List of predecessors of sovereign states in Europe


This is a list of all present sovereign states in Europe and their predecessors,[1][2][3] according to the concept of succession of states. The political borders of Europe are difficult to define. The geographical borders between Europe and Asia are generally agreed to be the Caucasus Mountains, the Ural Mountains, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles.

Sovereign state Predecessors
Albania Principality of Arbanon (1190–1255)
 Byzantine Empire (1190–1204)
 Despotate of Epirus (1205–1255)

Kingdom of Albania (1272–1368)

Kingdom of Sicily (1258-1368)

 Lordship of Berat (1396–1417)
 Principality of Valona (1346–1417)

 Serbian Empire (1346–1355)

Despotate of Angelokastron and Lepanto (1358–1374)
Despotate of Arta (1359–1416)
Princedom of Albania (1368–1392)
 Principality of Gjirokastër (1386–1418)
Principality of Dukagjini (1387–1444)
Principality of Kastrioti (1389–1444)
 Most Serene Republic of Venice (1420–1797)
League of Lezhë (1444 c.1468)
Ottoman Empire (1479–1912)
Independent Albania (1912–1914)
Principality of Albania (1914–1925)
Albanian Republic (1925–1928)
Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939)
Albanian Kingdom (1939–43) (1939–1943)
Albanian Kingdom (1943–1944)
Democratic Government of Albania (1944–1946)
People's Republic of Albania (1946–1976)
Socialist People's Republic of Albania (1976–1992)
 Republic of Albania (1992–present)

Andorra County of Urgell (843–1133)
 Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell (1133–1208)
County of Foix (1208–1607/1610)
 Principality of Andorra (1278–present)
Armenia Kingdom of Armenia (331 BC- 428)
Roman Armenia (114–118 AD)
Sassanian (Persian) Armenia (252-299; 363-428; 428–646)
 Arminiya - Province (largely autonomous vassal principalities) of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates (654–884)
Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia (884–1045)
 Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget (dependent) (979–1118)
 Kingdom of Syunik (dependent) (987–1170)
Kingdom of Artsakh (dependent) (1000–1261)
 Seljuq Armenia (1071–1124)
 Georgian Armenia (1124–1386): Zakarid Armenia (1201-1360)
Ilkhanate (1260–1335)
Principality of Khachen (1261–1603)
 Turkmen Armenia (1386–1502)
 Iranian Armenia (1502–1828): Safavid dynasty (1502–1736),
Afsharid dynasty (1736–1796),
Qajar dynasty (1789–1828)
 Ottoman Empire (1586–1828)
 Russian Empire (1828–1917)
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (1918)
 Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918–1920)
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (1920–1922)
Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia (1922)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Republic of Armenia (1991–present)
Austria  Margraviate of Austria (976–1156)
Duchy of Austria (1156–1453)
Archduchy of Austria (1453–1804)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
Cisleithania (1867–1918)
Republic of German-Austria (1918–1919)
First Austrian Republic (1919–1934)
Federal State of Austria (1934–1938)
German Reich (1938–1945)
Allied-occupied Austria (1945–1955)
 Republic of Austria (1955–present)
Azerbaijan Achaemenid Empire (549 – 331 BC)
Caucasian Albania (2nd century BC-705)
Shirvanshah (861–1539)
Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)
Aq Qoyunlu (1378–1501)
Safavid Empire (1501–1736)
Russian Empire (1813–1917)
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (1918)
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920)
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (1920–1922)
Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia (1922–1936) (republic of the Soviet Union)
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic[4] (1936–1991) (republic of the Soviet Union)
 Republic of Azerbaijan (1991–present)
Belarus  Russian Empire (1793–1917)
Belarusian People's Republic (1918–1919)
 Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia (1919)
Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (1919)
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (1920–1992)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Republic of Belarus (1991–present)
Belgium Burgundian Netherlands (1384-1482)
Habsburg Netherlands (1482-1794) - Spanish Netherlands (1556–1713) and Austrian Netherlands (1713–1797)
 France (1797–1815)
 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1830)
 Kingdom of Belgium (1830–present)
Bosnia and Herzegovina  Banate of Bosnia (1154–1377)
 Kingdom of Bosnia (1377–1463)
 Ottoman Empire (1463–1878)
Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878–1918)
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992–1995)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992–present)
Bulgaria

 Bulgars (Utigurs, Kutrigurs, Onogurs?) (469 – 632)
Old Great Bulgaria (632–668)
First Bulgarian Empire (681–1018)

 Eastern Roman Empire (1018–1185)

Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1396/1422)

Ottoman Bulgaria (1396/1422–1878)

Principality of Bulgaria (1878–1908) (sovereignty within Ottoman Empire)
 Kingdom of Bulgaria (1908–1946)
People's Republic of Bulgaria (1946–1990)
 Republic of Bulgaria (1990–present)

Croatia Littoral Croatian Duchy (7th century-925)
Kingdom of Croatia (925–1102)
Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) (1102–1804)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (1867–1918)
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1941)
 Independent State of Croatia (1941–1945)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1991)
 Republic of Croatia (1991–present)
Cyprus Kingdom of Cyprus (1192–1489 AD)
 Ottoman Empire (1570–1914)
Crown Colony of Cyprus (1914–1960)
 Republic of Cyprus (1960–present)
Czech Republic  Great Moravia (833–902)
Duchy of Bohemia (c.870–1198)
Kingdom of Bohemia (1198–1804)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
Cisleithania (1867–1918)
Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)
Czechoslovak Republic (1938–1939)
German Reich (1939–1945) - Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939–1945)
Czechoslovak Republic (1945–1960)
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1990)
Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (1990–1992)
 Czech Republic (1993–present)
Denmark  Kingdom of Denmark[5] (c.965–present)
 Anglo-Norse Empire (1016–1035)
Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
Estonia Terra Mariana (1207–1561)
Swedish Empire (1561–1721)
Governorate of Estonia (1721–1918)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1940–1991)
 Republic of Estonia (1918–present, legal succession; de facto 1918–1940 and 1991–present)[6][7]
Finland Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
Sweden (c.1210–1809)
Grand Duchy of Finland (1809–1917)
 Republic of Finland (1917–present)
France  Kingdom of the Franks (481–800)
 Carolingian Empire (800–843)
 West Francia (843–987)
 Kingdom of France (987–1791)
French Kingdom (1791–1792)
French Republic (1792–1804)
French Empire (1804–1814; 1815)
Kingdom of France (1814–1815; 1815–1830)
French Kingdom (1830–1848)
French Republic (1848–1852)
French Empire (1852–1870)
French Republic (1870–1940)
French State (1940–1944)
Free France (1940–1944)
 French Republic[8] (1944–present)
Georgia

Kingdom of Abkhazia (778–1008)
 Caucasian Iberia (c. 301 BC-580)
 Principality of Iberia (580–891)
 Kingdom of Iberia (mostly titular revival) (891–1008)
Roman Empire

Theme of Iberia (1001–1074)

Kingdom of Georgia (1008–1465)

Kingdom of Imereti (1455–1810)
Kingdom of Kartli (1484–1762)
Kingdom of Kakheti (1465–1762)
Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (1762–1801)

 Russian Empire (1801–1917)
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (1918)
Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921)
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (1921–1922) (republic of the Soviet Union)
Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia (1922–1936) (republic of the Soviet Union)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (1936–1990) (republic of the Soviet Union)
Republic of Georgia (1990–1995) (republic of the Soviet Union to 1991)
 Georgia (1995–present)

Germany  Carolingian Empire (800–843)
 East Francia (843–919)
 Kingdom of Germany (919–962)
 Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813) (client states of the French Empire) and Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1871)
German Confederation (1815–1848)
German Reich (1848–1849)
German Confederation (1849–1866)
North German Confederation (1866–1871)
German Reich (1871–1918)
German Reich (1919–1933) and Territory of the Saar Basin (1920–1935) (French League of Nations mandate)
German Reich (1934–1945)
Allied-occupied Germany (1945–1949)
 Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) (1949–1990; 1990–present), West Berlin (1949–1990), Saar Protectorate (1947–1956) (French protectorate) and  German Democratic Republic (East Germany) (1949–1990)
 Federal Republic of Germany (1990–present) (Modern Germany is a continuation of the Federal Republic, it is not a successor state)
Greece  Ancient Greek city states and kingdoms (900–146 BC)

Hellenic League (338-332 BC)

Macedonian Empire (335-323 BC - Macedonian Kingdom existed since 808 BC)

Hellinistic States (323-146 BC)
Roman Republic (146–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–395 AD)
 Byzantine Empire (395–1204, 1261–1453), Despotate of Epirus (1205–1337, 1356–1479 Byzantine Successor), Crusader/Feudal/Latin States: Latin Empire of Constantinople (1204–1261), Duchy of Athens (1205–1458), Principality of Achaea (1205–1432), Genoa (1261–1566), Venice (c. 1200s–1479)
 Ottoman Empire (c.1300s–1822 some modern-day Greek territories were annexed later), Kingdom of Candia (1205–1669), Kingdom of the Morea (1688–1715), Ionian Islands under Venetian rule (1363-1797), French Republic (1797–1799 Ionian Islands), Septinsular Republic (1800–1815)
Hellenic State (1822–1832) (named "Provisional Administration of Greece" from 1822–1828), United States of the Ionian Islands (1815–1864)
 Kingdom of Greece (1832–1924), Cretan State (1896–1913) (autonomous state of the Ottoman Empire), Free State of Icaria (1912)
Hellenic Republic (1924–1935)
 Kingdom of Greece (1935–1941)
Hellenic State (1941–1944) (German and Italian puppet government)
 Kingdom of Greece (1944–1973)
 Hellenic Republic (1973–present)

Hungary  Principality of Hungary (895–1000)
Kingdom of Hungary (1000–1526)
 Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867)
Eastern Hungarian Kingdom (1526–1551, 1556-1570), Principality of Transylvania (1570-1711), Grand Principality of Transylvania (1711-1848, 1849-1867)
 Kingdom of Hungary (1867–1918)
 Hungarian People's Republic (1918–1919)
 Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919)
 Hungarian Republic (1919–1920)
 Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1946)
 Hungarian Republic (1946–1949)
 Hungarian People's Republic (1949–1989)
 Republic of Hungary (1989–2012)
 Hungary (2012–present)
Iceland Icelandic Free State (930–1262)
Kingdom of Norway (1262–1397)
 Kalmar Union (1397–1536)
Denmark–Norway (1536–1814)
 Kingdom of Denmark (1814–1918)
Kingdom of Iceland (1918–1944)
 Iceland (1944–present)
Ireland  Hibernia (300 BC – 100 AD)
 Connachta (357–1439 AD)
 Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1651)
 Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653–1659)
 Kingdom of Ireland (1659–1800)
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922)
 Irish Free State (1922–1937)
 Ireland (1937–present)
Italy Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC)}}
Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Italy) (476-1071):
 Exarchate of Ravenna (584–751):
 Duchy of Rome (536–756)
Kingdom of Italy (476-493) (Vassal state of the Eastern Roman Empire)
 Ostrogothic Kingdom (493–553)
The Italian peninsula divided into many states 568-1861, among them:
 Kingdom of the Lombards (568–774)
Republic of Venice (697–1797)
 Papal States (754–1870)
 Kingdom of the Franks (774–800)
 Carolingian Empire (800–843)
Kingdom of Middle Francia (843-855)
Kingdom of Italy (855–1801)
Republic of Genoa (11th century–1797)
 Kingdom of Sicily (under Habsburg Spain) (1130–1816)
Kingdom of Naples (under Habsburg Spain) (1282–1799, 1799–1816)
 Kingdom of Sardinia (under Habsburg Spain) (1324–1861)
Duchy of Milan (Imperial fief under Habsburg Spain) (1395–1447,

1450–1796)
 Duchy of Savoy (Imperial fief) (1416–1792, 1814–1847)
Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1569–1801, 1814–1859, 1859–1860)
 Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
 Italian Social Republic (Republic of Salò) (1943–1945)
 Italian Republic (1946–present)

Kazakhstan Golden Horde (1240s–1456)
Kazakh Khanate (1456–1847)
 Russian Empire (1735/1860–1919)
Soviet Russia (1919–1922)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Republic of Kazakhstan[4] (1991–present)
Latvia Terra Mariana (1207–1583)
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1583–1611)
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Swedish Empire (1611–1721)
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and  Russian Empire (1721–1772)
 Russian Empire (1772–1918)
Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic (1918–1920)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1940–1991)
 Republic of Latvia (1918–present, legal succession; de facto 1918–1940 and 1991–present)[6][7]
Liechtenstein  Principality of Liechtenstein (1719–present) (within the German Confederation 1815–1866)
Lithuania Grand Duchy of Lithuania (13th century–1569)

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
Russian Tsardom (1795–1812)
French Occupation (1812)
Russian Tsardom (1812–1914)
German Occupation (1914-1918)
Kingdom of Lithuania (1918)
 Republic of Lithuania (1918–1940)
First Soviet Occupation (1940-1941)
Second Soviet Occupation (1944-1990)
 Republic of Lithuania (1918–present, legal succession; de facto 1918–1940 and 1990–present)[6][7]

Luxembourg  Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1890)
 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (1890–present)
Malta[9] Order of Saint John (1530–1798)
French occupation of Malta (1798–1800), La Nazione Gozitana (1798–1801)
British Protectorate of Malta (1800–1813)
Crown Colony of Malta (1813–1964)
State of Malta (1964–1974)
Republic of Malta (1974–present)
Moldova  Moldavia (1359–1812) (vassal of  Ottoman Empire between 1514 and 1812)
 Russian Empire (1812–1918)
 Kingdom of Romania (1918–1945)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1945–1991)
 Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (republic of the Soviet Union 1940–1990)
 Republic of Moldova (1991–present)
Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union 1990–1991)
 Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (1991–present)
Monaco  Republic of Genoa (1215–1297)
 Principality of Monaco (1297–present)
Montenegro Principality of Serbia (768–960/971)
First Bulgarian Empire (680–1018) (924–1018)
 Byzantine Empire (960–1043)
Duklja (1043-1101)
Serbian Grand Principality (1101-1217)
Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
 Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
Principality of Zeta (1371–1402)
Serbian Despotate (1402–1540)
 Ottoman Empire (1540–1852)
 Principality of Montenegro (1852–1910) (within Ottoman Empire until 1878)
 Kingdom of Montenegro (1910–1918)
 Kingdom of Serbia (1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1992)
 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003)
 State Union of Serbia and Montenegro[10] (2003–2006)
 Montenegro[11] (2006–present)
Netherlands  Frankish Kingdom (5th to 10th centuries), Frisian Kingdom (600–734), Duchy of (Lower) Lorraine (903–1190) and County of Holland (880–1384)
Burgundian Netherlands (1384–1482)
Seventeen Provinces (1482–1581)
Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (1581–1795)
 Batavian Republic (1795–1806)
Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810)
First French Empire (1810–1813)
United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839)
 Kingdom of the Netherlands (1839–present)
North Macedonia First Bulgarian Empire (681–1018)
 Byzantine Empire (1018–1185)
Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1346)
 Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
Kingdom of Prilep (1371–1395)
 Ottoman Empire (1395–1913)
 Kingdom of Serbia (1913–1918)
 Kingdom of Bulgaria (1915–1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
 Republic of Macedonia (1991–2019)
 North Macedonia (2019–present)
Norway  Petty Kingdoms of Norway (?–876)

Kingdom of Norway (872–1397)
 North Sea Empire (1016–1035)
Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
Denmark–Norway (1536–1814)
Kingdom of Norway (1814)
United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway (1814–1905)
Kingdom of Norway (1905–1940)

Quisling Regime (puppet state) (1942–1945)

Kingdom of Norway (1945–present)

Poland  Civitas Schinesghe (960-1025) - Poland in the Early Middle Ages
Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)
Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (1772-1804),  Austrian Empire (1804–1867), Cisleithania (1867–1918), Duchy of Warsaw (1807–1815),  Prussia and the  Russian Empire (1795–1918)
Kingdom of Poland (1916–1918)
Republic of Poland (1918–1939)
Polish People's Republic (1944–1989)
 Republic of Poland (1989–present)
Portugal Roman Republic (197 BC–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Suebic Kingdom (409-585)
 Visigothic Kingdom (418–711)
Umayyad Caliphate (711–750)
Emirate of Córdoba (756–868)
County of Portugal, within the Kingdom of León (868–1139)
Kingdom of Portugal (1139–1189)
Kingdom of Portugal and Silves (1189–1191)
Kingdom of Portugal (1191–1249)
Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarve (1249–1471)
Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (1471–1815)
United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1825)
Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (1825–1910)
 Portuguese Republic (1910–present)
Romania  Wallachia (1330–1859; vassal of  Ottoman Empire between 1415 and 1859)
 Moldavia (1359–1859; vassal of  Ottoman Empire between 1514 and 1859)
Romanian United Principalities (1859–1866)
Principality of Romania (1866–1881)
Kingdom of Romania (1881–1947)
Socialist Republic of Romania (1947–1989) (renamed from "Romanian People's Republic" in 1965)
 Romania (1989–present)
Russia  Rus' Khaganate (838–862)
Kievan Rus' (862–1240)
 Vladimir-Suzdal (1157–1331; vassal of the Golden Horde 1240–1331)
 Grand Duchy of Moscow (1283–1547; vassal of the Golden Horde until 1480)
Tsardom of Russia (1547–1610)

 Russian Empire (1612–1917)
Russian Republic (1917)
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1917–1991) (republic of the Soviet Union 1922–1991)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Russian Federation (1991–present)

San Marino  Republic of San Marino (301–present)
Serbia Principality of Serbia (768–960/971)
First Bulgarian Empire (924–1018)
 Byzantine Empire (960–1043)
Duklja (1043-1101)
Serbian Grand Principality (1101-1217)
Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
 Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
Moravian Serbia (1371–1402)
Serbian Despotate (1402–1459)
Kingdom of Serbia (1718–1739 and 1788–1791)
Principality of Serbia (1817–1882)
 Kingdom of Serbia (1882–1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1941
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1992)
 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003)
Republic of Serbia (1992–2006)
 State Union of Serbia and Montenegro[10] (2003–2006)
 Republic of Serbia (2006–present)
Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (1946–1992)
Republic of Kosova (1990–1999)
Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (1992–present)
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (1999–present)
 Republic of Kosovo (2008–present)
Slovakia Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)
Czechoslovak Republic (1938–1939)
Slovak Republic (1939–1945)
Czechoslovak Republic (1945–1960)
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1990)
Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (1990–1992)
 Slovak Republic (1993–present)
Slovenia Duchy of Carniola (1364-1804)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
Cisleithania (1867–1918)
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
 Republic of Slovenia (1991–present)
Spain Kingdom of the Suebi (409-585)
Visigothic Kingdom (418–711)

Umayyad Caliphate (Al-Andalus) (711–756)
Emirate of Córdoba (756–929)
Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031)
Kingdom of Asturias (718/722–924)
Kingdom of León (910–1230)
Kingdom of Navarre (824 (traditional)–1841)
County of Barcelona (formation 801/independence 988–1162)
Kingdom of Aragon (1035–1707)
Kingdom of Castile (1065–1230)
Crown of Aragon (1162–1716)
Principality of Catalonia (1162–1714)
 Crown of Castile (1230–1715)
Kingdom of Majorca (1231–1715(1349))
Kingdom of Valencia (1238–1707)
Unification of Spain and Spanish Empire (1469/1492/1516–1975)
 Kingdom of Spain (1716–1873)
Spanish Republic (1873–1874)
 Kingdom of Spain (1873–1931)
 Spanish Republic (1931–1939)
 Kingdom of Spain (1939–present)

Sweden Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
 Kingdom of Sweden (1523–1814)
United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway (Sweden in union with Norway 1814–1905)
 Kingdom of Sweden (1905–present)
Switzerland  Kingdom of the Burgundians (411–534)
 Kingdom of the Franks (481–843)
 Middle Francia (843 – 855)
 East Francia (843 – 962)
Old Swiss Confederacy (1291–1798)
 Helvetic Republic (1798–1803)
  Swiss Confederation (1803–present)
Turkey Seljuq Empire (1037–1194)
Seljuq Sultanate of Rum (1077–1307)
Karamanids (1250–1487)
 Ottoman Empire (1299–1923)
 Republic of Turkey (1923–present)
Ukraine Cossack Hetmanate (1648–1764)
 Russian Empire (1764–1917)
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (1772–1804),  Austrian Empire (1804–1867), Cisleithania (1867–1918)
Ukrainian People's Republic (1917–1921), West Ukrainian People's Republic (1918–1919)
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1919–1991, in 1922–1991 a union republic of Soviet Union)
 Ukraine (1991–present)
United Kingdom Kingdom of Deira (c.450–654), Kingdom of Kent/Cantwara (455-871), Kingdom of Lindsey (c.500-7th century), Kingdom of Sussex (c.477–860), Kingdom of Wessex (519-927), Kingdom of Essex (527–825), Kingdom of Mercia (527–918), Kingdom of Haestingas (6th century?–771?), Kingdom of East Anglia (571–918), Kingdom of the Hwicce (577–780s), Kingdom of Bernicia (6th century–654), Kingdom of Northumbria (654–954),  Kingdom of England (927–1649)
 Anglo-Norse Empire (1016–1035)
 Kingdom of Gwynedd (5th century–1216), Kingdom of Deheubarth (920–1197),
Principality of Wales (1216–1542)
 Pictland, Dál Riata, Kingdom of Strathclyde (5th century–c. 1030),  Kingdom of Scotland (843–1651)
 Early Medieval Irish Kingdoms,  Lordship of Ireland (1171–1541),  Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1651)
 Commonwealth of England (1649–1653)
 Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653–1659)
 Commonwealth of England (1659–1660)
 Kingdom of Ireland (1659–1800),  Kingdom of Scotland (1659–1707) and  Kingdom of England (1660–1707)
 Kingdom of Ireland and  Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800)
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927)
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1927–present)
Vatican City Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
Kingdom of Italy (476-493)
 Ostrogothic Kingdom (493–533)
 Byzantine Empire (533–754)
 Papal States (754–1798; 1799–1870)
Roman Republic (1798–1799) (client state of France)
 Kingdom of Italy (1870–1929) (as a prisoner in the Vatican)
Vatican City State (1929–present)

See also


References


  1. ISO 3166-1 NEWSLETTER No. V-4 changed the official name of Azerbaijan from "Azerbaijani Republic" to "Republic of Azerbaijan" and changed the spelling of "Kazakstan" to "Kazakhstan".
  2. "Denmark". The World Factbook. CIA. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
  3. Talari, Pekka T. (1996). State Succession in Respect of Debts: The Effect of State Succession in the 1990s on the Rules of Law. The Finnish Yearbook of International Law. 2. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 167. ISBN 9789041104694.
  4. Bühler, Konrad G. (2001). State Succession and Membership in International Organizations. Legal Aspects of International Organization Series. Volume 38. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 177–9. ISBN 9789041115539. |volume= has extra text (help)
  5. "France". The World Factbook. CIA. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
  6. Debattista, Martin. "Timeline of Malta History". aboutmalta.com. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  7. ISO 3166-1 NEWSLETTER No. V-8 has the official name of Serbia and Montenegro as just "Serbia and Montenegro".
  8. ISO 3166-1 NEWSLETTER No. V-12 has the official name of Montenegro as "Republic of Montenegro".