the Canton of Geneva within the Canton of Vaud. The smaller of the two is enclaved within Vaud. The larger one also has a water border with France and thus is not an enclave.
Steinhof1.64  SwitzerlandCanton of Solothurn (Wasseramt DistrictAeschi)Canton of Bern (Oberaargau)47°9.5′N 7°41.2′E
Slavutych2.53 UkraineKiev OblastChernihiv Oblast51°31.8′N 30°43.5′E
Kotsiubynske0.87 UkraineKiev Oblast (Irpin)Kiev (Sviatoshyn)50°29.3′N 30°20′E
 the above-water part of Liberty Island and the original portion of Ellis Island not created by landfill0.0785 United StatesNew York (New York CityManhattan)New Jersey (Hudson CountyJersey City)40°41.4′N 74°2.7′W, 40°41′59″N 74°2′22″WThe size of the original portion of Ellis Island and its environs is 4.68 acres (0.0189 km² ) of the overall area of 27.5 acres.[50][51][52] From a 1997 U.S. Supreme Court decision it follows that a seawall that was completed in 1914 made the original Ellis Island a true enclave within New Jersey.
 (main part of city), • Ulugbek334.8 UzbekistanTashkentTashkent Province41°18′N 69°16′E, 41°24′10″N 69°27′14″E
 (includes Khanabad and others) UzbekistanTashkent Province (Zangiata District)Tashkent41°13′56″N 69°15′56″E

Other subnational

Enclaves that are not exclaves


Lesotho (shown in green) is completely surrounded by South Africa.

Each enclave listed in this section has a legal status equivalent to the one other entity that entirely surrounds it. None of the enclaves has a separate main region of which it is a part.

National level

Some enclaves are sovereign states, completely surrounded by another one, and therefore not exclaves. Three such sovereign countries exist:

Name Area (km2) Enclaved within Coordinates Notes
 Lesotho30,355 South Africa29.6°S 28.3°E / -29.6; 28.3
 San Marino61.2 Italy43°56′30″N 12°27′30″E
  Vatican City0.44 Italy (Metropolitan City of Rome CapitalRome)41°54.2′N 12°27.2′E

First-order subnational level

NameArea (km2)Parent CountryEnclaved withinCoordinatesNotes
Australian Capital Territory2358 AustraliaNew South Wales35.5°S 149°E / -35.5; 149
Vienna414.65 AustriaLower Austria48°13′N 16°24′EVienna was the capital of Lower Austria until 1922, when it became a province of its own.
Between 1922 and 1986, Lower Austria did not have its own capital, and the province's administration had its seat in Vienna.
Mingachevir47 AzerbaijanYevlakh District40°45′N 46°59′E
Naftalan3.57263 AzerbaijanGoranboy District40°30.5′N 46°49′E
Shaki9 AzerbaijanShaki District41°12′N 47°10.1′E
Khankendi/Stepanakert29.12 AzerbaijanKhojaly District/Askeran Province39°49.3′N 46°45.3′Ein Nagorno-Karabakh
Yevlakh95 AzerbaijanYevlakh District40°36.8′N 47°8.5′E
Brussels161.38 BelgiumFlemish Region (Flemish Brabant)50°50′N 4°22′E
Phnom Penh678.46 CambodiaKandal Province11°33.5′N 104°52.5′E
Prague496 Czech RepublicCentral Bohemian Region50°4′N 14°28′ECity serves as Region's capital
Frederiksberg8.7 DenmarkCopenhagen55°40.9′N 12°31.5′E
Addis Ababa527 EthiopiaOromia Region8°59′N 38°47.5′E
Harari Region334 EthiopiaOromia Region (East Hararghe Zone)9°17′N 42°11′E
Berlin891.7 GermanyBrandenburg52.5°N 13.4°E / 52.5; 13.4
Budapest525.2 HungaryPest County47.5°N 19.1°E / 47.5; 19.1City serves as County's capital.
Almaty682 KazakhstanAlmaty Province43°17′N 76°56′E
Nur-Sultan710.2 KazakhstanAkmola Province51°11.3′N 71°26.2′E
Baikonur57 KazakhstanKyzylorda Province45°52′N 63°20′E
Bishkek127 KyrgyzstanChuy Province42°53′N 74°36′E
Daugavpils72.48 LatviaDaugavpils Municipality55°53.4′N 26°32.9′ECity serves as Municipality's capital
Rēzekne17.48 LatviaRēzekne Municipality56°30.6′N 27°20.5′ECity serves as Municipality's capital
Kuala Lumpur243 MalaysiaSelangor3°8.6′N 101°41′E
Putrajaya49 MalaysiaSelangor (Sepang)2°55.8′N 101°41.5′E
Bamako245 MaliKoulikoro Region (Kati Cercle)12°37′N 7°59′W
Darkhan-Uul Province3275 MongoliaSelenge Province49°22′N 106°18′E
Niamey239.3 NigerTillabéri Region13°31.2′N 2°6.5′E
Taipei271.8 TaiwanNew Taipei City25°5′N 121°33′E
Bucharest228 RomaniaIlfov County44°26′N 26°6′E
Adygea7600 RussiaKrasnodar Krai44.6°N 40°E / 44.6; 40
Gwangju501.24 South KoreaSouth Jeolla Province35°9′N 126°50′E
Damascus Governorate1599 SyriaRif Dimashq Governorate33°30′N 36°22′E
Dushanbe124.6 TajikistanDistricts of Republican Subordination38°33.6′N 68°45.9′ECity serves as Region's capital
Arima12 Trinidad and TobagoTunapuna–Piarco10°37.9′N 61°16.6′W
Kiev839 UkraineKiev Oblast50°26′N 30°32′ECity serves as Oblast's capital
Amanat Al Asimah Governorate126 YemenSana'a Governorate15°25′N 44°14′ECity of Sana'a serves as capital of both Governorates

Other subnational

County Enclaved borough Enclaved within County Enclaved borough Enclaved within
Burlington Fieldsboro Bordentown Township Monmouth Freehold Borough Freehold Township
Burlington Medford Lakes Medford Township Morris Morristown Morris Township
Burlington Pemberton Pemberton Township Morris Chester Borough Chester Township
Gloucester Swedesboro Woolwich Township Ocean Lakehurst Manchester Township
Hunterdon Flemington Raritan Township Ocean Lavallette Toms River Township
Hunterdon Lebanon Clinton Township Ocean Ocean Gate Berkeley Township
Mercer Hopewell Hopewell Township Ocean Tuckerton Little Egg Harbor Township
Mercer Pennington Hopewell Township Salem Woodstown Pilesgrove Township
Mercer Hightstown East Windsor Township Sussex Branchville Frankford Township
Middlesex Jamesburg Monroe Township Sussex Sussex[61] Wantage Township
Middlesex Metuchen Edison Township Warren Alpha Pohatcong Township
Monmouth Englishtown Manalapan Township Warren Washington Washington Township
Monmouth Farmingdale Howell Township

Exclaves that are not enclaves


An exclave must always be grouped with a main region of which it is a legal part. In the case of international waters, the main region consists of all international waters not in EEZs. All potential paths of travel from the exclave to its main region must cross one or more different administrative-territorial regions having the equivalent legal level. Each exclave listed in this section borders on more than one other region.

National level

Name Area (km2) Exclave of Coordinates Notes
Nakhichivan Autonomous Republic5500 Azerbaijan39°20′N 45°30′EBounded by Armenia, Iran, and Turkey
Strovilia (de facto) Cyprus35.095°N 33.900°E / 35.095; 33.900Borders the British Sovereign Base Area (SBA) of Dhekelia and the de facto independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which is unrecognized internationally. The TRNC has occupied and controlled the exclave; on 30 June 2000 the TRNC unilaterally absorbed it, despite United Nations condemnation and lack of recognition.
Gulf of Fonseca outer tridominium~190 Honduras13°5′N 87°46′WHonduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua border the Gulf of Fonseca, a closed sea under international law. Each enjoys a 3-nautical mile littoral zone of sovereignty along its shores and islands in the gulf. The remaining water area in the gulf comprises a tridominium that is shared in common among all three nations. The littoral zones (territorial waters) abut each other in a way that forms two separate areas of tridominium waters in the gulf. The outer area opens directly to the Pacific Ocean and is separated from the inner area by the territorial waters of Salvadoran and Nicaraguan islets. The inner area is bordered by the waters of all three countries. The larger outer area is bordered only by the waters of El Salvador and Nicaragua and the closing line of the gulf, such that one cannot travel within the gulf from Honduras to the outer area except by passing through El Salvadoran and Nicaraguan waters. Therefore, the outer water area is an exclave of Honduras that is shared territorially with two other countries.[69][70][71] All three nations are "entitled outside the closing line to territorial sea, continental shelf and exclusive economic zone. Whether this situation should remain in being or be replaced by a division and delimitation into three separate zones is, as inside the Gulf also, a matter for the three States to decide."[70]
Gaza Strip (de jure)360 State of Palestine31°25′N 34°20′EBounded by Israel, Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea.
High Seas~190,000 International waters57°6′N 179°4′WSurrounded by the EEZs of Russia and the United States (Alaska).[72]
High Seas~310,000 International waters71°38′N 3°40′ESurrounded by the EEZs of Norway (including Svalbard), Faeroe Islands, Greenland, Jan Mayen (Norway) and Iceland
"Eastern Gap", High Seas~20,000 International waters25°41′N 87°01′WSurrounded by the EEZs of Mexico (EEZ defined by Cape Catoche and Scorpion Reef in the Gulf of Mexico), USA (EEZ defined by Loggerhead Key and the Gulf coast) and Cuba (EEZ extends northwest from Cayo Ines de Soto)[73]
High Seas International waters12°31′S 53°46′ESurrounded by the EEZs of Mauritius (Agalega Islands), Tromelin Island (France), Madagascar and Seychelles (Farquhar Atoll)
High Seas International waters16°4′N 116°14′EIn the South China Sea, the EEZs that are defined by Taiwan (Pratas Reef), the Philippines (Luzon Island and Cabra I.), the Spratly Islands of Dao Dinh Ba and Flat Island, and the Paracel Island of Dao Hoang Sa enclose an exclave. National sovereignty over many of the Spratly and Paracel Islands in the South China Sea is disputed. Hence, depending upon the claims involved, this exclave may be considered as being created by the EEZs of Taiwan and the Philippines, or by the EEZs of Taiwan, the Philippines and Viet Nam, or by the EEZs of Taiwan and mainland China, or by the EEZ of mainland China alone.
High Seas~100,000 International waters14°7′S 158°35′WSurrounded by the EEZs of French Polynesia, Cook Islands and Kiribati
High Seas~77,000 International waters15°16′S 173°0′ESurrounded by the EEZs of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands and Fiji
High Seas~380,000 International waters2°43′N 142°53′ESurrounded by the EEZs of Palau, Micronesia, Indonesia and Papua-New Guinea
High Seas~1,400,000 International waters15°26′N 133°0′ESurrounded by the EEZs of Japan (outer islands, including Okino-tori-shima), Palau, the Philippines, Northern Marianas Islands and Micronesia
High Seas~800,000 International waters5°0′S 166°10′ESurrounded by the EEZs of Nauru, Tuvalu, Micronesia, Northern Marianas Islands, Papua-New Guinea, Fiji, Kiribati and the Solomon Islands
"Western Gap", High Seas17,467 International waters25°39′N 92°46′WSurrounded by the EEZs of Mexico (EEZ defined by Scorpion Reef and Cayo Arenas in the Gulf of Mexico) and the United States (EEZ defined by the Gulf of Mexico coast, including Wolf Island (south of Freeport, Texas, and Raccoon Island, Louisiana)) – This exclave no longer exists per se. In areas with natural resource deposits on the continental shelf, the UNCLOS allows nations to claim territory beyond the EEZ to a maximum of 350 NM. On 9 June 2000, the U.S. and Mexico divided the Western Gap by a line equidistant from both countries' coastlines. The new boundary divided the Western Gap, giving 38% of the area (6562 km2) to the U.S. and 62% to Mexico (10,905 km2).[73]

First-order subnational level

Name Area (km2) Parent Country Exclave of Coordinates Notes
Lienz District2016.41 AustriaTyrol46°54′06.2″N 12°32′47.2″EThe transfer of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol to Italy after World War I left the county of Tyrol in two parts.
north of the village of Zöhrabkənd[74] AzerbaijanQuba Rayon41°01′11″N 48°51′37″ESurrounded by Şabran Rayon and Siyəzən Rayon.[37]
includes Yalavanc[75] AzerbaijanQuba Rayon41°15′N 49°4.5′ESurrounded by Şabran Rayon and Siyəzən Rayon.[37]
includes the villages of Vladimirovka and Astraxanovka[76] AzerbaijanOğuz Rayon40°46′19″N 47°34′45″ESurrounded by Şəki Rayon, Ağdaş Rayon and Qəbələ Rayon.[37]
Voeren (Fourons)50.63 BelgiumFlemish Region and Flemish Community (province of LimburgArrondissement of Tongeren)50°44′53.4″N 5°48′19.8″E
Comines-Warneton (Komen-Waasten)61.09 BelgiumWallonia and French Community (province of HainautArrondissement of Mouscron)50°44′59.3″N 2°55′44.4″E
 Belgian Eifel and • Land of Eupen628.84 and 224.80 BelgiumGerman Speaking Community50°20′25.7″N 6°11′58.7″E
50°38′48.1″N 6°06′02.8″E
The two parts are separated by a part of the French Community.
Odžak118 Bosnia and HerzegovinaFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Posavina Canton)45°04′07.0″N 18°19′35.5″ESandwiched between Republika Srpska and Croatia. The rest of Posavina Canton also borders Brčko District, which is a condominium of FBiH and Republika Srpska.
contains Xianghe County, Sanhe City, and Dachang Hui Autonomous County1277 ChinaHebei province — (prefecture-level city of Langfang)39°52′10.7″N 117°02′30.5″ELodged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin.
 IcelandÁsahreppur63°52′11.1″N 20°35′51.7″W
(2 parcels) IcelandKópavogur64°00′49.2″N 21°42′39.0″W
64°03′24.8″N 21°35′41.2″W
 Kitayama Village and • Kumanogawa Town48.21 and 175.47 JapanWakayama Prefecture33°57′46.0″N 135°57′09.0″E
33°53′34.9″N 135°52′42.9″E
in the border between Mie and Nara prefectures
 Drusti parish and • Rauna parish156.7 and 152.4 LatviaRauna Municipality57°13′54″N 25°51′08″E
57°19′53″N 25°36′47″E
~60 LatviaOlaine Municipality (Olaine parish)56°42′13.1″N 24°07′59.3″E
 Gapfahl and • Guschgfiel/Matta/Güschgle LiechtensteinBalzers47°04′46.9″N 9°34′26.6″E
47°08′32.1″N 9°36′46.3″E
Rheinau–Tentscha LiechtensteinEschen47°11′32.4″N 9°29′34.3″E
Nendler Berg LiechtensteinGamprin47°11′46.7″N 9°33′24.5″E
 Riet, • Plankner Neugrütt (western part), and • Plankner Garselli LiechtensteinPlanken47°11′27.3″N 9°31′52.0″E
47°11′10.2″N 9°33′25.6″E
47°09′56.2″N 9°34′43.2″E
A fourth exclave is also an enclave (listed above)
 Plankner Neugrütt (eastern part), • Gritsch, and • Guschg LiechtensteinSchaan47°11′10.2″N 9°33′37.2″E
47°04′35.0″N 9°36′15.8″E
47°07′29.5″N 9°35′50.4″E
A fourth exclave is also an enclave (listed above)
Turna und Sareis~6.6 LiechtensteinTriesenberg47°05′48.5″N 9°37′19.4″E
 Vaduzer Riet, • Dachsegg, • Hindervalorsch, and • Pradamee-Hahnenspiel LiechtensteinVaduz47°11′16.6″N 9°30′41.9″E
47°11′20.5″N 9°33′17.2″E
47°08′01.9″N 9°36′06.2″E
47°05′57.7″N 9°35′52.9″E
An additional two exclaves are also enclaves (listed above)
Alexandru Ioan Cuza MoldovaCahul District45°37′26.6″N 28°29′12.9″E
contains Tvardița and Valea Perjei MoldovaTaraclia District46°06′28.5″N 28°56′37.3″E
 Vulcănești, • Copceac and • Carbalia MoldovaGagauzia45°37′32.4″N 28°23′16.4″E
45°50′41.7″N 28°39′42.7″E
45°52′48.7″N 28°26′43.5″E
(comprising five communes) MoldovaCriuleni District47°03′48.0″N 29°08′31.7″E
(2 parcels) MoldovaDubăsari District47°09′19.0″N 29°09′28.6″E
47°13′44.0″N 29°15′55.4″E
Separated by the Transnistrian controlled Dubăsari District. Transnistria is de facto independent, but not recognized by any member states of the United Nations.
Viguí corregimiento59.6 PanamaVeraguas Province (Las Palmas District)8.3000°N 81.5000°W / 8.3000; -81.5000Surrounded by Müna [es] and Ñürüm [es] districts of Ngöbe-Buglé Comarca, Tolé District of Chiriquí Province, and Cañazas District of Veraguas Province
Justo Fidel Palacios corregimiento25.8 PanamaChiriquí Province (Tolé District)8°20′26.8″N 81°31′52.0″WBounded by Ngöbe-Buglé Comarca (Müna [es]) and Veraguas Province (Las Palmas District)
Yablonovka RussiaChuvashia (Shemurshinsky District)54°40′40.1″N 47°19′58.8″Ebordering on Tatarstan and Ulyanovsk Oblast
 RussiaMordovia (Tengushevsky District)54°52′N 42°27′Ebounded by Ryazan Oblast and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
~16 RussiaRyazan Oblast (Yermishinsky District)54°46′27″N 42°28′20″Ebounded by Mordovia and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
Rincón de Ademuz370.22 SpainValencian Community (Province of Valencia)40.0802°N 1.2854°W / 40.0802; -1.2854between the provinces of Teruel in Aragon and Cuenca in Castile-La Mancha
Oberegg District (2 parcels)14.67  SwitzerlandAppenzell Innerrhoden47°24′52.5″N 9°32′30.4″E
47°25′37.3″N 9°34′59.4″E
bounded by Appenzell Ausserrhoden and St. Gallen
Clavaleyres1.01  SwitzerlandCanton of Bern (Bern-Mittelland)46°53′53.0″N 7°05′31.3″ESurrounded by Fribourg and Vaud's exclave. (The secession of the new canton of Jura in 1979 left Bern temporarily with another exclave, Laufental, bounded by Jura, Solothurn, Basel-Landschaft and France. Laufental joined Basel-Landschaft in 1994.)
Engelberg74.85  SwitzerlandObwalden46°49′17.8″N 8°25′56.2″Eseparated by Nidwalden and Bern
 Stein District and • part of Schaffhausen District31.25 and 11.53  SwitzerlandCanton of Schaffhausen47°34′51.8″N 8°33′31.7″E
47°41′33.0″N 8°49′44.9″E
The only canton lying mostly on the north bank of the Rhine, it is cut into three parts by German corridors to the Rhine. The middle part is the largest and embraces the German enclave of Büsingen. The upper and middle parts border on Thurgau, the middle and lower parts on Zürich.
 Kleinlützel, Thierstein District and • part of Dorneck District16.34 and 25.69  SwitzerlandCanton of Solothurn47°25′34.2″N 7°25′02.5″E
47°28′29.7″N 7°29′23.2″E
both bounded on the south by Basel-Landschaft and on the north by France
the former Avenches District59.91  SwitzerlandVaud (Broye-Vully District)46°55′21.6″N 7°01′36.7″Eseparated by the Canton of Fribourg
Hatta140 United Arab EmiratesEmirate of Dubai24°47′53.9″N 56°08′47.6″E
 Masfout and • Manama United Arab EmiratesEmirate of Ajman24°49′36.4″N 56°03′32.5″E
25°18′48.5″N 55°59′22.9″E
the southerly of the emirate's two non-contiguous sections United Arab EmiratesRas al-Khaimah25°02′48.8″N 56°04′44.2″E
Kentucky Bend69.6 United StatesKentucky (Fulton County)36.529502°N 89.503555°W / 36.529502; -89.503555Located inside a loop of the Mississippi River. The only road in the area goes south into Tennessee. This exclave exists because the Mississippi, which forms the boundary between Missouri (right bank) and Kentucky/Tennessee (left bank), crosses latitude 36°30', which defines part of the border between Kentucky and Tennessee, three times.

Other subnational

Administrative divisions of Liechtenstein
St. Martin Parish in the U.S. state of Louisiana, shown here, is divided into two non-contiguous areas separated by Iberia Parish.
O'Hara Township, Pennsylvania is divided into five non-contiguous areas.
South Hackensack, New Jersey is divided into three non-contiguous areas.
Brownstown Charter Township, Michigan is divided into three non-contiguous areas.

Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves


Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border, would otherwise be enclaves or exclaves.[3]:12–14[79]:116 Semi-enclaves can exist as independent states that border only one other state. Vinokurov (2007) declares, "Technically, Portugal, Denmark, and Canada also border only one foreign state, but they are not enclosed in the geographical, political, or economic sense. They have vast access to international waters. At the same time, there are states that, although in possession of sea access, are still enclosed by the territories of a foreign state."[3]:14 Therefore, Vinokurov applies a quantitative principle: the land boundary must be longer than the coastline. Thus he classifies a state as a sovereign semi-enclave if it borders on just one state, and its land boundary is longer than its sea coastline.[3]:14, 20–22 Vinokurov affirms that "no similar quantitative criterion is needed to define the scope of non-sovereign semi-enclaves/exclaves."[3]:14, 26[80]

Sovereign semi-enclaves

Non-sovereign semi-enclaves

Non-sovereign semi-exclaves

Pene-enclaves/exclaves (including inaccessible districts)


A pene-exclave is a part of the territory of one country that can be approached conveniently — in particular by wheeled traffic — only through the territory of another country.[82]:283 Such areas are enclaves or exclaves for practical purposes, without meeting the strict definition; hence they are also called functional enclaves or practical enclaves.[3]:31 Many pene-exclaves partially border their own territorial waters (i.e., they are not surrounded by other nations' territorial waters). A pene-enclave can also exist entirely on land, such as when intervening mountains render a territory inaccessible from other parts of a country except through alien territory. Thus, a pene-exclave has land borders with other territory but is not completely surrounded by the other's land or territorial waters. They can exhibit continuity of state territory across territorial waters but, nevertheless, a discontinuity on land, such as in the case of Point Roberts.[3]:47 Along rivers that change course, pene-enclaves can be observed as complexes comprising many small pene-enclaves.[3]:50 Attribution of a pene-enclave status to a territory can sometimes be disputed, depending on whether the territory is considered to be practically inaccessible from the mainland or not.[3]:33

National level

  • Austria:
    • The municipality of Jungholz is connected to the rest of Austria at a quadripoint at the summit of the mountain Sorgschrofen (1636 m). Road access is only via German land. However, Vinokurov (2007) states, "For all purposes, a connection in a single point does not mean anything. It is just like being completely separated. One cannot pass through a single point, nor is it possible to transport goods. It is not even possible to lay a telephone line."[3] (See above: Enclaves that are also exclaves.)
    • The Kleinwalsertal, a valley part of Vorarlberg, can only be reached by road from Oberstdorf, Germany.
    • Hinterriß and Eng (parts of the communes of Vomp and Eben am Achensee in Tyrol, Austria) are functional exclaves accessible by road only from Germany.
  • Belgium/France: Along the river Leie (Lys in French) between Halluin and Armentières, where the river forms the border, there are 7 small pene-exclaves of Belgium (province of Hainaut) on the southern side of the river and 7 small pene-exclaves of France (department of Nord) on the northern side of the river. This is due to minor changes in the course of the river since the border was fixed in 1830.
  • Belgium/Netherlands: On the Dutch side of the Meuse River, between the Belgian municipality of Visé and its neighboring Dutch municipalities of Maastricht and Eijsden-Margraten, Belgium has two pene-exclaves, Presqu'ile de L'Ilal and Presqu'ile d'Eijsden. A Dutch pene-exclave, Presqu'ile Petit-Gravier, lies on the Belgian side. The states signed a treaty in 2016 to swap these plots of land, which are the result of river straightening prior to 1980.
  • Belize: Ambergris Caye is an island in Belize located south of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. It is separated from the rest of the country and can only be reached on land by a bridge from Mexico.
  • Bolivia: Copacabana and the surrounding promontory are separated from the rest of Bolivia by Lake Titicaca, only joining by land to Peruvian territory. Access to Bolivia is only available via ferry.
  • Cambodia: Prasat Preah Vihear can only be reached by traveling through Thailand.
  • Canada:
    • St. Regis, Quebec: Part of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, it has a land border with St. Regis Mohawk Reservation in New York State; road access to the rest of Canada is only available through New York State.
    • Campobello Island, New Brunswick can be reached by road only by driving through the United States, across the border bridge to Maine. Connection with the rest of Canada is by ferry.
    • The entrance to Aroostook Valley Country Club near Fort Fairfield, Maine, is in the U.S., but most of the club's golf course and its clubhouse are in Canada. Members and their guests, as long as they remain on the club's property, are not required to clear Canadian customs. Although a shorter route to Canada exists, members coming from Canada must do a 33 kilometres (21 mi) detour to report to U.S. border inspection before proceeding to the golf club.
    • The Haskell Free Library and Opera House straddles the border. The Canadian part of the building is a practical exclave of Canada, as most of the building is physically in Stanstead, Quebec, but the only public access to the building is via the front door on Caswell Avenue in Derby Line, Vermont, in the United States. (Emergency exits from the second floor open to Canada.) People in Canada may not enter or exit the building except by travelling into the U.S. A special exception allows library and opera house patrons to cross the border to enter and move about in the building, but they must return to their home country (or see the Customs office) to avoid being charged with illegally entering the other country.
    • The Salmon Glacier and Granduc Mine in Premier, British Columbia can only be reached by road through Hyder, Alaska.
  • Chile: Magallanes Region of Chile, the southernmost portion of the Chilean mainland, is a practical exclave. The southernmost location that can be reached by road from the core of Chile is Villa O'Higgins in Aysén Region. Before the construction of the Carretera Austral, and its side-routes, the practical exclave included the Aysén Region and other locations such as Futaleufú.
  • Croatia:
    • The southern portion of Dubrovnik-Neretva County, including the historic city of Dubrovnik, is bounded by Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and the Adriatic Sea. Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina's only sea access, is sandwiched between the two portions of this county. This pene-exclave relies on national territorial waters as its only alternative connection to the rest of the country. It is accessible to Croatia's much larger region to the north by an 8 km road a short distance from and parallel to the Adriatic coastline, crossing Bosnia via Neum. A 2.3 km bridge under construction (2017) to a Croatian peninsula will bypass the Bosnian transit.[83]
    • Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina: A few houses and the castle Zrinski, belonging to the municipality of Hrvatska Kostajnica, lie on the right bank of the Una river, and are connected to the municipality by a bridge. The border crosses the FK Partizan Kostajnica football club's pitch, leaving approximately 1/3 of the pitch on the Croatian territory.
    • Croatia/Serbia: The Croatian village of Kenđija is a pene-exclave on the left bank of the Danube, and can be reached by road only through Serbia.
    • Croatia/Hungary: The Croatian village of Križnica lies on the left bank of the river Drava, and is connected to the rest of the country by a pedestrian bridge.
    • Croatia/Slovenia: A small portion of the Croatian village of Mali Tabor lies on the right bank of the river Sutla and can be reached only through Slovenian territory.
  • Denmark/Germany: Several farms on the border, e.g. Vilmkærgård (similar situation as Canada's Haskell Free Library, immediately above).[84] Between 1920–1927, the popular German tourist island Sylt was accessible only by boat from Højer, ceded to Denmark in 1920. A direct German route was built in 1927.
  • Finland/Sweden: The city centre of the Finnish city of Tornio is a pene-enclave unreachable directly by land from Finnish territory, although connected to the rest of Finland by a pair of bridges. The neighboring Swedish municipality of Haparanda has two similar pene-enclaves unreachable directly from Swedish territory. One is an islet crossed by the international border at a golf course on the line between Tornio and Haparanda.
  • France: The territorial water of Canada completely surrounds that of the French territorial collectivity of St Pierre and Miquelon except for a corridor 10.5 NM (19.4 km) wide stretching 200 NM (370 km) south to open sea.
  • Germany/Switzerland:
    • The smaller part of the German city of Konstanz, which includes the Aldstadt (old town), lies to the south of the Rhine and has no land border with Germany, being otherwise surrounded by Switzerland; it is linked to the rest of Konstanz, and by extension to the rest of Germany, by a bridge.
    • The Swiss town of Stein am Rhein has only a bridge over the Rhine connecting it to the rest of Switzerland, which it does not border on land, and is otherwise surrounded by Germany.
  • Guatemala/Mexico: The changing course of the Río Suchiate has created pene-exclaves on both banks of the river.
  • Indonesia:
  • Ireland/United Kingdom: The western-most region of County Monaghan in Ireland contains a pene-enclave jutting into County Fermanagh, United Kingdom, known as the Drummully Polyp or Salient (also locally as Coleman Island after the name of its northernmost townland, Coleman). There are two inaccessible districts: Drumard in the 'polyp' itself, belongs to Ireland and is inaccessible directly by road from any other part of Ireland; the village of Summerhill, County Fermanagh in the United Kingdom is similarly inaccessible from the rest of the United Kingdom. The A3 (UK) and N54 (Ireland) road, known as the Concession Road, crosses the border here 4 times in a short distance.[85]
  • Italy:
    • The Livigno valley near the Swiss border was at one time accessible only from Switzerland and was exempt from Italian customs, an exemption that continues today even though road access to the rest of Italy has been established. It is therefore excluded from EU VAT area.
    • The village of Bagni di Craveggia [it] can only be reached by travelling through the Canton of Ticino in Switzerland. The village never became part of Switzerland, as the pastures surrounding it were owned by the people of Vigezzo Valley, rather than the people of the Swiss Onsernone Valley, at the end of which the village is situated. Consequently, the Swiss franc is commonly used.
    • On the San Marino/Italy border, there is Italian land east of the River San Marino that does not join to any other part of 'dry' Italian territory. This area is only a few metres wide, and follows the river's course for around 500 metres, and is close to the Strada del Lavoro.
  • Lithuania: Curonian Spit's northern part in the Klaipėda District is bounded by Russia and the Baltic Sea, but has the common territorial waters of Lithuania.
  • Mexico/United States of America: Shifts in the meandering course of the lower Rio Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) have created numerous pene-exclaves. Under the Boundary Treaty of 1970 and earlier treaties, the two nations have maintained the actual course of the river as the international boundary, but both must approve proposed changes. From 1989 to 2009, there were 128 locations where the river changed course, causing land that had been on one side of the river to then occupy the opposite bank. Until the boundary is officially changed, there are 60 small pene-exclaves of the state of Texas now lying on the southern side of the river, as well as 68 such pene-exclaves of Mexico on the northern side of the river. The last such exchange (of pre-1989 river cuts) occurred in 2009, after languishing as a proposal for 20 years.
  • Malaysia: In the state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo, the Limbang Division is completely cut off from the rest of the state's road network. The Limbang District in the division is only accessible by road through Brunei, as it is located between Brunei's main portion and the Temburong District. The Lawas District, on the other hand, lies between Temburong and the state of Sabah. As Sabah and Sarawak have autonomy in immigration affairs, immigration checks are required when traveling into or out of the Limbang Division by road.
  • Namibia: Mpalila Island can only be reached from the rest of the country by travelling through Botswana.
  • Netherlands: Part of the province of Zeeland, namely Zeeuws Vlaanderen is accessible by land only through the country of Belgium, although it is accessible by sea from the rest of the province of Zeeland. There is a tunnel, the Westerscheldetunnel, which also links Zeeuws Vlaanderen to the rest of the province.
  • North Korea:
    • A small pene-exclave is located on a lake island that is divided between North Korea and Songsan-ri, Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do in South Korea. It can be accessed by boat only.
    • Another pene-exclave is located on the south side of a river adjacent to Gadal-ri, Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do in South Korea. It can be accessed by boat only.
  • Norway/Sweden: Properties 79/3 and 79/4 (59°39′17″N 11°51′50″E) at Trosterud in the Norwegian municipality of Rømskog are only accessible by a road that follows the NorwegianSwedish boundary.[86] Some nearby houses in Sweden are only accessible from that road that is connected to a larger road only in Norway.
  • Portugal: An area north of Tourém is cut off from the rest of Portuguese territory by the lake Encoro de Salas, being surrounded by Spanish territory. It is accessible by a road bridge, but otherwise does not border the rest of Portugal.
  • Russia:
    • Dubki area is bounded by Estonia and Lake Peipsi-Pihkva.
    • The settlement of Maloje Kulisko is separated from the rest of the country by the Kuuleski River; the village is otherwise surrounded by Estonian territory, although as it is a bog island, it is not accessible from Estonia either.
    • Vistula Spit's eastern part in the Kaliningrad Area is bounded by Poland and the Baltic Sea, but has the common territorial waters of Russia.
  • Senegal: An area of marshy land, approximately 1-mile (1.6 km) south of Tiong, Mauritania is owned by Senegal, but is inaccessible from any other part of Senegal. Coastal waters, however, are contiguous.
  • Slovenia: A farmhouse and a few other buildings in the village of Rigonce on the left bank of the river Sotla/Sutla can only be reached through Croatia.
  • Spain: Os de Civís is inaccessible via any other part of Spanish territory, as one has to travel via Andorra.
  • Togo: A territory in the northwestern end of Togo is only accessible through Burkina Faso.[3]:33
  • Turkey:
    • The European section of Turkey is bounded by Greece and Bulgaria. Despite that the European section and the Asian sections of Turkey are not geographically conterminous and are separated by international waters, there are two connecting bridges in Istanbul.
    • The valley of Macahel, which includes five villages in northeastern Turkey, can only be reached by vehicle via Batumi in Georgia. In winter, as the snow shuts the paths that are completely within the borders of Turkey, the road via Batumi is the only way to travel there.
    • Turkey has a pene-exclave west of the Maritsa River opposite Edirne (Adrianople), with a land boundary of 10.8 km with Greece.[87][88]
  • Uganda: The extreme tip of Tanzania's Kanyiragwa peninsula is a very small pene-exclave of Uganda on the shore of Lake Victoria, created by the parallel of latitude that defines most of the border between Uganda and Tanzania.
  • United Kingdom: Northern Ireland is bounded by Ireland, the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
  • United States of America/Canada:
    • Although Alaska is itself a pene-exclave (road access is primarily via the Alaska Highway), much of the Alaska Panhandle consists of mountainous peninsulas; many communities along the coast lack road connection to other parts of Alaska directly, such as the state capital, Juneau. Three communities are connected by road to Canada with no road to any other point in Alaska: Haines via the Haines Highway; Skagway via the Klondike Highway; and Hyder to Stewart, British Columbia. The distance between Haines and Skagway is about 16 miles (26 km) by the Alaska Marine Highway car ferry but 350 miles (560 km) by road through Canada. Hyder is the only point in the U.S. that can be entered legally without reporting for border inspection; while Canada maintains a border post on the road to Stewart, the U.S. border post was closed in the 1970s. Hyder is connected to the rest of Alaska only by a seaplane service to Ketchikan, with customs inspection done on arrival in Ketchikan.
    • Point Roberts, Washington, is bounded by British Columbia, Canada, the Strait of Georgia, and Boundary Bay. It can be reached from the rest of Washington State only via road through two border crossings.
    • A slice of land on the edge of Lake Metigoshe lies in North Dakota's Roland Township bordering Winchester, Canada.[89]
    • A peninsula juts into North Dakota within the Osthus lake in Rolette County, North Dakota, 500 meters south of Gunnville Lake and 700 meters east of Wakopa Creek, in the Wakopa Wildlife Management Area.[90][91]
    • The Northwest Angle – the northernmost part of Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota, and the northernmost part of the contiguous 48 states – is bounded by Manitoba, Canada and Lake of the Woods. Access to the rest of Minnesota is only via boat or by a pair of vehicular border crossings.
    • Elm Point, Minnesota and two small pieces of uninhabited land just to its west (Buffalo Bay Point)[92] are also bounded by Manitoba and Lake of the Woods.
    • The Alburgh Tongue in Lake Champlain, location of the town of Alburgh, Vermont, is bounded by Quebec, Canada to the north. The community can be reached via road bridges from Vermont or New York.
    • Province Point, the small end of a peninsula east of Alburgh, Vermont, is bounded by Quebec and Lake Champlain.
    • Estcourt Station, Maine, does not have public road access to the rest of Maine. Instead, Estcourt Station's houses, store and gas station access Rue Frontiere, a street on the Canadian side of the border in Pohenegamook, Quebec.
Divided islands

Subnational pene-enclaves/exclaves (inaccessible districts)

Divided islands

Historic enclaves/exclaves


National level

Name[1] Area (km2) Exclave of Enclaved within Coordinates Notes
Indo-Bangladesh enclaves (91 parcels)21.8 Bangladesh (Rangpur DivisionPanchagarh, Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat, and Kurigram districts) India (West Bengal state – Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri districts)approx. 26°18′N 88°57′EAll parcels were both enclaves and exclaves. 21 of the 91 former Bangladeshi exclaves were counter-enclaves. These 91 Bangladeshi enclaves were extinguished on 31 July 2015, when the long-delayed Land Boundary Agreement with India was implemented, leaving Dahagram-Angarpota as the only extant enclave.[104]
Indo-Bangladesh enclaves (106 parcels)69.5 India (West Bengal state – Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri districts) Bangladesh (Rangpur DivisionPanchagarh, Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat, and Kurigram districts)26°9′0″N 88°45′44″E (former third-order enclave)All parcels were both enclaves and exclaves. Three of the 106 former Indian exclaves were counter-enclaves and one was the world's only counter-counter enclave. The 106 Indian exclaves were extinguished on 31 July 2015, when the long-delayed Land Boundary Agreement with Bangladesh was implemented.[104]
Peanut Hole,
High Seas[105]
~46,000 International waters Russia53.3°N 149.6°E / 53.3; 149.6Was previously surrounded by Russia's EEZ in the Sea of Okhotsk between 1991-2014; lied between the territorial zones of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Island. In March 2014, the area became a part of Russia's exclusive economic zone and was no longer a part of international waters.[106] (Note: EEZs are not areas of sovereignty, but rather of sovereign rights and functional jurisdiction.)
  • Altona was a Danish exclave within Germany from 1640 to 1864.
  • BhutanTarchen, Cherkip Gompa, Dho, Dungmar, Gesur, Gezon, Itse Gompa, Khochar, Nyanri, Ringung, Sanmar and Zuthulphuk were exclaves of Bhutan within Tibet from the 1640s until 1959.[107][108]
  • Bophuthatswana was a bantustan or "black homeland" that was granted nominal independence by apartheid South Africa from 1977 until being re-absorbed in April 1994, but it remained unrecognized internationally. It consisted of a scattered patchwork of individual enclaves, six that were true enclaves within South Africa and two that bordered Botswana and South Africa.
  • Cheikh Saïd is a rocky peninsula in present-day Yemen between the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. Although as late as 1970, the Petit Larousse described it as having been a "French colony from 1868 to 1936," France never claimed formal jurisdiction or sovereignty over it.
  • within China
  • Forbidden City – The Xinhai Revolution led to the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC) in 1912. In exchange for the abdication of the last Qing emperor Puyi, the Qing court and the ROC government signed an agreement for the favourable treatment of the abdicated emperor. Puyi was allowed to retain his title as emperor and was accorded the courtesies as a foreign monarch by the ROC government, and the imperial court remained at the Forbidden City. The Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty remained hoisted inside the Forbidden City, certain government organs such as the Imperial Household Department, Imperial Clan Court and Ministry of Justice continued to exist within the palace walls, and the emperor continued to hold court, appoint officials and grant titles of nobility. Following the Beijing coup in 1924, the warlord Feng Yuxiang unilaterally revised the agreement, abolishing Puyi's title of emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.
  • Unlike Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula and the New Territories that were added later constituted a pene-exclave of the United Kingdom from 1860/1898 until 1997. Kowloon south of Boundary Street was ceded in perpetuity, whereas the New Territories was turned over under a 99-year lease.
  • Kowloon Walled City was a counter-enclave belonging to China on the Kowloon Peninsula of Hong Kong from 1898 to 1993. The question of jurisdiction led to a hands-off approach by Chinese and British authorities over the years until the quality of life became intolerable. A mutual decision to demolish the 2.6 hectares of structures was announced in 1987 and completed in 1994.
  • Kwang-Chou-Wan was a pene-exclave of France on the south coast of China from 1898, upon its lease to France by Qing China, until its return by France in 1946; its territory included the islands in the bay and land on both banks of the Maxie River, covering 1300 km² of land.
  • Kwantung was a pene-exclave of Russia and later Japan in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945 and included the ports of Port Arthur (or Ryojun) and Dal'niy (or Dairen), the latter founded in 1899. It was leased to Russia from 1898 until 1905, when Japan replaced Russia as leaseholder. After World War II, the Soviet Union occupied the territory in 1945, jointly administering it with the Chinese before turning it over to the People's Republic of China in 1955.
  • Jinzhou walled central city remained an enclave of Chinese territory within Kwantung under the lease with Russia. This provision was substantially ignored by Japan after it replaced Russia.[109]
  • Macao was a pene-exclave of Portugal on the coast of the South China Sea from 1557 until 1999.
  • Zhongshan Dao island in the Pearl River Delta was divided between China and Macao as a pair of pene-exclaves dating from ratification of the Treaty of Tientsin in 1862 through the 1999 return of Macao to China.
  • Qingdao, with an area of 552 km², was a pene-exclave of Germany (also known as the Kiautschou Bay concession), and later Japan, from 1898 to 1922, adjacent to Jiaozhou Bay on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in East China. The village of Qingdao became the German colony of Tsingtau. In 1914, with the outbreak of World War I, the Republic of China canceled the lease with Germany. Japan then occupied the city and province until December 1922, when it reverted to Chinese rule.
  • Shanghai was the location of British (from 1846) and American (from 1848) Concessions (later Shanghai International Settlement from 1863–1943) and the Shanghai French Concession from 1849–1946. Unlike the British sovereign colonies of Hong Kong Island and Wei-hai-wei, these foreign concessions always remained Chinese sovereign territory.
  • Wei-hai-wei was a pene-exclave of the United Kingdom that bordered the Yellow Sea in eastern Shandong province of China. The city was a British colony, known also as the Weihai Garrison and sometimes as Port Edward, from 1898 to 1 October 1930, when it was returned to China. Its current name is Weihai.
  • Wei-hai-wei walled central city was excluded from the leased territory and remained an enclave of Chinese territory within Wei-hai-wei.[110]
  • Comtat Venaissin was an exclave of Papal territory within France from 1348–1791. It contained an enclave of another Papal territory, the city of Avignon and had a small exclave around the nearby town of Valréas.
  • Despotate of the Morea on the Peloponnesos peninsula of present-day Greece was a geographically detached province of the Byzantine Empire from 1349–1460; during much of that time, in addition to the Mediterranean Sea, it was surrounded by "states under Latin rule."
  • East Pakistan (1947–1971), now Bangladesh, was a pene-exclave of Pakistan (if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital, Islamabad, as the main land) that bordered the Bay of Bengal, India and Burma. East Pakistan, with a distance of 1,600 km separating it from West Pakistan, accounted for 70% of the country's exports and was more populous than West Pakistan.
  • Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá was a Portuguese exclave (initially around 1 km² in area and reduced to only 2 ha by 1961) within Dahomey/Benin from 1680 until 1961 (de facto annexation by Dahomey) or 1975 (Portuguese recognition).
  • France – The island of Mont-Saint-Michel at the mouth of the Couesnon River prior to 1879 was a pene-exclave of Normandy, but only during low tide, when it was connected by a tidal causeway to the neighbouring coast. The raised causeway that was then built was replaced with a light bridge opened in 2014, thus making Mont-Saint-Michel an island again.
  • Germany
  • East Prussia (1919–1939), a German pene-exclave during the Weimar Republic, was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). The territory of East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia, the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania.
  • Hemmeres [de], (1922–1949), surrounded by Belgian territory, was the sixth and southernmost of the Vennbahn enclaves created in 1922; it contained five households.[3] The railway suffered severe damage during World War II and was not rebuilt. It ceased being an enclave when Belgium annexed the entirety in 1949. Hemmeres was reintegrated into West Germany on 28 August 1958, by an agreement with Belgium.
  • Jestetten is a German town in the district of Waldshut in Baden-Württemberg that was inaccessible except by traveling through Switzerland, until a connecting road was constructed.
  • Roetgener Wald [de] was two enclaves from 1949 to 1958. Unlike its present configuration, the German enclave in 1922 was smaller in area because the central portion (between Grenzweg and a boundary with three turning points west of the Schleebach stream) was Belgian territory.[111] Because the road connecting the two outer German portions (Highways 258/399) was German territory until 1949, the German land formed one enclave. The intersecting north–south road from Fringshaus to Konzen (now Highway B258, which has no connection to the Belgian road network[112]) was also part of the oddly shaped enclave. In 1949 Belgium annexed these roads, thus separating the enclave into two enclaves for the next nine years. In 1958 Belgium ceded the center section of territory to West Germany, in addition to returning the adjacent east–west connecting road.[113] This created one larger enclave in its present form. Highway B258 is the only portion of land that, once having been a part of the Roetgener Wald enclave, is now not within the enclave.
  • Belgium had a counter-enclave located near Fringshaus from 6 November 1922 until 23 April 1949, while Germany owned the connecting roads that were part of the Roetgener Wald enclave. These roads met at a traffic island north of Fringshaus, with the 2279 m2 island itself being a part of Belgium. This counter-enclave was extinguished in 1949 when Belgium annexed the German roads that intersected at the traffic island. In 1958, when Belgium returned the east–west road to Germany, this traffic island also became part of the Roetgener Wald enclave.
  • Verenahof was a German exclave within Switzerland until 1967, at which time its border became attached to Germany through a treaty implementing a land swap of a total of just under 1.06 km² in equal shares.[114]
  • West Berlin, upon the division of Berlin after World War II and before the reunification of Germany in 1990, was de facto a West German exclave within East Germany. Twelve small West Berlin land areas, such as Steinstücken, were in turn separated from the main body of West Berlin, some by only a few meters. In addition, there were several small areas of East Berlin that were surrounded by West Berlin. All of Berlin was ruled "de jure" by the four Allied powers; this meant that West Berlin could not send voting members to the German Parliament and that its citizens were exempt from conscription.
West Berlin exclaves:
  • Böttcherberg [de] (N) (1949–1971) to East Germany
  • Böttcherberg (SE) (1949–1971) to East Germany
  • Böttcherberg (SW) (1949–1971) to East Germany
  • Erlengrund [de] (1949–1988) land connection to West Berlin established
  • Falkenhagener Wiese (1949–1971) to East Germany
  • Fichtewiese [de] (1949–1988) land connection to West Berlin established
  • Finkenkrug (1949–1971) inhabited, to East Germany
  • Große Kuhlake (1949–1971) to East Germany
  • Laßzins-Wiesen (1949–1988) to East Germany
  • Nuthewiesen [de] (1949–1971) to East Germany
  • Steinstücken (1949–1971) inhabited, land connection to West Berlin established
  • Wüste Mark [de] (1949–1988) to East Germany
East Berlin exclaves:[115]
  • Eiskeller [de] (E) (1949–1990) dis-enclaved at re-unification
  • Eiskeller (N) (1949–1990) dis-enclaved at re-unification
  • Eiskeller (S) (1949–1990) dis-enclaved at re-unification
  • West-Staakende jure part of Soviet sector but de facto administered by Spandau Borough in the British sector; seized by East Germany in 1951 and made an exclave of East Berlin's Borough of Mitte, which it remained officially until being incorporated in 1961 by the neighboring town of Falkensee in non-Berlin East Germany.
  • Gwadar was an Omani pene-exclave on the Arabian Sea coast of present-day Pakistan from 1784 until 1958.
  • Ifni was a pene-exclave of Spain on the Atlantic coast of Morocco from 1859 to 1969.
  • within India
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli were enclaves inland from the Arabian Sea coast covering an area of 487 km². After invasion by pro-Indian Union forces in 1954, they achieved de facto independence from Portugal. They and three Portuguese pene-exclaves, the city of Goa and the two small coastal exclaves of Daman and Diu, were the last remnants of Portuguese India, which existed from 1505 until military conquest by India on 19 December 1961. (A 1956 map also shows a counter-enclave within Nagar Haveli belonging to Bombay, approximately corresponding to the village of Maghval – this village was not ceded to Portugal because of its inhabitants' caste's sacrosanctity).[116]
  • French India – Pondicherry and the other exclaves of Karaikal, Mahé and Yanaon were absorbed into India de facto in 1954 and de jure in 1962 after the Algerian War. In 1761 the British captured all of them from the French (and also Chandannagar), but the Treaty of Paris (1763) returned them to France. Those possessions passed again to British control before finally being handed over to the French in 1816/1817 under the 1814 Treaty of Paris. Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahé and Yanaon came to be administered as the Union Territory of Puducherry in 1963. All four are now sub-national ex(en)claves within India.
  • Pondicherry, was the site of a trading center set up by the French East India Company in 1674, which eventually became the chief French settlement in India, after passing several times between Dutch, British and French control. It comprised 12 non-contiguous parts: three pene-exclaves on the Bay of Bengal and nine nearby true enclaves. Inside the main Pondicherry exclave was a small counter-enclave belonging to India straddling the Chunnambar River.
  • Mahé (or Mayyazhi), a small (9 km²) town, was a pene-exclave on the Malabar Coast of the Arabian Sea from 1721. Mahé was composed of three non-contiguous parts, including Mahé town and two true enclaves: Cherukallayi and one consisting of Palloor, Chalakkara and Pandakkal.
  • Yanaon (or Yanam), a 30 km² pene-exclave in the delta of Godavari River, nine kilometers from the Coromandel Coast and Bay of Bengal. It was a Dutch colony before France overtook it in 1723 and made it a French colony.
  • Karaikal was a small coastal pene-exclave on the Bay of Bengal acquired by France in 1739 from the regime of Raja Pratap Singh of Tanjore. By 1760 it included 81 villages around Karaikal town.
  • Chandannagar was a small true enclave established as a French colony in 1673, located on the right bank of the Hooghly River 30 kilometers north of Kolkata. Bengal was then a province of the Mughal Empire. The British returned the city to France in 1816, along with a 7.8 km² nearby enclave. In May 1950, with French approval, India assumed de facto control, with the de jure transfer in June 1952. In 1955 it was integrated into West Bengal state.
  • Trincomalee was in present-day Sri Lanka (then a part of India) located on the Indian Ocean east coast of the island. By September 1782 it was occupied by the French after the Battle of Trincomalee with the British, only to be ceded back to the British in 1783.
Italy in 1789 before the French Revolutionary Wars
  • Italy/Switzerland – In Italy in 1789 before the French Revolutionary Wars, the following states possessed or were true enclaves:
  • Colón, an exclave of Panama from 1903 to July 27, 1939, was surrounded by the U.S. Panama Canal Zone, until a treaty provision connected it to the main part of Panama via a corridor.[3]
  • Panama City and the tip of Paitilla Point from 1903 to February 11, 1915, were pene-enclaves surrounded by the U.S. Panama Canal Zone and the Pacific Ocean. Maps of the Canal Zone dated before 1923 clearly show these borders.[117][118][119][120] Maps dated 1924 and later show a changed border that re-connected Panama City with eastern Panama.[121]
  • When Madden Road was ceded to the U.S. by treaty on July 27, 1939, a Vennbahn-type Panamanian enclave was created that was bounded by Madden Road, the main Canal Zone boundary, and a contour line above Rio Chagres and Rio Chilibre. Another treaty that took effect on April 11, 1955, de-enclaved it.
  • Panama had a water enclave in Limon Bay from 1979 to December 31, 1999. It also had jurisdiction over one building within the U.S. Summit Naval Station from October 1991 until the transfer of the station to Panama on December 31, 1999.[122]
  • Pogiriai (Pogiry) was a Lithuanian exclave of 1.7 km² that was ceded to Belarus in 1996.
  • The southern section of the Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah was a national-level exclave surrounded by other emirates of the UAE and Oman for three months after UAE independence in 1971 until it joined the UAE in 1972.
  • Between 1991 and 2003, Russia had three tiny pene-exclaves on tips of the lakeshore that bordered the Lithuanian side of Lake Vištytis. Before a new border treaty went into force on 12 August 2003, the border ran along most of the waterline of the beaches on the Lithuanian side, so anyone paddling in the water was technically crossing into Russia.
  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon, a French territorial collectivity, was completely surrounded by the territorial waters of Canada from 1763 until 1992, when an EEZ corridor 10.5 NM (19.4 km) wide was created, stretching 200 NM (370 km) south to open sea.
  • Schirgiswalde – In accordance with terms of the 1635 Peace Treaty of Prague, Austria transferred land (Ober- and Niederlausitz) to Saxony. However, because of religious affiliation with Austria, Schirgiswalde and five other towns (Güntersdorf, Gerlachsheim, Winkel, Taubentränke and Neuleutersdorf) within the transferred land remained with Austria, becoming Austrian enclaves within Saxony. 174 years later, to address problems as states began to consolidate, the 1809 Peace Treaty of Vienna mandated the transfer of these six enclaves from Austria to Saxony. However, the transfer did not occur until 1845 because of the need to correct mistakes in the names of the villages stated in the treaty and subsequent neglect. During that time, Schirgiswalde was de facto independent until economic reasons compelled the final transfer of the enclaves, thus extinguishing them.[3]
  • Sikkim – Dopta and Chumbi were exclaves of Sikkim within Tibet until China occupied them in 1958.
  • Sweden – The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 granted certain possessions of the Holy Roman Empire to the Swedish Empire (extant 1611–1721) to be held as fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire:
  • Bremen-Verdenstates of the Holy Roman Empire bordering the North Sea; in "personal union with Sweden" until 1712, when they fell under Danish occupation in wartime.
  • Swedish Pomerania – a state on the Baltic coast in present-day Germany and Poland; a small part was ceded to Prussia following war in 1720 and the entirety in 1815 during the Congress of Vienna.
  • town of Wismar – town in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea; transferred to Germany in 1903 when Sweden renounced its claim.
Map of the heavily partitioned black homelands in South Africa at the end of apartheid in 1994
  • The tomb of Suleyman Shah (b. ca. 1178–d. 1236) was located in or near Qal'at Ja'bar in modern-day Syria; in accordance with the 1921 Treaty of Ankara, the tomb "shall remain, with its appurtenances, the property of Turkey, who may appoint guardians for it and may hoist the Turkish flag there." The treaty is silent regarding sovereignty of the 6.3 hectares of land where the tomb rests. The tomb was relocated in 1973 prior to the creation of Lake Assad.
  • Ada Kaleh – Prior to the creation of modern Turkey, the Ottoman Empire held a small island in the Danube River surrounded by the waters of Romania, from at least the Berlin Treaty of 1878 until 1923 when, under the Treaty of Lausanne, Romania obtained sovereignty over it. It was submerged in 1970 by the construction of a hydroelectric plant, displacing up to 1000 residents.
  • Following the establishment of the Irish Free State, three deep water Treaty Ports at Berehaven, Queenstown (modern Cobh) and Lough Swilly were retained by the United Kingdom in accordance with the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 6 December 1921.[123] As part of the settlement of the Anglo-Irish Trade War in the 1930s, the ports were transferred to Ireland (the Free State's successor) in 1938 following agreements reached between the British and Irish Governments.
  • In 1625, King Charles I instituted the Order of the Baronets of Nova Scotia in an effort to colonize New Scotland, by offering the hereditary title, land ownership and power over new baronetcies in exchange for financing and materially supporting new settlements. Under Scots Law, Baronets "took seisin" by receiving symbolic "earth and stone" on the actual land, which was the feudal legal form of taking possession. However, to avoid a trans-Atlantic trip (and thus encourage applicants), the royal charter stated that "the realm of Nova Scotia, and original infeftment thereof, is holden of the kingdom of Scotland, and forms part of the County of Edinburgh." By royal decree, land in the courtyard at Edinburgh Castle was declared to be an integral part of Nova Scotia; thus, seisin at the castle was equivalent to seisin on the lands themselves.[124][125][126][127][128][129][130][131][132][133] The ceremony of seisin was performed in the following years for 64 of the original Baronets. This decree has never been annulled, which fuels a belief that this enclave still exists as a tiny enclave of Canada within the grounds of the famous Scottish castle.
  • Horseshoe Reef (1850–1908) in Lake Erie consisted of underwater ledges of sunken rock near Buffalo, New York. Great Britain ceded a fraction of an acre of underwater land that was entirely surrounded by Canadian waters to the United States to construct a lighthouse.[134] A 1908 treaty mandated a new survey in order to shift the boundary to include the reef in U.S. waters.
  • The Captain Cook Monument at Kealakekua Bay and about 25 square feet (2.3 m2) of land around it in Hawaii, United States, the place where James Cook was killed in 1779, is owned by the United Kingdom.[135][136][137][138] An historian on the occasion of the 50th anniversary recorded in 1928 that the white stone "obelisk monument [was] erected to the memory of Captain Cook, about 1876, and on land deeded outright to the British Government by Princess Likelike, sister of King Kalakaua, about the same year, so that that square is absolute British Territory."[139] Hawaii was a sovereign nation at the time. According to a recent writer, "The land under the monument was deeded to the United Kingdom in 1877 and is considered as sovereign non-embassy land owned by the British Embassy in Washington DC. ... the Hawaiian State Parks agency maintained that as sovereign British territory it was the responsibility of the UK to maintain the site."[140]
  • Lake of the Woods – the American border with present-day Canada as defined under the 1783 Treaty of Paris and the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 inadvertently created two small maritime exclaves of the U.S. in Angle Inlet. The border depended on determining the northwesternmost point of the Lake of the Woods. Johann Tiarks' survey in 1825 placed its location at the edge of a pond on the Angle Inlet.[141] (A 1940 academic study documented the location of Tiarks' point, which is in the immediate vicinity of 49°23′51.324″N 95°9′12.20783″W (NAD83).[134]) In accordance with the 1818 treaty, the border ran south from this point to the 49th parallel. However, this line was "intersected at five points by the winding course of the boundary in the channel of the Northwest Angle Inlet; thus there were anomalously left two small areas of waters totaling two and a half acres belonging to the United States, yet entirely surrounded by Canadian waters."[134] They were centered at 49°23′10.7514″N 95°09′10.8″W and 49°23′17.5914″N 95°09′11.6994″W. By treaty in 1925, the southernmost of these five intersecting points, 4785 ft. farther south than Tiarks' point, was adopted instead, which eliminated these exclaves.[134]
  • Panama Canal Zone, surrounded by Panama, the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, was an American pene-exclave from 1903 to 1 October 1979, when the entity was extinguished by treaty with Panama. After that date, the former Canal Zone land remaining under U.S. sovereignty, greatly reduced in area, was a pene-exclave until 31 December 1999, when total transfer to Panama was complete.
  • At El Cerro de Doscientos Pies ("200-Foot Hill"), 3.19 hectares of land in Panama near Las Minas Bay were annexed by the U.S. on 24 September 1928 and added to the Canal Zone.[142][143] This true enclave apparently existed until 1 October 1979.
  • On 1 October 1979, the day the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 took effect, most of the land within the former Canal Zone transferred to Panama. However, the treaty set aside many Canal Zone areas and facilities for transfer during the following 20 years. The treaty specifically categorized areas and facilities by name as "Military Areas of Coordination", "Defense Sites" and "Areas Subject to Separate Bilateral Agreement". These were to be transferred by the U.S. to Panama during certain time windows or simply by the end of the 243-month treaty period. On 1 October 1979, among the many such parcels so designated in the treaty, 35 emerged as true enclaves (surrounded entirely by land solely under Panamanian jurisdiction). In later years as other areas were turned over to Panama, nine more true enclaves emerged. Of these 44 true enclaves, 14 were related to military logistics, 7 were military communications sites, 5 Federal Aviation Administration facilities,[144] 5 military housing enclaves, 3 military base areas, 2 military research facilities, 2 parts of a bombing range, 4 secondary school parcels, 1 elementary school, and 1 hospital. At least 13 other parcels each were enclosed partly by land under the absolute jurisdiction of Panama and partly by an "Area of Civil Coordination" (housing), which under the treaty was subject to elements of both U.S. and Panamanian public law. In addition, the 1977 treaty designated numerous areas and individual facilities as "Canal Operating Areas" for joint U.S.-Panama ongoing operations by a commission. On the effective date of the treaty, many of these Canal Operating Areas, including Madden Dam, became newly surrounded by the territory of Panama. Just after noon local time on 31 December 1999, all former Canal Zone parcels of all types had come under the exclusive jurisdiction of Panama.[122][145][146][147][148][149]
  • The Val d'Aran is a valley in the Pyrenees mountains and a comarca in northwestern Catalonia, northern Spain. Most of it comprises the only part of Catalonia that is on the northern side of the Pyrenees. The Val d'Aran had been without direct access to the south side of the mountains, until the Vielha tunnel was opened in 1948.
  • Venda was a bantustan or "black homeland" that was granted nominal independence by apartheid South Africa from 1979 until being re-absorbed in April 1994, but it remained unrecognized internationally. It was an enclave that was not an exclave, bordering only South Africa and separated narrowly from Zimbabwe by the Madimbo corridor to the north. Venda itself also had a small exclave that was a true enclave in South Africa.
  • Walvis Bay was a South African pene-exclave bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and Namibia, before being incorporated with Namibia in 1994, four years after that country's independence.
  • Zadar (Zara) was a 104 km² pene-exclave of Italy, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia, from 1920 to 1944 (de facto due to abandonment by the Italian civilian administration) or 1947 (de jure under treaty).
  • Various other historical foreign concessions
  • Innumerable medieval enclaves within Europe

Subnational historic enclaves/exclaves

  • The former municipality of Hinterhermsdorf [de] in Saxony was an exclave of the town of Sebnitz, being separated from it by the municipality of Kirnitzschtal, until Kirnitzschtal also became a part of Sebnitz.
  • Königsberg, located in the Lower Franconia region of present-day Bavaria, Germany, was an enclave within Bavaria, along with two small nearby enclaves, belonging to the Ernestine Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (which after 1825 also had five exclaves in Thuringia). In 1918 the post-monarchy duchy was split into two states, making Königsberg an exclave of the Free State of Saxe-Coburg. In 1920, the residents of that state voted to merge with the Free State of Bavaria, thus eliminating the three Bavarian enclaves.
  • Schmalkalden/Suhl – Just after World War I, this Prussian enclave within Thuringia was divided between the two Prussian provinces of Saxony and Hesse-Nassau (thus it was a composite enclave). The two entities of Schmalkalden and Suhl separately were exclaves of their respective Prussian provinces.[2]
  • Innumerable medieval enclaves
  • In Norway, three farmsteads, Øvre Jøsås, Store Jøsås and Lille Jøsås, that belonged to Sør-Trøndelag county (Malvik) comprised two separate enclaves that were surrounded by Nord-Trøndelag county (Stjørdal).[150] The eastern enclave at 63°20′52″N 10°52′37″E consisted of Øvre Jøsås and Store Jøsås, while Lille Jøsås was the western enclave at 63°20′48″N 10°51′44″E. The closest distance between the two enclaves was only about 8 meters. Sør-Trøndelag and Nord-Trøndelag merged into a single county on 1 January 2017, thus eliminating the Jøsås enclaves.
  • In Portugal until 2013, two civil parishes comprised the city of Estremoz. The parish of Santa Maria (the new town and its rural environs) surrounded an enclave, the walled old town of the parish of Santo Andre. The citadel inside Santo Andre was also a counter-enclave that belonged to Santa Maria.[151] The two parishes were united to form a new parish called Union of the Parishes of Estremoz (Santa Maria and Santo André), thus ending the only counter-enclave in Portugal.
  • In Russia
    • Sheremetyevo is the location of the primary airport for Moscow. From 1995 to 2011 it was officially an enclave of the city of Moscow, but there was ambiguity regarding its association with Moscow Oblast. In 2011, the enclave was returned to Moscow Oblast, thus extinguishing it.
    • Vnukovo consisted of two enclaves of the city of Moscow to its southwest. On 1 July 2012, "New Moscow" was created by annexing additional land to the city, including the land that surrounded Vnukovo. The two are now exclaves of a Moscow city subdivision, and one is also an enclave.
    • Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was an enclave (not exclave) within Irkutsk Oblast and was merged into it on 1 January 2008.
    • Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug was an enclave (not exclave) within Zabaykalsky Krai and was merged into it on 3 January 2008.
  • In South Africa, the Eastern Cape Province had an exclave that was surrounded by KwaZulu-Natal Province, containing the town of Umzimkulu. KwaZulu-Natal had an exclave, Mount Currie, that was surrounded by the Eastern Cape. Both were extinguished in 2006.
  • Switzerland
  • Turkey
  • Yalova was an exclave of İstanbul until it gained provincial status in 1995.

Temporary enclaves or exclaves

Sometimes land is ceded temporarily to another country as a form of legal fiction.

  • Suite 212 at Claridges Hotel in London was ceded by the United Kingdom to Yugoslavia on 17 June 1945 to allow Crown Prince Alexander, whose parents were in exile, to be born on Yugoslav soil.[152][153][154]
  • To establish jurisdiction, Camp Zeist, a former United States Air Force base in the Netherlands, was, in 2000, temporarily declared sovereign territory of the United Kingdom, in order to allow the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial to take place.
  • In 1943, the maternity ward at the Ottawa Civic Hospital in Canada was temporarily extraterritorial so that Princess Juliana's daughter Princess Margriet would only have Dutch (by parents' nationality) and not dual nationality, because of her potential birth on Canadian soil. Dual nationality would have excluded her from the royal succession.
  • In 1979, at Sender Zehlendorf, East Germany, an area of 300 metres in radius around a radio tower construction site was made an exclave of the Soviet Union. After a Soviet fighter plane had earlier collided with a radio transmission mast at the facility, causing it to collapse, the Soviet Union agreed to rebuild the mast. So that the stricter German safety regulations would not slow the construction progress, the area was declared a Soviet exclave for the duration of the work.[155]

Potential exclaves pending international resolution


  • Hans Island – Two pene-exclaves would be created by a land border between Canada and Greenland, the latter an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark. Negotiations in 2012 between Canada and Denmark, not yet finalized, call for either a condominium or splitting the sovereignty over the disputed island. If the island were to be split by a boundary, it would create both Canada's and Denmark's second land border.[156]
  • Palanca Marshes – potential Vennbahn-type enclave of Moldova surrounded by Ukraine: Under a 2001 treaty between the two nations, Moldova is to transfer to Ukraine not only the asphalt (as it has already done), but also the real property under 7.7 kilometers of road (a portion of the 300 km road between Odessa and Reni), and to clarify the sovereignty of that land, which under that treaty is to be transferred to Ukraine.[157]

See also


Notes


  1. Whyte, Brendan (2004). "En Territoire Belge et à Quarante Centimètres de la Frontière" An historical and documentary study of the Belgian and Dutch enclaves of Baarle-Hertog and Baarle-Nassau. The University of Melbourne, School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies. ISBN 978-0-7340-3032-0.
  2. Krogh, Jan. "Jan S. Krogh's Geosite: Enclaves and Exclaves". Archived from the original on 2013-03-12. Retrieved 2013-02-21.
  3. Vinokurov, Evgeny (2007). The Theory of Enclaves. Lexington Books, Lanham, MD.
  4. "Treaty between Australia and the Independent State of Papua New Guinea concerning Sovereignty and Maritime Boundaries in the area between the two Countries, including the area known as Torres Strait, and Related Matters". Australian Government Publishing Service. Canberra. 1985. Retrieved 2013-08-20.
  5. "Australian Enclaves off Papua, New Guinea (map)". Association of Canada Lands Surveyors. Archived from the original on 2014-10-17. Retrieved 2013-08-20.
  6. "Complete Files of Geographic Names for Geopolitical Areas from GNS". Toponymic information is based on the Geographic Names Database, containing official standard names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. More information is available at the Maps and Geodata link at http://www.nga.mil. The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency name, initials, and seal are protected by 10 United States Code Section 425. Archived from the original on 2015-03-13. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
  7. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. "GeoNames WMS Viewer". Archived from the original on 2014-05-21. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
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References