List of heads of state of Romania


This is a list of the heads of state of the modern Romanian state, from the establishment of the United Principalities to the present day.

United Principalities (1859–1881)


  Denotes Regent
Domnitor Reign Claim
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
House Reign start Reign end Duration
Alexandru Ioan Cuza
1820–1873
(Lived: 53 years)
Cuza 24 January 1859 22 February 1866
(Abdicated)
7 years, 29 days Previously ruled as Prince of Wallachia and Moldavia
(in a personal union from 1859 until official unification in 1862)
Lascăr Catargiu
1823–1899
(Lived: 75 years)
22 February 1866 20 April 1866 57 days
Princely Lieutenancy [ro]
General
Nicolae Golescu
1810–1877
(Lived: 67 years)
Colonel
Nicolae Haralambie
1835–1908
(Lived: 72 years)
Carol I
1839–1914
(Lived: 75 years)
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 20 April 1866 15 March 1881 14 years, 329 days 1866 Referendum

Kingdom of Romania (1881–1947)


  Denotes Regent
  Denotes Conducător
King Reign Claim
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
House Reign start Reign end Time in office
Carol I
1839–1914
(Lived: 75 years)
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 15 March 1881 10 October 1914 33 years, 209 days Previously ruled as Domnitor
Ferdinand I
1865–1927
(Lived: 61 years)
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 10 October 1914 20 July 1927 12 years, 283 days Nephew of Carol I
Michael I
1921–2017
(Lived: 96 years)
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 20 July 1927 8 June 1930
(Deposed)
2 years, 323 days Grandson of Ferdinand I
Prince Nicholas
1903–1978
(Lived: 74 years)
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 20 July 1927 8 June 1930
(Resigned)
2 years, 323 days
Regency Council
For Michael I
Patriarch
Miron Cristea
1868–1939
(Lived: 70 years)
Gheorghe Buzdugan
1867–1929
(Lived: 62 years)
7 October 1929
(Died)
2 years, 79 days
Constantin Sărățeanu [ro]
1862–1935
(Lived: 72 years)
9 October 1929 8 June 1930
(Resigned)
242 days
Carol II
1893–1953
(Lived: 59 years)
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 8 June 1930 6 September 1940
(Abdicated)
10 years, 90 days Son of Ferdinand I
Michael I
1921–2017
(Lived: 96 years)
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 6 September 1940 30 December 1947
(Abdicated)
7 years, 115 days Son of Carol II
Marshal
Ion Antonescu
1882–1946
(Lived: 63 years)
6 September 1940 23 August 1944
(Deposed)
3 years, 352 days Conducător
With Michael I

Romanian People's Republic/Socialist Republic of Romania (1947–1989)


Status
  Denotes Acting Head of State
Head of State Term of office Political party Position(s)
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Election Took office Left office Time in office
Constantin Ion Parhon
1874–1969
(Lived: 94 years)
1947 30 December 1947 13 April 1948 105 days PMR President of the Provisional Presidium of the Republic
1948 13 April 1948 12 June 1952 4 years, 60 days President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
Petru Groza
1884–1958
(Lived: 73 years)
1952 12 June 1952 7 January 1958
(Died)
5 years, 209 days FP (1952–1953)
Independent (1953–1958)
Mihail Sadoveanu
1880–1961
(Lived: 80 years)
7 January 1958 11 January 1958 4 days PMR Acting Presidents of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
Anton Moisescu
1913–2002
(Lived: 88 years)
PMR
Ion Gheorghe Maurer
1902–2000
(Lived: 97 years)
1958 11 January 1958 21 March 1961 3 years, 69 days PMR President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
1901–1965
(Lived: 63 years)
1961 21 March 1961 19 March 1965
(Died)
3 years, 363 days PMR President of the State Council
Ion Gheorghe Maurer
1902–2000
(Lived: 97 years)
19 March 1965 24 March 1965 5 days PMR Acting Presidents of the State Council
Ștefan Voitec
1900–1984
(Lived: 84 years)
PMR
Avram Bunaciu
1909–1983
(Lived: 73 years)
PMR
Chivu Stoica
1908–1975
(Lived: 68 years)
1965 24 March 1965 9 December 1967
(Resigned)
2 years, 260 days PMR
renamed in 1965 to
PCR
President of the State Council
Nicolae Ceaușescu
1918–1989
(Lived: 71 years)
1967 9 December 1967 22 December 1989
(Deposed)
22 years, 13 days PCR
1974
1980
1985
28 March 1974 15 years, 269 days President of Romania
Conducător of Romania

General Secretary of the Romanian Workers' Party/Romanian Communist Party

General Secretary Term of office Position(s)
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Time in office
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
1901–1965
(Lived: 63 years)
16 October 1945 19 April 1954 8 years, 185 days General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party
February 1948 General Secretary of the Romanian Workers' Party
Gheorghe Apostol
1913–2010
(Lived: 97 years)
19 April 1954 30 September 1955 1 year, 164 days First Secretary of the Romanian Workers' Party
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
1901–1965
(Lived: 63 years)
30 September 1955 19 March 1965
(Died)
9 years, 170 days
Nicolae Ceaușescu
1918–1989
(Lived: 71 years)
22 March 1965 22 December 1989
(Deposed)
24 years, 275 days
24 July 1965 General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party

Romania since 1989


The Constitution of Romania prohibits the President to be a member of any party while in office. The parties listed below represent the political affiliation before the 1991 Constitution was adopted and the party affiliation of the ad interim Presidents, for whom such a restriction is not explicitly stipulated in the law.

Status
  Denotes ad interim President
Head of State Term of office Political party Position(s)
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Election Took office Left office Time in office
Council of the National Salvation Front[1]
Spokesman: Ion Iliescu
22 December 1989 26 December 1989 4 days FSN Collective Head of State
1 Ion Iliescu
Born 1930
(91 years old)
26 December 1989[2] 6 February 1990 42 days FSN President of Council of the National Salvation Front
1990 6 February 1990 20 June 1990 134 days President of the Provisional National Unity Council
1990 20 June 1990 7 April 1992 1 year, 292 days President of Romania
7 April 1992 11 October 1992 187 days FDSN
1992 11 October 1992 29 November 1996 4 years, 49 days PDSR
2 Emil Constantinescu
Born 1939
(81 years old)
1996 29 November 1996 20 December 2000 4 years, 21 days PNȚ-CD
3 Ion Iliescu
Born 1930
(91 years old)
2000 20 December 2000 20 December 2004 4 years PSD
4 Traian Băsescu
Born 1951
(69 years old)
2004 20 December 2004 20 April 2007
(Suspended)
2 years, 121 days PD
5 Nicolae Văcăroiu
Born 1943
(77 years old)
20 April 2007 23 May 2007 33 days PSD ad interim President of Romania
(as President of the Senate)
6 Traian Băsescu
Born 1951
(69 years old)
2009 23 May 2007
(Reinstated)
10 July 2012
(Suspended)
5 years, 48 days PDL President of Romania
7 Crin Antonescu
Born 1959
(61 years old)
10 July 2012 27 August 2012 48 days PNL ad interim President of Romania
(as President of the Senate)
8 Traian Băsescu
Born 1951
(69 years old)
27 August 2012
(Reinstated)
21 December 2014 2 years, 116 days PDL President of Romania
11 Klaus Iohannis
Born 1959
(61 years old)
2014
2019
21 December 2014 Incumbent 6 years, 172 days PNL

Living former heads of state


There are three living former Romanian Presidents:

Timeline


Klaus IohannisCrin AntonescuNicolae VăcăroiuTraian BăsescuIon IliescuEmil ConstantinescuIon IliescuNicolae CeauşescuNicolae CeauşescuChivu StoicaGheorghe Gheorghiu-DejIon Gheorghe MaurerPetru GrozaConstantin Ion ParhonMihai I of RomaniaCarol II of RomaniaMihai I of RomaniaFerdinand I of RomaniaCarol I of RomaniaCarol I of RomaniaAlexandru Ioan Cuza

See also


Footnotes and references


  • Bulei, Ion, O istorie a românilor, Editura Meronia, București, 2007, pg. 266-267