List of endangered languages in Europe


An endangered language is a language that is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. A language may be endangered in one area but show signs of revitalisation in another, as with the Irish language.

Levels of language endangerment


The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization defines four levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct":[1]

  • Vulnerable - "most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g., home)"
  • Definitely endangered - "children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home"
  • Severely endangered - "language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves"
  • Critically endangered - "the youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently"
  • Extinct - "there are no speakers left; included in the Atlas if presumably extinct since the 1950s"

The list below includes the findings from the third edition of Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (2010; formerly the Red Book of Endangered Languages), as well as the online edition of that publication, both published by UNESCO.[2]

List of languages


Language Status Notes ISO 639-3
Albania
AromanianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, North Macedonia, Serbia, Kosovorup
JudezmoSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, North Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbia, Turkeylad
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
TorlakianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbiabos, hrv, srp
Armenia
Pontic GreekDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Georgia, Greece, Russia, Turkey, Ukrainepnt
SuretDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkeyaii, cld
Austria
AlemannicVulnerable[3]Also spoken in: France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerlandgsw, swg, wae
BavarianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Switzerlandbar
Burgenland CroatianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Hungary, Slovakiabos, hrv, srp
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Czech Republic, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Azerbaijan
BudukhSeverely endangered[1] bdk
JuhuriDefinitely endangered[1]Caucasus. Also spoken in: Russiajdt
KhinalugSeverely endangered[1] kjj
KryzSeverely endangered[1] kry
LezgianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Russialez
RutulDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Russiarut
TalyshVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Irantly
TatSeverely endangered[1] ttt
TsakhurDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Russiatkr
UdiSeverely endangered[1](Azerbaijan)  udi
Belarus
BelarusianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ukrainebel
PolesianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Poland, Ukraine 
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Belgium
ChampenoisSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Francefra
Limburgian-RipuarianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Germany, Netherlandsksh, lim
LorrainSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Francefra
Moselle FranconianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: France, Germany, Luxembourgltz
PicardSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Francepcd
WalloonDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: France, Luxembourgwln
West FlemishVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: France, Netherlandsvls, zea
Bosnia and Herzegovina
JudezmoSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, North Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbia, Turkeylad
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Bulgaria
AromanianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Greece, North Macedonia, Serbiarup
Crimean TatarSeverely endangered[1](Dobruja). Also spoken in: Romania, Russia, Ukrainecrh, jct
Deli Orman GagauzCritically endangered[1](Deli Orman)  bgx, gag
JudezmoSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, North Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbia, Turkeylad
Maritime GagauzSeverely endangered[1](Maritime). Also spoken in: Romaniabgx, gag
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
TorlakianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Albania, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbiabos, hrv, srp
Croatia
ArbanasiSeverely endangered[1]  
IstriotSeverely endangered[1] ist
Istro-RomanianSeverely endangered[1] ruo
JudezmoSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Greece, North Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbia, Turkeylad
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
VenetianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Italy, Sloveniavec
Vojvodina RusynDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Serbia 
Cyprus
Cypriot ArabicSeverely endangered[1] acy
Czech Republic
BavarianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Switzerlandbar
East FranconianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Germanyvmf
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Denmark
FaroeseVulnerable[1] fao
Low SaxonVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Russiaact, drt, frs, gos, nds, sdz, stl, twd, vel, wep
ScanianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Swedenswe
South JutishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Germanyjut
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Estonia
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Võro-SetoDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Russiaest
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Finland
Inari SaamiSeverely endangered[1]Does not account for Sjavü dialectsmn
KarelianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Russiakrl
North SaamiDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Norway, Russia, Sweden - Disambiguated from Sjavü/Sjavu Dialectssme
OlonetsianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Russiaolo
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Skolt SaamiSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Norway, Russiasms
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
France
AlemannicVulnerable[3]Also spoken in: Austria, Germany,Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerlandgsw, swg, wae
Alpine ProvençalDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Italyoci
AuvergnatSeverely endangered[1] oci
BasqueVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Spaineus
BretonSeverely endangered[1] bre
BurgundianSeverely endangered[1] fra
ChampenoisSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Belgiumfra
CorsicanDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Italycos
Franc-ComtoisSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Switzerlandfra
Franco-ProvençalDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Italy, Switzerlandfrp
GalloSeverely endangered[1] fra
GasconDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Spainoci
LanguedocianSeverely endangered[1] oci
LigurianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Italy, Monacolij
LimousinSeverely endangered[1] oci
LorrainSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Belgiumfra
Moselle FranconianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belgium, Germany, Luxembourgltz
NormanSeverely endangered[1] nrn
PicardSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Belgiumpcd
Poitevin-SaintongeaisSeverely endangered[1] fra
ProvençalSeverely endangered[1] oci
Rhenish FranconianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Germanypfl
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
WalloonDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Belgium, Luxembourgwln
West FlemishVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belgium, Netherlandsvls, zea
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Georgia
AbkhazVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Russia, Turkeyabk
BatsSeverely endangered[1] bbl
Bohtan Neo-AramaicSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Russiabhn
HomshetsmaSeverely endangered[1](Caucasus). Also spoken in: Russiahye
LazDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Turkeylzz
MingrelianDefinitely endangered[1] xmf
OsseteVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Russiaoss
Pontic GreekDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Armenia, Greece, Russia, Turkey, Ukrainepnt
SvanDefinitely endangered[1] sva
UdiSeverely endangered[1](Georgia) .  udi
UrumDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Russia, Ukraineuum
Germany
AlemannicVulnerable[3]Also spoken in: Austria, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerlandgsw, swg, wae
BavarianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Switzerlandbar
East FranconianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Czech Republicvmf
Limburgish–RipuarianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belgium, Netherlandslim
Low SaxonVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Denmark, Netherlands, Poland, Russiaact, drt, frs, gos, nds, sdz, stl, twd, vel, wep
Moselle FranconianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belgium, France, Luxembourgltz
North FrisianSeverely endangered[1] frr
Rhenish FranconianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Francepfl
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
SaterlandicSeverely endangered[1] stq
SorbianDefinitely endangered[1] dsb, hsb
South JutishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Denmarkjut
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Greece
AromanianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbiarup
ArvanitikaSeverely endangered[1] aat
Cappadocian GreekCritically endangered[1] cpg
Corfiot ItalkianCritically endangered[1]  
Gagauz (South Balkans)Severely endangered[1](South Balkans) . Also spoken in: North Macedonia, Turkeybgx, gag
JudezmoSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, North Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbia, Turkeylad
Megleno-RomanianSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: North Macedoniaruq
Pontic GreekDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Armenia, Georgia, Russia, Turkey, Ukrainepnt
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
TsakonianCritically endangered[1] tsd
Hungary
BavarianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Switzerlandbar
Burgenland CroatianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Slovakiabos, hrv, srp
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
RusynVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukrainerue
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Ireland
IrishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: United Kingdomgle
SheltaCritically endangered[4]sth
Italy
AlemannicVulnerable[3]Also spoken in: Austria, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Switzerlandgsw, swg, wae
Algherese (Catalan)Definitely endangered[1] cat
Alpine ProvençalDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Franceoci
ArbëreshDefinitely endangered[1] aae
BavarianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Switzerlandbar
CimbrianDefinitely endangered[1] cim
CorsicanDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Francecos
EmilianDefinitely endangered[1] egl
FaetarDefinitely endangered[1]An outlying dialect of Francoprovençalfrp
Franco-ProvençalDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: France, Switzerlandfrp
FriulanDefinitely endangered[1] fur
Gallo-Italic of SicilyDefinitely endangered[1] lmo
GallureseDefinitely endangered[1]An outlying dialect of Corsican, yet listed as being part of Sardinian by UNESCOsdn
GardiolSeverely endangered[1]An outlying dialect of Alpine Provençal 
GrikoSeverely endangered[1]An outlying dialect of Greek spoken in Calabria and Salentoell
LadinDefinitely endangered[1] lld
LigurianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: France, Monacolij
LombardDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Switzerlandlmo
MòchenoDefinitely endangered[1]An outlying dialect of Bavarianmhn
Molise CroatianSeverely endangered[1] svm
PiedmonteseDefinitely endangered[1] pms
ResianDefinitely endangered[1]An outlying dialect of Sloveneslv
RomagnolDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: San Marinorgn
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
SardinianDefinitely endangered[1] src, sro
SassareseDefinitely endangered[1]An outlying dialect of Corsican, yet listed as being part of Sardinian by UNESCOsdc
SicilianVulnerable[1] scn
South ItalianVulnerable[1] nap
Swabian GermanSeverely endangered[1] swg
Swiss GermanSeverely endangered[1] gsw
TöitschuSeverely endangered[1]An outlying dialect of Alemannicgsw, swg, wae
VenetianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Croatia, Sloveniavec
WalserSeverely endangered[1] wae
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Kazakhstan
DunganDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Kyrgyzstandng
Latvia
BelarusianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ukrainebel
LatgalianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Russialav
LivonianCritically endangered[1] liv
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Liechtenstein
AlemannicVulnerable[3]Also spoken in: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerlandgsw, swg, wae
Lithuania
BelarusianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belarus, Latvia, Poland, Russia, Ukrainebel
KaraimSeverely endangered[1](Lithuania).  kdr
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Luxembourg
Moselle FranconianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belgium, France, Germanyltz
WalloonDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Belgium, Francewln
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Moldova
Gagauz (Bessarabia)Critically endangered[1]Also spoken in: Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Ukrainebgx, gag
Monaco
LigurianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: France, Italylij
Montenegro
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Netherlands
LimburgishVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belgium, Germanylim
Low SaxonVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russiaact, drt, frs, gos, nds, sdz, stl, twd, vel, wep
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
West FlemishVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belgium, Francevls, zea
West FrisianVulnerable[1] fry
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
North Macedonia
AromanianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Serbiarup
Megleno-RomanianSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Greeceruq
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Norway
Lule SaamiSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Swedensmj
North SaamiDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Finland, Russia, Swedensme
Pite SaamiCritically endangered[1]Also spoken in: Swedensje
Skolt SaamiSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Finland, Russiasms
South SaamiSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Swedensma
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Poland
BelarusianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Ukrainebel
KashubianSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Canadacsb
Low SaxonVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Russiaact, drt, frs, gos, nds, sdz, stl, twd, vel, wep
PolesianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belarus, Ukraine 
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
RusynVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Ukrainerue
VilamovianSeverely endangered[1] wym
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Portugal
Asturian-LeoneseDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Spainast, ext, mwl
Romania
Banat BulgarianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Serbiabul
Crimean TatarSeverely endangered[1](Dobruja) . Also spoken in: Bulgaria, Russia, Ukrainecrh, jct
CsángóSeverely endangered.[1] hun
Gagauz (Bessarabia)Severely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Bulgaria, Moldova, Russia, Ukrainebgx, gag
JudezmoSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, North Macedonia, Morocco, Turkey, Serbialad
NogaySeverely endangered[1](Dobruja) .  nog
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
RusynVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Ukrainerue
TorlakianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbiabos, hrv, srp
Transylvanian SaxonSeverely endangered[1]  
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Russia
San Marino
Emilian-RomagnolDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Italyeml
Serbia
AromanianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, North Macedoniarup
Banat BulgarianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Romaniabul
JudezmoSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, North Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Turkeylad
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
TorlakianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Romaniabos, hrv, srp
Vojvodina RusynDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Croatia 
Slovakia
Burgenland CroatianDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Hungarybos, hrv, srp
Eastern SlovakVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Ukraineslk
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
RusynVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Hungary, Poland, Romania, Ukrainerue
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Slovenia
GottscheerishCritically endangered[1]  
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
VenetianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Croatia, Italyvec
Spain
AragoneseDefinitely endangered[1] arg
Asturian-LeoneseDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Portugalast, ext, mwl
BasqueVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Franceeus
GasconDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Franceoci
Sweden
DalecarlianDefinitely endangered[1] swe
Modern GutnishDefinitely endangered[1] swe
Lule SaamiSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Norwaysmj
North SaamiDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Finland, Norway, Russiasme
Pite SaamiCritically endangered[1]Also spoken in: Norwaysje
ScanianVulnerable[1]swe
South SaamiSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Norwaysma
Ume SaamiCritically endangered[1] sju
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Switzerland
AlemannicVulnerable[3]Also spoken in: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtensteingsw, swg, wae
BavarianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italybar
Franc-ComtoisSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Francefra
Franco-ProvençalDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: France, Italyfrp
LombardDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Italylmo
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
RomanshDefinitely endangered[1] roh
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdomydd
Turkey
AbazaDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Russiaabq
AbkhazVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Georgia, Russiaabk
AdygheDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Iraq, Israel, Jordan, North Macedonia, Russia, Syriaady
Gagauz (South Balkans)Severely endangered[1](South Balkans) Also spoken in: Greece, North Macedoniabgx
HomshetsmaDefinitely endangered[1] hye
JudezmoSeverely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, North Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbialad
Kabard-CherkesVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Russiakbd
LazDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Georgialzz
Pontic GreekDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Armenia, Georgia, Greece, Russia, Ukrainepnt
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
SuretDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Syriaaii, cld
Western ArmenianDefinitely endangered[1] hye
ZazakiVulnerable[1] zza
Ukraine
BelarusianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russiabel
Crimean TatarSeverely endangered[1](Crimea). Also spoken in Bulgaria, Romania, Russiacrh, jct
Crimean TurkishSeverely endangered[1]  
Eastern SlovakVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Slovakiaslk
GagauzDefinitely endangered[1](Bessarabia). Also spoken in: Moldovabgx, gag
KaraimCritically endangered[1](Western Ukraine)  kdr
Mariupolitan GreekSeverely endangered[1] ell
NogaySeverely endangered[1](Crimea)  nog
PlautdietschDefinitely endangered[1] pdt
PolesianVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Belarus, Poland 
Pontic GreekDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Armenia, Georgia, Greece, Russia, Turkeypnt
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdomrmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
RusynVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakiarue
UrumDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Georgia, Russiauum
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdomydd
United Kingdom and Crown dependencies
CornishCritically endangered[1] cor
Guernsey FrenchSeverely endangered[1] (Guernsey)fra
IrishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Irelandgle
Jersey FrenchSeverely endangered[1] (Jersey)fra
ManxCritically endangered[1] (Isle of Man)glv
RomaniDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukrainermc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
ScotsVulnerable[1] sco
Scottish GaelicDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Canadagla
WelshVulnerable[1]Also spoken in: Patagoniacym
YiddishDefinitely endangered[1]Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraineydd

See also


References


  1. Moseley, Christopher, ed. (2010). Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. Memory of Peoples (3rd ed.). Paris: UNESCO Publishing. ISBN 978-92-3-104096-2. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  2. For the online atlas version see here
  3. "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger - Interactive Map." (Alemannic was added to the list as "Vulnerable" in July, 2017)
  4. https://alphaomegatranslations.com/foreign-language/three-unique-languages-of-ireland/