List of heads of government of Russia


Approximately 99 people have been head of the Russian government since its establishment in 1726. The chairman of government was a member of the Supreme Privy Council, which was created on 8 (19) February 1726 by Empress Catherine, and from 8 (20) September 1802 ministerial duties were allocated by the Committee of Ministers, which was established on in accordance with the proclamation of Emperor Alexander II. Beginning with Count Aleksandr Romanovich Vorontsov, the eldest of the officers was de facto chairman of the committee. Eight years after the inauguration of the manifest, the first de jure office holder was Count Nikolay Rumyantsev.[1] The Council of Ministers was unofficially formed in October 1857, as a result of Emperor Alexander II's reforms; its first session began on 19 (31) December 1857. Before the actual formation of that body on 12 (24) November 1861, the Emperor himself was in charge. The Council of Ministers consisted of chairmen of the State Council and the Committee of Ministers, as well as high-ranking officers appointed by the Emperor. The first session ended on 11 (23) December 1882, after the number of files to the Council greatly decreased.[2][3]

Mikhail Mishustin, the incumbent Prime Minister

The Committee of Ministers functioned simultaneously with the second session of the Council of Ministers for six more months; Count Sergei Witte participated on both entities until the abolition of the committee on 23 April (5 May) 1906. Following that event, the duties of the committee were left to the Council of Ministers, until the formation of the Small Council in 1909, which also included deputy ministers. By the order of Emperor Nicholas II, the second session of the Council of Ministers began on 19 October (1 November) 1905, following the formation of the State Duma. Shortly after the February Revolution and the inception of the Russian Provisional Government on 2 (15) March 1917, Georgy Lvov from the Constitutional Democratic Party and Alexander Kerensky from the Socialist Revolutionary Party became joint Minister-Chairmen. The provisional Russian Republic was eventually replaced by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) and the governmental body by the Council of People's Commissars, which was chaired from 1917–24 by Vladimir Lenin. That body was renamed Council of Ministers following a decree of the Supreme Council on 23 March 1946.

After the fall of the Soviet Union, Boris Yeltsin, as the President of the Russian Federation, was automatically appointed as the Head of Government of the Russian Federation in the first two years of his mandate. The latter body took the previous name "Council of Ministers", the chairman of which became Viktor Chernomyrdin, replacing acting chairman Yegor Gaidar. According to the new constitution ratified on 25 December 1993, those two entities were separated. Since then, the head of that office takes the formal title "Chairmen of the Government" or colloquially "Prime Minister" (the only actual prime minister was Valentin Pavlov). Chernomyrdin resumed chairing the government, followed up by non-partisans and acting office holders. On 8 May 2008, Vladimir Putin took the office for a second term, now as a member of United Russia. Current Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin took the office on 16 January 2020.

The youngest head of government by his accession to office was Count Karl-Fridrikh Golshteyn-Gottorpsky, at age 26, and the oldest Count Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy, at age 81.

Russian Empire (1721–1917)


Early collegial institutions without a single leader

Since the 18th century, a modern system of public administration was going to be created in Russia, including the formation of bodies such as the Supreme Privy Council and the Committee of Ministers whose powers are similar to the powers of the modern Russian Government. In the period from 1726 to 1905 there was no official title for the leader of the government. The chief ministers (principal ministres) of certain Emperor of All Russia nonetheless led the government de facto, but de jure the head of government was a monarch.[4]

Portrait Name
(birth–death)
Term of office Emperor
Members of the Supreme Privy Council of the Russian Empire (1726–1730)
Count and Prince Alexander Danilovich Menshikov
(1673–1729)
8 February
1726
8 September
1727
Catherine I

(1725–1727)
Peter II

(1727–1730)
Anna

(1730–1740)
Count Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin
(1661–1728)
8 February
1726
10 November
1728
Count Gavriil Ivanovich Golovkin
(1660–1734)
8 February
1726
6 May
1727
Count Andrey Ivanovich Osterman
(1686–1747)
8 February
1726
6 May
1727
Prince Dmitry Mikhaylovich Golitsyn
(1665–1737)
8 February
1726
6 May
1727
Count Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy
(1645–1729)
8 February
1726
6 May
1727
Count Karl Fridrikh Golshteyn-Gottorpsky
(1700–1739)
8 February
1726
(or March 1726)[5]
25 July
1727
Prince Alexey Grigoryevich Dolgorukov
(?–1734)
3 February
1728
4 March
1730
Prince Vasily Lukich Dolgorukov
(1670–1739)
6 April
1729
4 March
1730
Prince Vasily Vladimirovich Dolgorukov
(1667–1746)
19 January
1730
4 March
1730
Prince Mikhail Mikhailovich Golitsyn
(1675–1730)
19 January
1730
4 March
1730
Cabinet ministers of the Russian Empire (1731–1741)
Count Gavriil Ivanovich Golovkin
(1660–1734)
10 November
1731
20 January
1734
Anna

(1730–1740)
Ivan VI

(1740–1741)
Count Andrey Ivanovich Osterman
(1686–1747)
20 January
1734
10 November
1740
Count Khristofor Antonovich Minikh
(1683–1767)
10 November
1740
3 March
1741
Count Andrey Ivanovich Osterman
(1686–1747)
(2nd time)
3 March
1741
25 November
1741
Conferency ministers at the Highest Court of the Russian Empire (1756–1762)
Stepan Fyodorovich Apraksin
(1702–1758)
14 March
1756
1 October
1757
Elizabeth

(1741–1762)
Peter III

(1762)
Count Mikhail Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin
(1688–1760)
14 March
1756
2 October
1757
Prince Mikhail Mikhailovich Golitsyn
(1684–1764)
14 March
1756
17 December
1757
Count Alexey Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin
(1693–1768)
14 March
1756
14 February
1758
Count Alexander Borisovich Buturlin
(1694–1767)
14 March
1756
17 October
1760
Count Peter Ivanovich Shuvalov
(1711–1762)
14 March
1756
4 January
1762
Count Mikhail Illarionovich Vorontsov
(1714–1767)
14 March
1756
20 January
1762
Prince Nikita Yuryevich Trubetskoy
(1699–1767)
14 March
1756
20 January
1762
Count Alexander Ivanovich Shuvalov
(1710–1771)
14 March
1756
20 January
1762
Grand Duke Peter Fyodorovich Romanov
(subsequently Emperor Peter III)
(1728–1762)
14 March
1756
28 January
1762
Prince Yakov Petrovich Shakhovskoy
(1705–1777)
16 September
1760
25 December
1761
Ivan Ivanovich Neplyuev
(1693–1773)
16 September
1760
20 January
1762
Count Roman Illarionovich Vorontsov
(1707–1783)
28 December
1761
20 January
1762
Members of the Imperial Council of the Russian Empire (1762)
Prince Georg Ludwig von Holstein-Gottorp
(1719–1763)
28 January
1762
28 June
1762
Peter III

(1762)
Count Peter August Friedrich von Holstein-Beck
(1696–1775)
28 January
1762
28 June
1762
Count Khristofor Antonovich Minikh
(1683–1767)
28 January
1762
28 June
1762
Prince Nikita Yuryevich Trubetskoy
(1699–1767)
28 January
1762
28 June
1762
Count Mikhail Illarionovich Vorontsov
(1714–1767)
28 January
1762
28 June
1762
Aleksandr Nikitich Vilbua
(1713–1788)
28 January
1762
28 June
1762
Prince Mikhail Nikitich Volkonsky
(1713–1788)
28 January
1762
28 June
1762
Aleksey Petrovich Melgunov
(1722–1788)
28 January
1762
28 June
1762
Heads of Council Affairs at the Highest Court (Highest Council) of the Russian Empire (1768–1801)
Stepan Fyodorovich Strekalov
(1728–1805)
17 November
1768
1776 Catherine II

(1762–1796)
Count Alexander Nikolayevich Samoylov
(1744–1814)
1776 1787
Ivan Andreyevich Weydemeyer
(1752–1820)
1787 18 November
1796
Gavriil Romanovich Derzhavin
(1743–1816)
18 November
1796
22 November
1796
Paul I

(1796–1801)
Ivan Andreyevich Weydemeyer
(1752–1820)
(2nd time)
18 November
1796
26 March
1801

Committee of Ministers (1802–1905)

The Committee of Ministers was established on 20 September 1802 in the course of Alexander I's ministerial reform. All the ministers were independent from each other and were responsible for the activities of their departments individually. The Committee was not responsible either for the activities of individual ministries, or for the coherence of their policies. During the first years of the existence of the Committee, its meetings were chaired by the Emperor, and in his absence - by the ministers alternately, starting with the senior in rank, each for 4 sessions. In 1810, the chairmanship was given to the chancellor and chairman of the State Council Count N.P. Rumyantsev.

Portrait Name
(birth–death)
Term of office Emperor
Chairmen of the Committee of Ministers of the Russian Empire (1802–1905)
Count Nikolay Petrovich Rumyantsev
(1754–1826)
1810 1812 Alexander I

(1801–1825)
Count and Prince Nikolay Ivanovich Saltykov
(1736–1816)
29 March
1812[6]
9 September
1812 (disputed)[note 1]
16 May
1816
Count Sergey Kuzmich Vyazmitinov (disputed)[note 2]
(1744–1819)
9 September
1812
15 October
1816
Prince Pyotr Vasilyevich Lopukhin
(1753–1827)
25 May
1816[7]
6 April
1827
Nicholas I

(1825–1855)
Prince Viktor Pavlovich Kochubey
(1768–1834)
29 April
1827[8]
3 June
1834
Count Nikolay Nikolayevich Novosiltsev
(1761–1838)
11 July
1834[9]
8 April
1838
Prince Illarion Vasilyevich Vasilchikov
(1776–1847)
9 April
1838[10]
21 February
1847
Count Vasily Vasilyevich Levashov
(1783–1848)
31 December
1847[11]
23 September
1848
Prince Alexander Ivanovich Chernyshyov
(1785–1857)
1 December
1848[12]
5 April
1856[12]
Alexander II

(1855–1881)
Prince Alexey Fyodorovich Orlov
(1787–1862)
May
1857[13]
January
1861[14]
Count Dmitry Nikolayevich Bludov
(1785–1864)
12 November
1861
19 February
1864
Prince Pavel Pavlovich Gagarin
(1789–1872)
24 February
1864[15]
21 February
1872
Count Pavel Nikolayevich Ignatyev
(1797–1879)
21 February
1872[16]
20 December
1879[16]
Count Pyotr Aleksandrovich Valuyev
(1815–1890)
25 December
1879[17]
4 October
1881[17]
Alexander III

(1881–1894)
Count Mikhail Khristoforovich Reytern
(1820–1890)
4 October
1881[18]
30 December
1886[18]
Nikolay Khristianovich Bunge
(1823–1895)
1 January
1887[19]
3 June
1895[19]
St. Nicholas II

(1894–1917)
Ivan Nikolayevich Durnovo
(1834–1903)
15 October
1895[20]
29 May
1903
Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte
(1849–1915)
16 August
1903[21]
6 November
1905[21]

Prime Minister of the Russian Empire (1905–1917)

The modern government type in Russia came after the establishment of the Council of Ministers on 1 November 1905, created for the "management and union action principal chiefs of departments on subjects like law and senior public administration", and modelled on the relevant institutions within the constitutional states, when all the ministries and directorates have been declared part of the unified state management.[clarification needed] The first Prime Minister was Count Sergei Witte, who was appointed on 6 November 1905.[22]

Portrait Name
(birth–death)
Term of office Political party Legislature
(election)
Emperor
1 Count
Sergei Yulyevich Witte
(1849–1915)
6 November 1905 5 May 1906 Independent None St. Nicholas II

(1894–1917)
2 Ivan Logginovich Goremykin
(1839–1917)
1 5 May 1906 21 July 1906 Independent I
(1906)
3 Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin
(1862–1911)
21 July 1906 18 September 1911
(Died in office)
Independent II
(Jan 1907)
III
(Oct 1907)
4 Count
Vladimir Nikolayevich Kokovtsov
(1853–1943)
22 September 1911 12 February 1914 Independent
IV
(1912)
(2) Ivan Logginovich Goremykin
(1839–1917)
2 12 February 1914 2 February 1916 Independent
5 Baron
Boris Vladimirovich Stürmer
(1848–1917)
2 February 1916 23 November 1916 Independent
6 Alexander Fyodorovich Trepov
(1862–1928)
23 November 1916 20 January 1917 Independent
7 Prince
Nikolai Dmitriyevich Golitsyn
(1850–1925)
20 January 1917 12 March 1917 Independent

Provisional Government/Russian Republic (1917)


After the alleged abdication of Nicholas II from the throne in favor of his brother Michael, Michael also abdicated, before the convening of the Constituent Assembly. On 14 September 1917, the Russian Republic was proclaimed. At this period, a provisional government was formed and the Prime Minister was the head of state.

Portrait Name
(birth–death)
Term of office Political party Head of state
8 Prince
Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov
(1861–1925)
15 March 1917 21 July 1917 Constitutional Democratic Party Georgy Lvov

(1917)
9 Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky
(1881–1970)
1 21 July 1917 14 September 1917 Socialist Revolutionary Party Alexander Kerensky

(1917)
2 14 September 1917 7 November 1917

Russian State (1918–1920)


The heads of government of the Russian State during the Civil War were de facto Prime Ministers in exile.

Portrait Name
(birth–death)
Term of office Political party Head of state
Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodsky
(1863–1925)
18 November 1918 22 November 1919 Socialist Revolutionary Party Nikolai Avksentiev

(1918)
Alexander Kolchak

(1918 — 1920)
Viktor Nikolayevich Pepelyayev
(1885-1920)
22 November 1919 4 January 1920 Constitutional Democratic Party

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1917–1991)


The Russian SFSR maintained the title of Prime Minister as head of government.

Portrait Name
(birth–death)
Term of office Political party Legislature
(election)
Head of state
10 Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
(1870–1924)
8 November 1917 21 January 1924
(Died in office)
Communist Party ARCEC Lev Kamenev

(1917)
Yakov Sverdlov

(1917 — 1919)
Mikhail Vladimirsky

(1919)
Mikhail Kalinin

(1919 — 1938)
11 Alexey Ivanovich Rykov
(1881–1938)
2 February 1924 18 May 1929 Communist Party
12 Sergey Ivanovich Syrtsov
(1883–1937)
18 May 1929 3 November 1930 Communist Party
13 Daniil Yegorovich Sulimov
(1890–1937)
3 November 1930 27 July 1937 Communist Party
14 Nikolay Alexandrovich Bulganin
(1895–1975)
1 27 July 1937 1938 Communist Party
2 1938 17 September 1938 I
(1938)
Aleksei Badayev

(1938 — 1944)
15 Vasily Vasilyevich Vakhrushev
(1902–1947)
29 July 1939 2 June 1940 Communist Party
16 Ivan Sergeyevich Khokhlov
(1895–1973)
2 June 1940 5 May 1942 Communist Party
17 Alexey Nikolayevich Kosygin
(1904–1980)
2 May 1943 23 March 1946 Communist Party
Nikolay Shvernik

(1944 — 1946)
18 Mikhail Ivanovich Rodionov
(1907–1950)
1 23 March 1946 1947 Communist Party
2 1947 9 March 1949 II
(1947)
Ivan Vlasov

(1946 — 1950)
19 Boris Nikolayevich Chernousov
(1908–1978)
1 9 March 1949 1951 Communist Party
2 1951 20 October 1952 III
(1951)
Mikhail Tarasov

(1950 — 1959)
20 Alexander Mikhailovich Puzanov
(1906–1998)
1 20 October 1952 1955 Communist Party
2 1955 24 January 1956 IV
(1955)
21 Mikhail Alexeyevich Yasnov
(1906–1991)
24 January 1956 19 December 1957 Communist Party
22 Frol Romanovich Kozlov
(1908–1965)
19 December 1957 31 March 1958 Communist Party
23 Dmitry Stepanovich Polyansky
(1917–2001)
1 31 March 1958 1959 Communist Party
Nikolay Ignatov

(1959)
2 1959 23 November 1962 V
(1959)
Nikolay Organov

(1959 – 1962)
24 Gennady Ivanovich Voronov
(1910–1994)
1 23 November 1962 1963 Communist Party
Nikolay Ignatov

(1962 – 1966)
2 1963 1967 VI
(1963)
Mikhail Yasnov

(1966 – 1985)
3 1967 23 July 1971 VII
(1967)
25 Mikhail Sergeyevich Solomentsev
(1913–2008)
1 28 July 1971 1975 Communist Party VIII
(1971)
2 1975 1980 IX
(1975)
3 1980 24 June 1983 X
(1980)
26 Vitaly Ivanovich Vorotnikov
(1926–2012)
1 24 June 1983 1985 Communist Party
2 1985 3 October 1988 XI
(1985)
Vladimir Orlov

(1985 – 1988)
27 Alexander Vladimirovich Vlasov
(1932–2002)
3 October 1988 15 June 1990 Communist Party Vitaly Vorotnikov

(1988 – 1990)
Boris Yeltsin

(1990 – 1991)
28 Ivan Stepanovich Silayev
(1930–)
1 15 June 1990 11 July 1991 Communist Party XII
(1990)
2 12 July 1991 26 September 1991
P
[note 3]
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin
(1931–2007)
6 November 1991 25 December 1991 Independent

Russian Federation (1991–present)


After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the first head of government of post-Soviet Russia was Boris Yeltsin while the head of state was changed to the title of President of the Russian Federation, also held by Yeltsin.

  Unity
Portrait Name
(birth–death)
Term of office Political party Legislature
(election)
President
P Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin
(1931–2007)
25 December 1991 15 June 1992 Independent XII
(1990)
Boris Yeltsin

(1991–1999)
29 Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin
(1938–2010)
1 14 December 1992 9 August 1996 Our Home – Russia
I
(1993)
II
(1995)
2 10 August 1996 23 March 1998
30 Sergey Vladilenovich Kiriyenko
(1962–)
24 April 1998 23 August 1998 Independent
31 Yevgeny Maximovich Primakov
(1929–2015)
11 September 1998 12 May 1999 Fatherland – All Russia
32 Sergey Vadimovich Stepashin
(1952–)
19 May 1999 9 August 1999 Independent
33 Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
(1952–)
1 16 August 1999 7 May 2000 Unity
III
(1999)
Vladimir Putin

(2000–2008)
[note 4]
34 Mikhail Mikhailovich Kasyanov
(1957–)
17 May 2000 24 February 2004 Independent
IV
(2003)
35 Mikhail Yefimovich Fradkov
(1950–)
1 5 March 2004 7 May 2004 Independent
2 12 May 2004 14 September 2007
36 Viktor Alexeyevich Zubkov
(1941–)
14 September 2007 7 May 2008 United Russia
V
(2007)
(33) Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
(1952–)
2 8 May 2008 7 May 2012 United Russia Dmitry Medvedev

(2008–2012)
VI
(2011)
37 Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev
(1965–)
1 8 May 2012 7 May 2018 United Russia Vladimir Putin

(2012–)
VII
(2016)
2 8 May 2018 15 January 2020
38 Mikhail Vladimirovich Mishustin
(1966–)
16 January 2020 Incumbent Independent

Acting prime ministers


Living former prime ministers


As of June 2021, there are eight living former prime ministers. The most recent death of a former prime minister was that of Yevgeny Primakov (1998–1999) on 26 June 2015, aged 85.

NameTerm of officeBorn
Ivan Silayev 1990–1991 (1930-10-21) 21 October 1930 (age 90)
Sergey Kiriyenko 1998 (1962-07-26) 26 July 1962 (age 58)
Sergei Stepashin 1999 (1952-03-02) 2 March 1952 (age 69)
Vladimir Putin 1999–2000 and 2008–2012 (1952-10-07) 7 October 1952 (age 68)
Mikhail Kasyanov 2000–2004 (1957-12-08) 8 December 1957 (age 63)
Mikhail Fradkov 2004–2007 (1950-09-01) 1 September 1950 (age 70)
Viktor Zubkov 2007–2008 (1941-09-15) 15 September 1941 (age 79)
Dmitry Medvedev 2012–2020 (1965-09-14) 14 September 1965 (age 55)

Timeline


Mikhail MishustinDmitry MedvedevViktor ZubkovMikhail FradkovMikhail KasyanovVladimir PutinSergei StepashinYevgeny PrimakovSergei KiriyenkoViktor ChernomyrdinIvan SilayevAlexander Vlasov (politician)Vitaly VorotnikovMikhail SolomentsevGennady VoronovDmitry PolyanskyFrol KozlovMikhail YasnovAlexander PuzanovBoris ChernousovMikhail Rodionov (politician)Alexey KosyginIvan KhokhlovVasiliy VakhrushevNikolai BulganinDaniil SulimovSergey Syrtsov (politician)Alexei RykovVladimir LeninAlexander KerenskyGeorgy LvovNikolay Dmitriyevich GolitsynAlexander Fyodorovich TrepovBoris StürmerVladimir Nikolayevich KokovtsovPyotr Arkadyevich StolypinIvan Logginovich GoremykinSergei Yulyevich WitteIvan Nikolayevich DurnovoNikolay Khristianovich BungeMichael von ReuternPyotr Aleksandrovich ValuyevPavel Nikolayevich IgnatyevPavel Pavlovich GagarinDmitry Nikolayevich BludovAlexey Fyodorovich OrlovAlexander Ivanovich ChernyshyovVasily Vasilyevich LevashovIllarion Vasilyevich VasilchikovNikolay Nikolayevich NovosiltsevViktor Pavlovich KochubeyPyotr Vasilyevich LopukhinNikolay Ivanovich SaltykovNikolay Petrovich RumyantsevImperial Council of the Russian EmpireConference at the Highest Court of the Russian EmpireCabinet of Ministers of the Russian EmpireSupreme Privy Council

See also


Notes


  1. Sources which list Vyazmitinov as Saltykov's successor state a date of 9 September 1812; other sources assert that Saltykov was in office until his death
  2. Some sources (such as the Large Soviet Encyclopedia) list Vyazmitinov as committee minister, while other (such as the History of the Fatherland encyclopedia) don't mention him at all and instead list Lopukhin as the successor of Saltykov.
  3. Headed the government as President of Russia, was not the Prime Minister.
  4. Putin de facto took this position on 31 December 1999, when he became Acting President after the resignation of Boris Yeltsin. Elected President on 26 March 2000, officially took office on 7 May 2000.

References


Citations

  1. "Комитет министров". Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary: In 86 Volumes (82 Volumes and 4 Additional Volumes). St. Petersburg. 1890–1907.
  2. "Совет министров". Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary: In 86 Volumes (82 Volumes and 4 Additional Volumes). St. Petersburg. 1890–1907.
  3. "Ministers' Council established in Russia". Presidential Library Named After Boris Yeltsin. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  4. 7 царских председателей Совета министров
  5. "Верховный тайный совет". Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary: In 86 Volumes (82 Volumes and 4 Additional Volumes). St. Petersburg. 1890–1907.
  6. Салтыков, князь Николай Иванович [Prince Nikolay Ivanovich Saltykov] (in Russian). Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  7. Неизвестная Фемида : документы, события, люди [The Unknown Themis: Documents, Events, People] (in Russian). ОЛМА Медиа Групп. 2003. p. 93. ISBN 978-5-224-04224-1.
  8. Кочубей, князь Виктор Павлович [Prince Viktor Pavlovich Kochubey] (in Russian). Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  9. B. V. Ananych, ed. (2008). Лики России Управленческая элита Российской империи: история министерств, 1802–1917 [Ruling Elite of the Russian Empire: History of Ministries, 1802–1917] (in Russian).
  10. Васильчиков Илларион Васильевич — Биографический указатель [Illarion Vasilyevich Vasilchikov – Biography] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  11. Vladimir Nikolayevich Balyazin; Voldemar Nikolayevich Balyazin (2008). Царский декамерон: От Николая I до Николая II. Исторические книги В.Н. Балязина (Historical Books by V. N. Balyazin) (in Russian). 2. ОЛМА Медиа Групп. p. 49. ISBN 978-5-373-01976-7.
  12. Александр Иванович Чернышев — Биографический указатель [Aleksandr Ivanovich Chernyshov] (in Russian). Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  13. Землевладельцы Панинского района. Князь Орлов Алексей Фёдорович [Landowners of the Panin Rayon. Prince Alexey Fyodorovich Orlov] (in Russian). Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  14. Орлов князь Алексей Федорович [Prince Aleksey Fyodorovich Orlov] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  15. Павел Павлович Гагарин [Pavel Pavlovich Gagarin] (in Russian). Russian Empire. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  16. Игнатьев Павел Николаевич [Pavel Nikolayevich Ignatyev] (in Russian). Russian Empire. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  17. Валуев Петр Александрович [Pyotr Aleksandrovich Valuyev] (in Russian). Russian Empire. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  18. Рейтерн Михаил Христофорович [Mikhail Khristoforovich Reytern] (in Russian). Russian Empire. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  19. Бунге Николай Христианович [Nikolay Khristianovich Bunge] (in Russian). Russian Empire. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  20. Дурново Иван Николаевич [Ivan Nikolayevich Durnovo] (in Russian). Russian Empire. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  21. "Витте Сергей Юлиевич (sic!)" [Sergey Yuliyevich (sic!) Witte] (in Russian). Russian Empire. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  22. Преобразован Совет министров Российской империи

Sources