List of rivers of Europe


This article lists the principal rivers of Europe with their main tributaries.

Main European drainage divides (red lines) separating catchments (green regions)

Scope


The border of Europe and Asia is here defined as from the Kara Sea, along the Ural Mountains and Ural River to the Caspian Sea. While the crest of the Caucasus Mountains is the geographical border with Asia in the south, Georgia, and to a lesser extent Armenia and Azerbaijan, are politically and culturally often associated with Europe; rivers in these countries are therefore included.

The list is at the outset limited to those rivers that are at least 250 km long from the most distant source, have a drainage basin (catchment area, watershed) of at least 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi), or have a mean discharge (volume, flow) of at least 150 m3/s (5,300 cu ft/s). Also included are a number of rivers (currently 47) that do not meet these criteria, but are very well known and/or nearly make the mark. Examples of these are the Arno, Ruhr, Saar, and Clyde. See the lists of rivers for individual countries linked to at the bottom of the page for smaller rivers.

The rivers are ordered from those flowing to the extreme northeast into the Arctic Ocean, following the coastline anticlockwise all the way to the southeastern coast of the Black Sea. Iceland and the British Islands are included via virtual connections with northern Norway and across the Strait of Dover and the North Channel, respectively. Finally, rivers draining into the Caspian Sea are listed from Azerbaijan to the Ural River.

The table can be sorted by each column. The first three columns give a ranking for (maximum) length, area and volume of those rivers flowing into the sea or an endorheic lake down to the cut-off values. No ranking of tributaries is attempted, as the concept is too contentious; for example, hydrologically the middle and upper Volga could be considered a tributary of the Kama, in which case it would be the fifth or sixth longest river in Europe. Instead it does not appear in the table at all.

The commercial and geopolitical importance of rivers is not ranked here. As a transportation artery, a river may unite a region commercially and economically, but major rivers, as barriers to travel, may also form political boundaries between states. The Danube, the second longest river in Europe, is notable for flowing through or past ten countries; the Rhine through or past six. The Volga, the longest river in Europe, unites a huge region of European Russia; eleven of the twenty largest cities in Russia lie on its banks. The Loire and the Po unite important regions within France and Italy respectively. The most important rivers in Europe include Rhone, Elbe, Oder, Tagus, Thames, Don and Dnieper, among others.[further explanation needed]

Caveats


The measurements shown are drawn from sources deemed most reliable, but still are often uncertain, especially when other sources disagree wildly. For example, the Siret in Romania and Ukraine is 726 km long with a basin of 44,000 km2 according to the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 647 km (44,811 km2) according to a Romanian management plan for the Siret basin [1] and 559 km (47,610 km2) according to the extensive transboundary rivers study by the Economic Commission for Europe.[2]

Length estimates for rivers depend on a number of variables:

  • The estimate will be larger when the curves of the river are traced at a smaller scale.
  • The choice of the source obviously has an impact. Here we attempt to list the most distant source. When that involves a tributary nearer the mouth of the river, the length of the nominal river is listed as well, if it meets the above criteria.
  • Rivers flowing into estuaries have an arbitrary lower end. The channel of such a river through an estuary is usually included in the length when it is exposed at low tide.
  • The length of a watercourse through a reservoir or lake is open to interpretation. For this table, when a source for the total length of a river system involving lakes is lacking, the shortest possible course through the lakes is used
  • Over time, a river's length can change through canalization, the creation of reservoirs, and natural changes in the water course.

The catchment areas are more consistent between sources. However, in low relief the watershed is less obvious, while underground connections (especially in karst systems) further complicate area measurements. Unless excellent sources are available, the areas below 70°N latitude are taken from the HydroBASINS project.[3] The River Networks and Ramsar Sites Information Service websites provide convenient interfaces to assess the accuracy of many of the basins. Areas for rivers above 70°N are warned[clarification needed] and found to be less reliable.

The listed multiyear mean discharges are even less reliable than the lengths. Underestimates are most common, as the gauging stations are often far above the mouth, so that only a fraction of the drainage basin is represented. On the other hand, the highest volume of a river may not be at the mouth due to water loss by human usage, diversion (e.g. through distributaries), evaporation, or underground drainage.

Rivers of Europe


Arctic Ocean Atlantic Ocean North Sea White Sea Baltic Sea Mediterranean Sea Black Sea Caspian Sea
Europe's largest rivers ( over 100 km long, > 10,000 km² watershed, or > 150 m3/s mean discharge)
º
Rank (of fleuves) River or river system Length
(km)
Basin
(km²)
Flow
(m³/s)
Mouth
Countries
[note 1]
Notes Refs
Length Area Flow
9482+Kara ← Bolshoy Kara28913400 ?Kara Sea near Ust-Karsk[note 2][4]
8686+Korotaikha [de; it; ru] ← Syadej-Yu31012700 ?Pechora Sea[note 3][5]
663Pechora18093220004380Pechora Sea near Naryan-Mar[6][7]
***-Sula3531040092Pechora[8]
***-Shapkina [de; ru]Lekeyyu [ru]5066570582Pechora[9]
***-Tsilma37421500228Pechora[10]
***-Pizhma389547055Pechora[11]
***-Izhma53131000317Pechora near Ust-Izhma[12][13]
***-Laya [de; no; ru]332953050Pechora[14]
***-Usa565936001310Pechora near Usinsk[15]
***--Kolva54618100165Usa near Usinsk[16]
***--Adzva33410600110Usa[17]
***--Kosyu [de; nl; ru]25914800122Usa[18]
***--Bolshaya Rogovaya [de; no; ru]3117290 ?Usa[19]
***-Shchugor3009660252Pechora[20]
***-Ilych41116000177Pechora[21]
10598+VoronyaLake LovozeroKurga [ru]2519940114Barents Sea[note 4][22]
845861TulomaLake NotozeroLutto32021140241Barents Sea near Murmansk [note 5][23][2]
736286PaatsjokiLake InariIvalo36018403157Barents Sea near Kirkenes [24][25]
707273Tana/DeatnuKarasjohka36616386197Barents Sea near Tana Bru [note 6][2]
++74Jökulsá á Fjöllum2067750183Arctic Ocean[26]
++32ÖlfusáHvítá1856100423Atlantic Ocean near Selfoss[26][25]
++39Þjórsá2307530370Atlantic Ocean[26][25]
++65Kúðafljót1152400250Atlantic Ocean[26]
++71Jökulsá á Dal1503700205Atlantic Ocean[note 7][26]
+++Altaelva2408693101Norwegian Sea in Alta
++78Målselva ← Rostaelva1456144171Norwegian Sea in Målselv
++70Vefsna1614122207Norwegian Sea in Mosjøen
++53Namsen2296298285Norwegian Sea in Namsos
++90Otra2453740150North Sea in Kristiansand
999359SkienNorsjø ← Saua ← HeddalsvatnetTinne - etc. system27310815263Skagerrak near Porsgrunn
76++Numedalslågen3565554111Skagerrak in Larvik
896649DrammenselvaTyrifjorden ← Storelva-Ådalselva-Sperillen ← BegnaOtrøelva31017113314Skagerrak in Drammen
383715Glomma/Glama61942441709Skagerrak in Fredrikstad[2][25]
***-VormaMjøsaGudbrandsdalslågen35817412330Glomma at Årnes
293424Göta älvVänernKlarälven system75650229554Kattegat in Gothenburg [27][25]
***-Klarälven ← Trysilelva ← Femundelva ← Rogen46011820165Vänern near Karlstad [note 8]
+++Ätran243334253Kattegat in Falkenberg
+++Lagan232645282Kattegat near Laholm
101214ElbeVltavaTeplá Vltava [cs; de]1329148268860Wadden Sea near Cuxhaven [note 9][28][2]
...Elbe1094148268860Wadden Sea near Cuxhaven [note 10][29][2]
***-HavelSpree56024096103Elbe near Havelberg[note 11][29]
...-Havel33424096103Elbe near Havelberg[29]
***--Spree3821011035Havel in Berlin-Spandau[29]
***-Saale41324167117Elbe in Barby[29]
***--White Elster257515426Saale near Halle (Saale) [29]
***-MuldeZwickauer Mulde290740075Elbe in Dessau[note 12][29]
***-Ohře / Eger316558838Elbe in Litoměřice [29]
***-Vltava - Teplá Vltava43128101154Elbe in Mělník[note 13][29]
303544WeserWerra75146259365Wadden Sea near Bremerhaven[note 14][30][31]
***-AllerLeine34615721120Weser near Verden[note 15][30]
...-Aller26015721120Weser near Verden211?[30]
***--Leine278651762Aller near Schwarmstedt[30]
***-Fulda220694767Weser in Hannoversch Münden[30]
***-Werra300549750Weser in Hannoversch Münden[30]
6964+Ems3711780289Wadden Sea near Delfzijl [note 16][31][2]
+++Zwarte WaterVecht/Vechte201574150IJsselmeer near Genemuiden [note 17][32]
++41IJsselOude IJssel1884533380IJsselmeer near Kampen [note 18][33][34]
11116Rhine12331852632315North Sea at Hook of Holland
[note 19]
***-Waal82 ?1500Rhine delta in Gorinchem[note 20]
***-Lek62 ?429Rhine delta at Kinderdijk[note 20]
***-LippeAlme268488246Rhine in Wesel[note 21][32]
***-RuhrNegerRenau227448582Rhine in Duisburg[note 22][32]
***-MoselleMoselotte54928153320Rhine in Koblenz [note 23][35][2]
***--Saar235743178Moselle near Konz [35]
***--Sauer173425941Moselle in Wasserbillig [35]
***-LahnOhmFelda251592551Rhine in Lahnstein[note 24][32]
***-MainRegnitz system58327208211Rhine in Mainz[note 25][36]
...-Main52527208211Rhine in Mainz[note 26][36]
***--RegnitzPegnitzFichtenohe191752157Main in Bamberg[note 27][36]
***-NeckarEschach38013934136Rhine in Mannheim[37]
***-Ill217476054Rhine near Strasbourg[38]
***-Aare28817684559Rhine in Koblenz[39]
***--LimmatLake ZürichLinth1402417101Aare in Brugg[39]
***--Reuss1643443140Aare in Brugg[39]
204046Meuse/Maas95034364357North Sea near Hellevoetsluis [note 28][40][2]
***-Ourthe181362455Meuse in Liège
***-Sambre193285629Meuse in Namur
7356+Scheldt36021683129North Sea near Flushing [note 29][41][42][31]
***-Leie/Lys202430528Scheldt in Ghent [41]
7377+ThamesChurn3601429266North Sea near Southend-on-Sea[note 30][43]
+++Great Ouse230817239North Sea in King's Lynn[44]
9296+Trent29810435100Humber Estuary near Scunthorpe[note 31][45]
+94+OuseUre20810704145Humber Estuary near Scunthorpe[note 32][46]
+++Tyne ← North Tyne118293645North Sea at South Shields
+++Tweed156498890North Sea in Berwick-upon-Tweed[47][48]
++67Tay1936019220North Sea near Dundee[note 33][49]
+++Spey173294466North Sea near Elgin[50]
182012Mezen96678000890White Sea (Mezen Bay) near Mezen[51][25]
***-Pyoza36315100123Mezen[52][53]
***-Vashka60520500184Mezen[54]
7860+Kuloy ← Sotka3501900017White Sea near Dolgoshchelye[note 8][55]
754Northern DvinaVychegda18033570523330Dvina Bay in Severodvinsk[note 34][56][25]
...Northern DvinaSukhonaLake KubenskoyeKubena16853570523330Dvina Bay in Severodvinsk[note 35][56][25]
***-Pinega77942600430Northern Dvina in Ust-Pinega[57]
***--Yula250529049Pinega[58]
***-YemtsaMekhrenga2991410070Northern Dvina near Bolshaya Gora[note 36][59]
***-VagaUstya73644800384Northern Dvina near Bereznik[note 37][60]
...-Vaga57544800384Northern Dvina near Bereznik[61]
***--Ustya4771750092Vaga[62]
***---Kokshenga251567036Ustya[63]
***-Vychegda11301210001160Northern Dvina in Kotlas[64]
***--Viled321561043Vychegda near Koryazhma[65]
***--Yarenga281514049Vychegda[66]
***--Vym49925600260Vychegda near Ust-Vym[67]
***---Yolva [de]255344031Vym[68][69]
***--Sysola48717200105Vychegda in Syktyvkar[70][71]
***--Lokchim [de; ru]272660052Vychegda[72]
***--Vishera247878079Vychegda[73]
***--Nem [de; ru]260423037Vychegda[74]
***-Lower YugLuza60935600290Northern Dvina in Veliky Ustyug[note 38][75]
...-Yug57435600290Northern Dvina in Veliky Ustyug[76][77]
***--Luza57418300132Yug[78]
***-SukhonaLake KubenskoyeKubena94150300438Northern Dvina in Veliki Ustyug[note 39][79]
332828OnegaLake LachaSvidLake VozheVozhega68056900492Onega Bay at Onega town[note 40][80][81]
...Onega41656900492Onega Bay at Onega town[82]
***-Voloshka260710072Onega[83]
554558Lower VygLake VygozeroSegezha [de; ru]-system43627100267White Sea near Belomorsk[note 41][84][85]
...VygUmba [ru]31527100267White Sea near Belomorsk[note 42][86]
***-Segezha [de; ru]Lake SegozeroVuoloma [de; ru]Talviesdegi [ru]329914074Lake Vygozero near Segezha[note 43][87]
594455KemČirka-Kem [de; ru]42227700279White Sea near Kem[note 44][88]
...KemKuyto LakesPista/Pistojoki [de; fi; ru]39927700279White Sea near Kem [note 45][89]
824956KovdaLake TopozeroKarango [ru]32526100276Kandalaksha Gulf [note 46][90][91]
+8583Niva3612830164Kandalaksha Gulf near Kandalaksha[note 47][92]
104++Varzuga254984079White Sea[93]
587481Ponoy42615500167White Sea[94][95]
9675+Motala strömVätternHuskvarnaån system28515481100Baltic Sea in Norrköping[27]
915482NorrströmMälarenKolbäcksån system30722650166Baltic Sea in Stockholm[27]
434347DalälvenÖsterdalälven54228954353Bothnian Sea near Gävle [96][25]
***-Västerdalälven ← Fulan3158642124Dalälven in Djurås[96]
525966Ljusnan44319828226Bothnian Sea in Söderhamn[96]
6484+Ljungan39912851135Bothnian Sea near Sundsvall[96]
574830Indalsälven43026726448Bothnian Sea near Sundsvall[96][25]
484229Ångerman46331864481Bothnian Sea near Kramfors[96][25]
***-Faxälven3999037152Ångerman near Sollefteå[96]
***-Fjällsjöälven [de; sv; uk]2638432139Ångerman near Näsåker[96]
474733Umeälven46726815435Bothnian Sea in Umeå[96][25]
***-Vindelälven45312654188Umeälven near Umeå[96]
538986Skellefteälven44011731157Bothnian Bay in Skellefteå[96]
639289Piteälven40211285156Bothnian Bay in Piteå[96]
495026Luleälven46125240500Bothnian Bay in Luleå[96][25]
***-Lesser Lule2389678180Luleälven near Vuollerim[96]
496352Kalixälven46118130289Bothnian Bay in Kalix[96]
403834TorneTorneträskAbiskojokk ← Válfojohka56540157430Bothnian Bay in Tornio [note 48][96][2]
***-MuonioKönkämäenoKilpisjärvi35014430162Torne near Pajala [note 49][96]
***-Lainioälven ← Rostoeatnu ← Rostojávri ← Ohmátjohka290600270Torne near Junosuando [note 50][96]
423325Kemijoki55251127553Bothnian Bay in Kemi[2][25]
***-Ounasjoki30013968140Kemijoki in Rovaniemi[97]
***-Kitinen27811214 ?Kemijoki near Pelkosenniemi
867876Iijoki31014191174Bothnian Bay in Ii[note 51]
605360OulujokiOulujärvi ← Hyrynsalmi system42022841262Bothnian Bay in Oulu[note 52][2]
+4663Kokemäenjoki15027046238Bothnian Sea in Pori[note 53]
413954KymiLake Päijänne ←←← Koivujärvi sources55437159282Gulf of Finland in Kotka[note 54]
1575NevaLake LadogaVolkhov-system10102810002490Gulf of Finland in Saint Petersburg[note 55][98][25]
...Neva742810002490Gulf of Finland in Saint Petersburg[98][25]
***-VuoksiSaimaaPielisjoki-system80668501584Lake Ladoga at Solovyovo and at Priozersk [note 56][99][2]
***--PielisjokiPielinenLieksanjoki ←← Murdoyoki [ru]39020000240Lake Saimaa in Joensuu [note 57]
***-SvirLake OnegaVodla-system67888200790Lake Ladoga near Lodeynoye Pole[note 58][100]
***--Oyat266522052Svir near Lodeynoye Pole[101]
***--Shuya19410100130Lake Onega near Petrozavodsk[102]
***--Suna280767066Lake Onega near Kondopoga[103]
***--VodlaLake VodlozeroIleksaOlova [ru]35813700130Lake Onega near Pudozh[note 59][104]
***-Syas260733053Lake Ladoga in Syasstroy[105]
***-VolkhovLake IlmenMsta-system84480200580Lake Ladoga near Volkhov[note 60][106]
***--MstaLake MstinoTsna62023300202Lake Ilmen near Velikiy Novgorod[note 61][107]
***--Pola267742063Lake Ilmen near Staraya Russa[108]
***--Lovat53021900105Lake Ilmen near Staraya Russa [109]
***--Shelon248971044Lake Ilmen near Shimsk[110]
6783+LugaOredezh3831336493Gulf of Finland in Ust-Luga[note 62][111]
...Luga3531336493Gulf of Finland in Ust-Luga[112]
352937NarvaLake PeipusVelikaya64756229400Gulf of Finland near Narva [2]
...Narva7756229400Gulf of Finland near Narva [2]
***-Plyussa281696350Narva near Narva[113]
***-Velikaya43025153134Lake Peipus near Pskov[114]
***-EmajõgiVõrtsjärvVäike Emajõgi2181003970Lake Peipus[note 63][115]
+++Pärnu144688764Gulf of Riga in Pärnu[116]
51++Gauja452916171Gulf of Riga near Riga [2]
141819Daugava/Western Dvina102085613640Gulf of Riga near Riga [25]
***-AiviekstePededze254913557Daugava near Pļaviņas [note 64][117]
***-Mezha259952561Daugava near Doroshkino
8665+LielupeMēmele/Nemunėlis31017504106Gulf of Riga near Jūrmala [2]
7987+Venta3461184398Baltic Sea in Ventspils [2]
221720Neman91492523634Baltic Sea near Šilutė [2]
***-Šešupė298619434Neman near Neman
***-Nevėžis209594733Neman near Raudondvaris
***-Neris/Viliya51025254182Neman in Kaunas
***--Šventoji246680456Neris in Jonava
***-Shchara325672431Neman
8079+PregolyaLava/Łyna3361411790Baltic Sea near Kaliningrad [note 65][118]
...PregolyaAngrapaGołdapa3101411790Baltic Sea near Kaliningrad [note 66][119]
***-Łyna/Alna/Lava264702040Pregolya in Znamensk [note 67][120][121]
12910VistulaBugonarewWestern Bug12111926321080Baltic Sea near Gdańsk [note 68][122][2][25]
...Vistula10471926321080Baltic Sea near Gdańsk[note 69][122][2][25]
***-BugonarewWestern Bug81074714328Vistula in Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki [note 70]
***--Wkra249532220Bugonarew near Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki[123]
***--Narew44628645146Bugonarew near Serock[note 71][124]
***--Western Bug77238676158Bugonarew near Serock [125]
***-Pilica319913846Vistula near Warka[126]
***-Wieprz3031025643Vistula in Dęblin[127]
***-San44316769126Vistula near Sandomierz [128]
***-Dunajec247680285Vistula in Opatowiec [129][2]
131322OderWarta1045118791574Baltic Sea in Świnoujście [note 72][130][2]
...Oder854118791574Baltic Sea in Świnoujście [note 73][2][25]
***-Warta80855538195Oder in Kostrzyn nad Odrą[130]
***--Noteć3881715976Warta in Santok[131]
***-Lusatian Neisse255440331Oder in Neißemünde [132]
***-Bóbr272594339Oder in Krosno Odrzańskie [133]
+++Clyde176304583North Channel near Glasgow[134]
+++Lower BannLough NeaghUlster Blackwater186577592North Channel in Coleraine [31]
1018869Shannon25811773208Shannon Estuary near Limerick[note 74][31]
++86The Three Sisters1929207157Celtic Sea near Waterford[note 75][135][31]
+++MerseyTame160431266Irish Sea near Liverpool[note 76][136]
+++Wye215413680Severn Estuary near Chepstow[137]
7791+Severn35411420120Bristol Channel near Weston-super-Mare[138]
+++Somme245654837English Channel near Abbeville[31][41]
262123SeineMarne87575374560English Channel in Le Havre[note 77][139]
...Seine77775374560English Channel in Le Havre[note 78]}[139]
***-Eure229601726Seine in Pont-de-l'Arche[140]
***-OiseAisneAire45416783110Seine in Conflans-Sainte-Honorine[note 79]
...-Oise34116783110Seine in Conflans-Sainte-Honorine [141]
***--Aisne356793965Oise in Compiègne[142]
***-Marne51412783110Seine in Ivry-sur-Seine[143]
***-Yonne2921083693Seine in Montereau-Fault-Yonne[144]
***-Aube249459541Seine near Romilly-sur-Seine[145]
+95+Vilaine2181045972Bay of Biscay in Pénestin[146]
171413Loire1006117356889Bay of Biscay in Saint-Nazaire[147][148]
***-MaineSartheLoir33822240127Loire near Angers[note 80][149]
***--Mayenne202584450Maine near Angers[150]
***--Sarthe3141625082Maine near Angers[151]
***---Loir317829432Sarthe near Angers[152]
***-Vienne36321161210Loire in Candes-Saint-Martin[153]
***--Creuse2641027985Vienne near Châtellerault[154]
***-Indre279342819Loire near Candes-Saint-Martin[155]
***-Cher3681371896Loire in Villandry[156]
***-Allier42114350144Loire near Nevers[157]
6899+Charente381985549Bay of Biscay near Rochefort[158]
465241Dordogne48323957380Gironde estuary near Bordeaux[159]
***-Isle255755863Dordogne in Libourne[160]
***-Vézère211371558Dordogne near Le Bugue[161]
393017GaronneTarn61055846650Gironde estuary near Bordeaux[note 81][162]
...Garonne57555846650Gironde estuary near Bordeaux [note 82][162]
***-Lot48511538155Garonne near Aiguillon[163]
***-Tarn38015586233Garonne near Castelsarrasin[164]
***--Aveyron291517657Tarn near Montauban[165]
***-Ariège163413576Garonne in Toulouse[166]
896745Adour30816912360Bay of Biscay in Bayonne[167][25]
***-Gaves réunisGave de Pau193546482Adour near Peyrehorade[168]
717048MinhoSil36116651340Atlantic Ocean near Caminha [note 83][2]
...Minho30916651340Atlantic Ocean near Caminha [2]
***-Sil2267969100Minho near Ourense
251617Douro89797290650Atlantic Ocean in Porto [2][25]
***-Tormes247705442Douro near Bemposta [de; pt] / Villarino
***-Esla27516018182Douro near Muelas del Pan
***-Pisuerga2761566582Douro near Valladolid
+++Mondego2346656108Atlantic Ocean in Figueira da Foz
162426Tagus100770756500Atlantic Ocean near Lisbon [note 84][169][2][25]
***-Jarama1941153232Tagus in Aranjuez
+++Sado180618640Atlantic Ocean in Setúbal
2125+Guadiana (← Cigüela) ← Záncara9226702779Gulf of Cadiz near Ayamonte [note 85][170][2]
...GuadianaGuadiana Alto [es].8526702779Gulf of Cadiz near Ayamonte [note 86][170][2]
312783GuadalquivirGuadiana Menor [es; fr]Guardal [es; fr]72257053164Gulf of Cadiz in Sanlúcar de Barrameda[note 87][171]
***-Genil35882579.3Guadalquivir in Palma del Río
8271+Segura3251659926Mediterranean Sea in Guardamar del Segura
4557+Júcar4982143049Balearic Sea in Cullera
98++Turia280667414Balearic Sea in Valencia
231921Ebro91084763577Balearic Sea near Tortosa[25]
***-Segre26522719100Ebro in Mequinenza
***--Cinca170972082Segre near Mequinenza
***-JalónJiloca224965821Ebro near Torres de Berrellén
***-Aragón195852941Ebro near Tudela
+++Llobregat170494821Balearic Sea near Barcelona
+++Aude224532744Gulf of Lion near Narbonne[172]
19157RhôneSaôneDoubs957981311900Gulf of Lion in Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône [note 88][173][25]
...Rhône812981311900Gulf of Lion in Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône [174][25]
***-Durance32314342180Rhône in Avignon[175]
***-Isère28611890333Rhône near Valence[176]
***-Saône48029321473Rhône in Lyon[177]
***--Doubs4537874176Saône in Verdun-sur-le-Doubs [178]
***-Ain1903765123Rhône near Pont-de-Chéruy[179]
+++Arno2418852110Ligurian Sea near Pisa[note 89]
626962Tiber40516668239Tyrrhenian Sea in Ostia
***-Nera1164163168Tiber near Orte
+++GariglianoLiri1584059120Tyrrhenian Sea near Minturno
+++Volturno175578482Tyrrhenian Sea in Castel Volturno
+++Reno212561595Adriatic Sea near Comacchio
32229PoTanaro702737461460Adriatic Sea near Porto Tolle[note 90][25]
...Po652737461460Adriatic Sea near Porto Tolle[180][25]
***-MincioLake GardaSarca203297760Po near Mantua
***-OglioLake Iseo ← Oglio2806598130Po near Mantua
***-AddaLake Como ← Adda3137842187Po in Cremona
***-TicinoLake Maggiore ← Ticino2488061348Po in Pavia
***-TanaroNegrone [it]2858182116Po near Alessandria[note 91]
***-Dora Baltea168392196Po in Crescentino
++68Tartaro-Canalbianco-Po di Levante1472885218Adriatic Sea near Porto Viro
557664AdigeEisackRienzAhr43614543235Adriatic Sea near Chioggia[note 92][181]
...Adige ← Etsch ← Karlinbach42114543235Adriatic Sea near Chioggia[note 93][181]
+++Brenta174481193Adriatic Sea near Chioggia
+++Piave2314420137Adriatic Sea near Venice
+++Tagliamento170293992Adriatic Sea near Lignano
++77Isonzo/Soča1383327173Adriatic Sea near Monfalcone [2]
+9743Neretva24010380378Adriatic Sea near Ploče [2][25]
***-Trebišnjica1874926114Neretva in Neum[note 94]
666116Bojana/BunaDrin38418620672Adriatic Sea near Ulcinj
[note 95][182]
***-DrinBlack DrinSateska34314351352Bojana near Lezhë [note 96][2]
***--White Drin136500566Drin in Kukës [2]
***-Morača1002820156Lake Skadar (Bojana) near Žabljak Crnojevića[183]
+++Shkumbin181292262Adriatic Sea near Lushnjë[182]
97++SemanDevoll281612496Adriatic Sea near Fier[182]
100+72Aoös/Vjosë2726777204Adriatic Sea near Vlorë [2]
+++Achelous2205662137Ionian Sea near Astakos
+++Pineios (Thessaly)216930181Aegean Sea near Larissa
93++Haliacmon297866480Aegean Sea near Thessaloniki
655179Vardar/AxiosTreska39324503170Aegean Sea near Thessaloniki [note 97][2]
...Vardar/Axios38824503170Aegean Sea near Thessaloniki [2]
6168+Struma/Strymon4151680176Thracian Sea in Amphipolis [2]
+++Nestos/Mesta243586445Thracian Sea near Thasos [2]
443140Maritsa/Meriç/Evros51553475383Thracian Sea near Alexandroupoli [2]
***-Ergene2811101628Maritsa near İpsala[note 98][2][184][185]
***-Tundzha380858332Maritsa in Edirne
***-Arda290562377Maritsa near Edirne
+++Veleka1479959.4Black Sea near Sinemorets
104++KamchiyaLuda Kamchiya254537326Black Sea near Varna[186]
222Danube28578014636450Black Sea near Sulina


[note 99][2][25]
***-Prut95327820105Danube at Giurgiulești [note 100][187][2]
***--Jijia275575714Prut near Huși
***-Siret55945857240Danube in Galați [note 101][2]
***--Buzău325553729Siret near Galați
***--Bistrița283701866Siret near Bacău
***-Ialomița4171111640Danube near Hârșova
***-Argeș3501265273Danube in Oltenița
***--Dâmbovița245283726Argeș near Budești[note 102][188]
***-Yantra285789747Danube near Svishtov
***-Osam314286616Danube near Nikopol
***-Olt61524130174Danube near Turnu Măgurele
***-Iskar368851154Danube near Gigen
***-Jiu3391015786Danube near Bechet
***-Great MoravaWest MoravaIbar55037709232Danube near Smederevo[note 103][2]
***--South Morava29515550100Great Morava near Kruševac
***--West Morava30815710120Great Morava near Kruševac
***---Ibar276791460West Morava in Kraljevo
***-Timiš/Tamis3591049547Danube in Pančevo
***-SavaSava Dolinka945946131609Danube in Belgrade
[note 104][2][189][190]
***--DrinaTara48619650370Sava near Bijeljina [note 105][191][190]
***---Lim220679796Drina near Višegrad [192]
***--Bosna27110490174Sava in Bosanski Šamac[2][191]
***--Vrbas2356501132Sava in Srbac[191]
***--Una2149657220Sava in Jasenovac [note 106][2][190]
***--Kupa/Kolpa29710194201Sava in Sisak [2]
***-TiszaSomeș1111154073863Danube near Titel [note 107][2]
...-Tisza966154073863Danube near Titel
[note 108][2]
***--Bega256625013Tisza near Titel
***--Mureș/Maros78930190190Tisza in Szeged [note 109][2]
***---TârnavaTârnava Mare249623615Mureș near Teiuș
***--KörösCrișul Alb36527123100Tisza near Csongrád
***--Sajó / SlanáHornád3141287070Tisza in Tiszaújváros [note 110]
***---Hernád / Hornád286541431Sajó near Miskolc
***--BodrogLatorica25513579115Tisza in Tokaj [note 111][2]
***--Szamos / Someș41516046132Tisza near Vásárosnamény [2]
***-Drava/DrauIsel [de]Schwarzach [de; it]72840154577Danube near Osijek
[note 112][193]
***--Mur45314108166Drava near Legrad
[193][194][190]
***-SióLake BalatonZala system3301489039Danube near Szekszárd[note 113]
***-Hron298544154Danube near Esztergom
***-Váh39819484194Danube in Komárno[2]
***-Rába/Raab3111040180Danube near Győr [194][2]
***-LeithaSchwarza25821388.2Danube near Mosonmagyaróvár [note 114][194]
***-MoravaThayaAustrian Thaya40226734110Danube in Bratislava-Devin [note 115][194][2]
...-Morava35226734110Danube in Bratislava-Devin [194][2]
***--ThayaAustrian Thaya3111341944Morava near Hohenau [note 116][194]
***-Enns2546084200Danube in Enns[194]
***-Traun1534277150Danube in Linz[194]
***-Inn ← Aua da Fedoz52226053735Danube in Passau [195][2]
***--SalzachKrimmler Ache2326829252Inn in Haiming [36]
***-IsarLeutascher Ache2958962175Danube near Deggendorf [note 117][36]
***-Lech2644125115Danube near Donauwörth [36][2]
***-IllerBreitach ← Turabach170214770Danube in Ulm [note 118][36]
+++Cogâlnic24353886.5Black Sea near Tatarbunary [2]
92350Dniester/Nistru136273158313Black Sea near Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi [196][2]
***-Răut28677615.7Dniester near Dubăsari
***-Zbruch24733657Dniester near Khotyn
272685Southern Bug80663569160Dnieper-Bug Estuary near Mykolaiv[note 119][197]
***-Inhul35497738.8Southern Bug in Mykolayiv[198]
***-SyniukhaHnylyi TikychHirskyi Tikych2831664029Southern Bug in Pervomaisk[199][200]
438Dnieper22015098241700Dnieper-Bug Estuary near Kherson [2][25]
***-Inhulets549144870.3?Dnieper near Kropyvnytskyi[201]
***-SamaraVovcha4212273420Dnieper near Dnipro[note 120]
...-Samara3202273420Dnieper near Dnipro[202]
***--Vovcha323130355.3Samara near Pavlohrad[203]
***-Oril3461009313Dnieper near Dnipro
***-Vorskla4521451136Dnieper near Verkhn'odniprovs'k [204]
***-Psel7172278255Dnieper in Kremenchuk [205]
***--Khorol30840393.6Psel[206]
***-SulaUday4471921829Dnieper near Kremenchuk[note 121][207][208]
...-Sula3631921829Dnieper near Kremenchuk[207]
***--Uday32769959.4Sula near Lubny[208]
***-Ros3461258127Dnieper near Kaniv[209]
***-Desna113088490360Dnieper in Kyiv [210]
***--Snov253826524Desna [211]
***--Seym74827895100Desna in Sosnytsia [212]
***-Teteriv3851521318Dnieper near Chernobyl[213]
***-PripyatHoryn1052119911460Dnieper near Chernobyl [note 122][2]
...-Pripyat761119911460Dnieper near Chernobyl [214][2]
***--Uzh256812925Pripyat near Chernobyl[215]
***--Ptsich421951648Pripyat near Mazyr[216]
***--Ubort292550423Pripyat near Pietrykaw [217]
***--Horyn6592706590Pripyat near Davyd-Haradok [218]
***---Southern Sluch4511367545Horyn near Novohrad-Volynskyi[219]
***--Styr4941299945Pripyat near Pinsk [220]
***-Sozh64842199207Dnieper in Loyew [221]
***--Iput4371078983Sozh near Gomel [222]
***--Besed261553728Sozh [223]
***--Ostyor274338221Sozh near Krychaw [224]
***-Berezina61324895145Dnieper near Rechytsa[225]
***--Svislach327519030Berezina near Asipovichy
***-Drut295495230Dnieper in Rahachow[226]
101++Mius258705912Sea of Azov near Taganrog [2]
5411DonVoronezh ← Polnoy Voronezh1923437308890Sea of Azov near Azov[note 123][227][25]
...Don1870437308890Sea of Azov near Azov[227][25]
***-ManychKalaus ← Bolshoy Yankul8634997716Don near Rostov-on-Don[note 124][228]
***--Yegorlyk4481497238Manych near Salsk[229]
***-Sal7982093215Don in Semikarakorsk[230]
***-Donets105398720159Don near Semikarakorsk [231][2]
***--Kalitva [de; ru]30810543 ?Donets in Belaya Kalitva[232]
***--Aidar264739015Donets near Shchastia [233]
***--Oskil/Oskol4721481844Donets near Izium [234][2]
***-Chir3171058013Don[235]
***-Ilovlya35893779.8Don[236]
***-Medveditsa ← Malaya Medveditsa7483491469Don near Serafimovitch[237]
***--Tersa [de; ru]Yelan [ru]32688075.6Medveditsa[note 125][238]
***-KhopyorSerdoba [ru]101161052150Don near Bukanovskaya[note 126][239]
***--Buzuluk314946513Khopyor[240]
***--Savala285758520Khopyor near Novokhopyorsk[241]
***--VoronaChembar5111322942Khopyor near Borisoglebsk[note 127][242]
***-Bityug379881818Don near Pavlovsk[243]
***-Voronezh ← Polnoy Voronezh5202128671Don near Voronezh[note 128][244]
***-Bystraya Sosna2961301274Don near Yelets[245]
85++Yeya31391912.5Sea of Azov near Yeysk
95++Chelbas [es; ru]28849112.4Sea of Azov near Primorsko-Akhtarsk
243234Kuban90652399430Sea of Azov near Temryuk[note 129][246][25]
***-Pshish ← Bolshoy Pshish270192725Kuban near Ryazanskaya[note 130][247]
***-Belaya2656054 ?Kuban[248]
***-LabaBolshaya Laba3471266496Kuban in Ust-Labinsk
+++Kodori1052087144Black Sea near Adzyubzha
++79Enguri2134052170Black Sea in Anaklia[note 131][246]
818136Rioni32713511424Black Sea near Poti[note 132][246][25]
545556Chorokhi/Çoruh43822011278Black Sea near Batumi [246][2]
81030Kur/Kura/Mtkvari1364188378448Caspian Sea near Neftçala [note 133][249][2]
***-Aras/Araks1072102000141Kura near Sabirabad
[note 134][249][2]
***-Alazani39111717110Mingachevir reservoir [250][251][2]
***--Iori320489715Mingachevir reservoir near Burunqovaq [note 135][251][2]
+++Samur213677775Caspian Sea near Derbent
718075SulakAndi Koysu ← Tushetis Alazani36114085176Caspian Sea near Makhachkala [note 136][252][2]
373651Terek62342927305Caspian Sea near Kizlyar [253][2]
***-Sunzha2781215385Terek near Gudermes[254]
***-Malka2101016398Terek near Prokhladny[255]
2841+Kuma8023350011Caspian Sea near Lagan[256]
111VolgaOkaUpa ← Uperta379014325068087Caspian Sea near Astrakhan[note 137][257][258][25]
...VolgaKuybyshev ReservoirKama377114325068087Caspian Sea near Astrakhan[note 138][257][260]
...Volga353014325068087Caspian Sea near Astrakhan[257]
***-Akhtuba537 ?153Volga Delta near Astrakhan[note 139][261]
***-Yeruslan2786196 ?Volgograd Reservoir near Kamyshin[note 140][262]
***-Tereshka273986418Volga near Saratov[263]
***-Bolshoy Irgiz ← Bolshaya Glushitsa6792401023Volga near Volsk[note 141][264]
***-Maly Irgiz ← Chernava26239166.4Volga[note 142][265]
***-Chapayevka/Mocha29851262.5Volga near Novokuybyshevsk[266]
***-Samara5944645446Volga in Samara[267]
***--Bolshoy Kinel4361492934Samara in Kinel[note 143][268]
***--Tok [de] - Bitkul312589713Samara near Buzuluk[note 144][269]
***-Sok3631145533Volga near Samara[270]
***--Kondurcha29443279.4Sok[271]
***-Bolshoy Cheremshan3361180635Kuybyshev Reservoir near Dimitrovgrad[note 145][272]
***-Kama19675233243800Kuybyshev Reservoir south of Kazan[note 146][260]
***--Sheshma ← Lesnaya Sheshma268619611Kama near Starosheshminsk[note 147][273]
***--Vyatka ← Belaya1318128713890Kama near Nizhnekamsk[note 148][274]
***---KilmezUt [ru]2951716085Vyatka near Ust-Kilmez[note 149][275]
***---Pizhma3051498190Vyatka near Sovetsk[276]
***---Moloma ← Palomka4351239948Vyatka near Kotelnich[note 150][277]
***---Cheptsa ← Loza52620230130Vyatka in Kirovo-Chepetsk[note 151][278]
***---Letka260363321Vyatka[279]
***---Kobra [de]324782455Vyatka near Nagorsk[280]
***--Ik5711793446Kama near Menzelinsk[281]
***--Izh259846934Kama[282]
***--Belaya1430141609858Kama near Neftekamsk[283]
***---Bystry Tanyp345770045Belaya[284]
***---Dyoma ← Tyatep5561302235Belaya in Ufa[note 152][285]
***---UfaAy93152747388Belaya in Ufa[note 153][286]
***---Ufa91852747388Belaya in Ufa[287]
***----Yuryuzan404785055Ufa near Karaidel[288]
***----Ay5491482584Ufa near Krasnoufimsk[289]
***---SimInzer [de; ru]31311629110Belaya[note 154][290]
***--Chusovaya59246812222Kama Reservoir near Perm[note 155][291]
***---Sylva49322188139Chusovaya near Perm[292]
***---Usva266612531Chusovaya in Chusovoy[293]
***--Kosva ← Typyl298732290Kama Reservoir near Perermskoye[note 156][294]
***--Inva257630429Kama Reservoir near Maykor[note 157][295]
***--Yayva304653088Kama Reservoir near Berezniki[note 157][296]
***--VisheraKolva49431286457Kama near Solikamsk[note 158][297][298]
...--Vishera41531286457Kama near Solikamsk[297]
***---Kolva46013311200Vishera at Cherdyn, Perm Krai[note 159][299]
***---YazvaGlukhaya Vilva272585570Vishera near Cherdyn[note 160][300]
***--Kosa267985140Kama near Ust-Kosa[301]
***--Veslyana266725368Kama near Ust-Veslyana[302]
***-Sviyaga ← Malaya Sviyaga3791694457Kuybyshev Reservoir west of Kazan[note 161][303]
***-Bolshaya Kokshaga297648140Volga near Kokshaysk[304]
***-VetlugaVokhma [de; ru]90139438255Volga near Kozmodemyansk[note 162][305]
***--Usta253601928Vetluga near Voskresenskoye[306]
***-SuraKadada [ru]86767240260Volga in Vasilsursk[note 163][307]
***--Pyana ← Cheka453799125Sura near Sergach[note 164][308]
***--Alatyr3041117143Sura at Alatyr[note 165][309]
***-Kerzhenets290620720Volga near Lyskovo[310]
***-OkaUpa ← Uperta15592443081258Volga in Nizhny Novgorod[note 166][258][311]
...-Oka15042443081258Volga in Nizhny Novgorod[258]
***--Klyazma68642421147Oka in Gorbatov[312]
***---Nerl284676626Klyazma near Bogolyubovo[313]
***--Tyosha31177814Oka near Murom[314]
***--Moksha ← Azyas6605037995Oka near Yelatma[note 167][315]
***---Tsna ← Osinovka4572143746Moksha near Sasovo[note 168][316]
***--Pronya3361018050Oka near Spassk-Ryazansky[317]
***--MoskvaRuza48717618150Oka in Kolomna[note 169][318]
***--Protva282460225Oka near Serpukhov[319]
***--UgraDemina [ru]4361569990Oka near Kaluga[note 170][320]
***--UpaUperta [ru]356952940Oka near Suvorov[note 171][311]
***-UnzhaKema [ru]53129156158Volga near Yuryevets[note 172][321]
***--Neya253628646Unzha near Makaryev[322]
***-Kostroma3541983885Gorky Reservoir in Kostroma[note 157][323]
***-SheksnaLake BeloyeKema44121419172Rybinsk Reservoir near Rybinsk[note 173][324]
***--SudaNozhema [ru]26113469134Rybinsk Reservoir near Cherepovets[note 174][325]
***-Mologa45630074172Rybinsk Reservoir near Rybinsk[note 175][326]
***--ChagodoshchaLid [ru]286933358Mologa near Ustyuzhna[note 176][327]
***-Medveditsa259638441Volga near Sknyatino[328]
3690+Maly Uzen638116008Kamysh-Samarskiye Lakes [note 177][2]
3473+Bolshoy Uzen6501579511Kamysh-Samarskiye Lakes [2]
3837Ural2428210581400Caspian Sea in Atyrau [329][2]
***-Chagan26475307.7Ural in Oral [330]
***-Utva29069523.8Ural
***-Ilek6234187540Ural near Ilek [331]
***--Bolshaya Khobda [de] - Karakhobda3631466614Ilek [note 178][332]
***-Sakmara79831040144Ural in Orenburg[333]
***--Bolshoy Ik341765161Sakmara near Saraktash[334]
***-Or3321853321Ural near Orsk [335]

Rivers of Europe by length


The Volga, the longest river in Europe, in Oktyabrsk, Russia.
The Danube, Europe's second-longest river, in Budapest, Hungary.

The longest rivers in Europe with their approximate lengths (incomplete list):[336][337]

  1. Volga -   3,690 km (2,290 mi)
  2. Danube - 2,860 km (1,780 mi)
  3. Ural   -    2,428 km (1,509 mi)
  4. Dnieper - 2,290 km (1,420 mi)
  5. Don   -     1,950 km (1,210 mi)
  6. Pechora - 1,809 km (1,124 mi)
  7. * Kama -  1,805 km (1,122 mi) (the longest left tributary of the Volga and the largest one in discharge)
  8. * Oka   -   1,500 km (930 mi) (the longest right tributary of Volga)
  9. * Belaya - 1,430 km (890 mi) (tributary of Kama)
  10. Dniester - 1,352 km (840 mi)
  11. Rhine   -   1,236 km (768 mi)
  12. * Desna - 1,130 km (700 mi) (major left tributary of Dnieper)
  13. Elbe   -   1,091 km (678 mi)
  14. * Donets   -   1,053 km (654 mi) (major right tributary of Don River)
  15. Vistula - 1,047 km (651 mi)
  16. Tagus   - 1,038 km (645 mi)
  17. Daugava - 1,020 km (630 mi)
  18. Loire - 1,012 km (629 mi)
  19. * Tisza   -   966 km (600 mi) (1,358 km (844 mi) before 1880)[338] (tributary of the Danube)
  20. Ebro - 960 km (600 mi)
  21. * Prut - 953 km (592 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  22. Neman - 937 km (582 mi)
  23. * Sava - 933 km (580 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  24. Meuse - 925 km (575 mi)
  25. Kuban River - 906 km (563 mi)
  26. Douro - 897 km (557 mi)
  27. Mezen - 857 km (533 mi)[339]
  28. Oder - 854 km (531 mi)
  29. Guadiana - 829 km (515 mi)
  30. Rhône - 815 km (506 mi)
  31. Kuma - 802 km (498 mi)
  32. * Warta - 795 km (494 mi) (major tributary of Oder)
  33. Seine  - 776 km (482 mi)
  34. Mureș - 761 km (473 mi)
  35. Northern Dvina - 744 km (462 mi)
  36. * Vychegda - 744 km (462 mi) (major left tributary of Northern Dvina)
  37. * Drava - 710[193] km (440 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  38. Po - 682 km (424 mi)
  39. Guadalquivir - 657 km (408 mi)
  40. Bolshoy Uzen - 650 km (400 mi)
  41. * Siret - 647 km (402 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  42. * Maly Uzen - 638 km (396 mi) (tributary of Bolshoy Uzen)
  43. Terek - 623 km (387 mi)
  44. * Olt - 615 km (382 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  45. * Vashka - 605 km (376 mi) (major tributary of Mezen)
  46. Glomma - 604 km (375 mi)(Norway's longest and most voluminous river)
  47. Garonne - 602 km (374 mi)
  48. * Usa - 565 km (351 mi) (major tributary of Pechora)
  49. Kemijoki - 550 km (340 mi)
  50. * Great Morava - 550 km (340 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  51. * Moselle 546 km (339 mi)(longest left tributary of Rhine)
  52. * Main 525 km (326 mi) (longest right tributary of Rhine)
  53. Torne - 522 km (324 mi)
  54. Dalälven - 520 km (320 mi)
  55. * Inn (river) 518 km (322 mi)(tributary of the Danube)
  56. Maritsa - 515 km (320 mi)
  57. Marne - 514 km (319 mi) (major tributary of Seine)
  58. Neris - 510 km (320 mi)
  59. Júcar - 509 km (316 mi)
  60. Dordogne - 483 km (300 mi)
  61. * Saône - 480 km (300 mi) (major tributary of Rhône)
  62. Ume - 470 km (290 mi)
  63. ** Mur - 464 km (288 mi) (tributary of Drava)
  64. Ångerman - 460 km (290 mi)
  65. * Klarälven - 460 km (290 mi) (major tributary of the Göta älv)
  66. Lule - 460 km (290 mi)
  67. Gauja - 452 km (281 mi)
  68. Weser - 452 km (281 mi)
  69. Kalix - 450 km (280 mi)
  70. * Vindel River - 445 km (277 mi) (major tributary of the Ume River)
  71. Ljusnan - 430 km (270 mi)
  72. Indalsälven - 430 km (270 mi)
  73. * Vltava - 430 km (270 mi) (major tributary of the Elbe)
  74. Ponoy - 426 km (265 mi)
  75. Ialomița - 417 km (259 mi)
  76. Onega- 416 km (258 mi)
  77. ** Someș - 415 km (258 mi) (tributary of Tisza)
  78. Struma - 415 km (258 mi)
  79. Adige - 410 km (250 mi)
  80. Skellefte - 410 km (250 mi)
  81. Tiber - 406 km (252 mi)
  82. * Vah - 406 km (252 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  83. Pite - 400 km (250 mi)
  84. * Faxälven - 399 km (248 mi) (major tributary of the Ångerman)
  85. Vardar - 388 km (241 mi)
  86. Shannon - 386 km (240 mi)
  87. Charente - 381 km (237 mi)
  88. * Iskar - 368 km (229 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  89. * Tundzha - 365 km (227 mi) (major tributary of Maritsa)
  90. Ems - 362 km (225 mi)
  91. Tana - 361 km (224 mi)
  92. Scheldt - 360 km (220 mi)
  93. * Timiș - 359 km (223 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  94. * Genil - 358 km (222 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  95. Severn - 354 km (220 mi)
  96. * Morava - 353 km (219 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  97. Luga - 353 km (219 mi)
  98. * Argeș - 350 km (220 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  99. Ljungan - 350 km (220 mi)
  100. Minho - 350 km (220 mi)
  101. Venta - 346 km (215 mi)
  102. Thames - 346 km (215 mi)
  103. * Drina - 346 km (215 mi) (major tributary of Sava, Danube)
  104. * Jiu - 339 km (211 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  105. Drin - 335 km (208 mi)
  106. Segura - 325 km (202 mi)
  107. Torne - 324 km (201 mi)
  108. * Osam - 314 km (195 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  109. * Arda - 290 km (180 mi) (tributary of Maritsa)
  110. * Yantra - 285 km (177 mi) (tributary of the Danube)
  111. Kamchiya - 254 km (158 mi)
  112. Mesta - 243 km (151 mi)

Rivers of Europe by discharge


This is an incomplete list of the largest rivers of Europe by discharge:

  1. Volga - 8,087 m3/s (285,600 cu ft/s)
  2. Danube - 6,450 m3/s (228,000 cu ft/s)
  3. Pechora - 4,380 m3/s (155,000 cu ft/s)
  4. * Kama - 3,800 m3/s (130,000 cu ft/s) (the longest left tributary of the Volga and the largest one in discharge)
  5. Northern Dvina - 3,330 m3/s (118,000 cu ft/s)
  6. Neva - 2,490 m3/s (88,000 cu ft/s)
  7. Rhine - 2,315 m3/s (81,800 cu ft/s) (Aare - 560 m3/s (20,000 cu ft/s) as major tributary of the Rhine, even larger than Rhine's contribution of 440 m3/s (16,000 cu ft/s) at their confluence in Koblenz; Waal - 1,500 m3/s (53,000 cu ft/s) as its main distributary)
  8. Rhône - 1,900 m3/s (67,000 cu ft/s)
  9. Dnieper - 1,700 m3/s (60,000 cu ft/s)
  10. * Sava - 1,609 m3/s (56,800 cu ft/s) (tributary of the Danube)
  11. Po - 1,460 m3/s (52,000 cu ft/s) (largest river in Italy)
  12. * Usa - 1,310 m3/s (46,000 cu ft/s) (major tributary of Pechora)
  13. * Oka - 1,258 m3/s (44,400 cu ft/s) (the longest right tributary of the Volga)
  14. * Vychegda - 1,160 m3/s (41,000 cu ft/s) (major left tributary of Northern Dvina)
  15. Vistula - 1,080 m3/s (38,000 cu ft/s)
  16. Don - 890 m3/s (31,000 cu ft/s)
  17. Mezen - 890 m3/s (31,000 cu ft/s)
  18. * Vyatka - 890 m3/s (31,000 cu ft/s) (tributary of the Kama, Volga)
  19. Loire - 889 m3/s (31,400 cu ft/s)
  20. * Tisza - 863 m3/s (30,500 cu ft/s) (tributary of the Danube)
  21. Elbe - 860 m3/s (30,000 cu ft/s)
  22. * Belaya - 858 m3/s (30,300 cu ft/s) (tributary of the Kama, Volga)
  23. * Svir - 790 m3/s (28,000 cu ft/s) (tributary of Neva, through Lake Onega)
  24. * Inn - 735 m3/s (26,000 cu ft/s) (tributary of the Danube)
  25. Glomma - 709 m3/s (25,000 cu ft/s) (Norway's longest and most voluminous river)
  26. Göta älv - 575 m3/s (20,300 cu ft/s)
  27. Lule älv - 505 m3/s (17,800 cu ft/s)
  28. Ångermanälven - 500 m3/s (18,000 cu ft/s)
  29. Indalsälven - 445 m3/s (15,700 cu ft/s)
  30. Umeälven - 443 m3/s (15,600 cu ft/s)
  31. Kuban River - 430 m3/s (15,000 cu ft/s)
  32. Maritsa - 383 m3/s (13,500 cu ft/s)
  33. Meuse - 357 m3/s (12,600 cu ft/s)
  34. Dniester - 313 m3/s (11,100 cu ft/s)
  35. * Great Morava - 232 m3/s (8,200 cu ft/s) (tributary of the Danube)
  36. Vardar - 170 m3/s (6,000 cu ft/s)
  37. * Arda - 77 m3/s (2,700 cu ft/s) (tributary of Maritsa)
  38. Struma - 76 m3/s (2,700 cu ft/s)
  39. * Iskar - 54 m3/s (1,900 cu ft/s) (tributary of the Danube)
  40. * Yantra - 47 m3/s (1,700 cu ft/s) (tributary of the Danube)
  41. Mesta - 45 m3/s (1,600 cu ft/s)
  42. * Tundzha - 32 m3/s (1,100 cu ft/s) (tributary of Maritsa)
  43. Kamchiya - 26 m3/s (920 cu ft/s)

Notes


  1. Countries through which the river flows. Like the tributaries, these are ordered from mouth to source. The river's basin may cover more countries than listed here.
  2. The 32 km Bolhshaya Kara is the longer of the two source rivers of the 257 km Kara proper
  3. The 111 km Syadey-Yu is the longest source river of the 199 km Korotaikha.
  4. Voronya (155 km) drains Lake Lovozero, which is fed by the Kurga (81 km) 15 km across. The systems starting with Maryok [ru]-Afanasiya [ru] (62 km, with a 30 km crossing) and Tsaga [ru] (45 km, with a 48 km crossing) are nearly the same length.
  5. The Lutto (Lotta in Russian; 190 km) flows into Lake Onozero, which, after a 66 km minimal crossing, is drained by Tuloma (64 km).
  6. Karashoka (166 km) and Inarijoki (153 km) join to form the 200 km long Tana River.
  7. Discharge reduced to 95 m3/s since the building of a reservoir
  8. A single river with different names along its stretch.
  9. The Vltava (431 km) joins the Elbe 833 km above its mouth in the North Sea. The length and catchment area of the river include the estuary until Cuxhaven, where the estuary is 15 km wide, but the nautical channel only 400 m.
  10. The length and catchment area of the Elbe includes the estuary until Cuxhaven, where the estuary is 15 km wide, but the nautical channel only 400 m.
  11. The Spree (382 km) joins the Havel (334 km) 178 km before that reaches the Elbe.
  12. The "Vereinigte Mulde" (124 km) originates from the confluence of the Zwickauer Mulde (166 km) and Freiberger Mulde (124 km).
  13. The Vltava proper (377 km) is formed by the confluence of the Studená (Cold) Vltava (8.3 km) and the Warm Vltava (54.3 km)
  14. The 451 km Weser originates at the confluence of the 300 km Werra and the 220 km Fulda. The Weser and Werra originally had the same name (Wesera). The length and basin area include the Innere Außenweser, a channel through the estuary that is exposed at low tide.
  15. The Leine (281 km) joins the Aller (260 km) 52 km before that reaches the Weser.
  16. The length and catchment area include the river channel through the Dollard and Ems estuary, both mostly dry at low tide, up to Eemshaven.
  17. With Zwarte Meer and Ramsgeul, which lead to the Ketelmeer, the length would be 214 km and the basin 5,867 km2
  18. The Oude IJssel (82 km, same length when starting from the larger Bocholter Aa or smaller Issel source rivers) flows into the 125-km IJssel 19 km below the IJssel's origin from the Nederrijn. The 106 km lower IJssel drains in the Ketelmeer, which is connected to the North Sea via the IJsselmeer and Wadden Sea. The upper IJssel was formed between the 600 and 900 CE as a distributary of the Rhine and provides 75% of the volume.
  19. Basin area excludes the Meuse basin, which could be considered a tributary of the Rhine. The discharge is that for the Rhine just across the border in the Netherlands before it breaks up in its distributaries. The total discharge to the North Sea is considerably higher.
  20. Distributary branch of the Rhine
  21. The Alme (59 km) flows into the 220 km long Lippe 11 km below Lippe's source.
  22. The Neger (20.5 km from both its Renau and Namenlose tributaries) flows into the Ruhr (219.3 km) 202.5 km before it runs into the Rhine.
  23. 48 km Moselotte flows into the 544 km Moselle 43 km below Moselle's source.
  24. The 63.1 km long Ohm, measured from the source of the Felda tributary, joins the 245.6 km long Lahn 58.7 km below the source of the Lahn
  25. Regnitz (191.1 km from its most distant source) flows into the Main, 133.2 km below its most distant source, and 391.8 km before its mouth.
  26. The White Main (51.7 km) and the longer but smaller Red Main (71.8 km) are the headwaters of the Main (473.2 km). This course has the highest volume at each following junction.
  27. The Pegnitz, for the first 15 km known as Fichtenhohe, joins after 127.3 km with the Rednitz, itself 123.7 km long from its most distant source, to form the Regnitz. After a further 63.7 km the Regnitz flows into the Main.
  28. Until 1904, when the Bergse Maas was created, the Meuse was a tributary of the Rhine. Because of further canalization in 1970 the Meuse could be considered a tributary of the Rhine again. The catchment area and length include the Haringvliet and Hollands Diep estuaries, which are riverine at low tide.
  29. The length of the Scheldt traditionally includes the Westerschelde estuary, which is riverine at low tide . The catchment area includes the complete delta (i.e. including the Oosterschelde), while the discharge is for that near Antwerp. Without the Westerschelde the length would be about 295 km. The source of the Leie may be a few km further upstream than the source of the Scheldt itself.
  30. The traditional length of the Thames is 346 km measured from Thames Head to the very end of the Thames estuary at Foulness Point, past the Medway. The traditional catchment area of 12,935 km2 however is for a region above Gravesend and the Medway catchment area is not considered part of the Thames watershed. As a compromise, the given catchment area and length ends at the Medway (338 from Thames Head). The 25 km Churn joins the newborn Thames 3 km below its source to make the total length 360 km.
  31. The catchment area and length exclude the Humber estuary and the River Don basin (1857 km2), which in 1628 was artificially diverted to Rivers Aire (and eventually Ouse) via the Dutch River, but in 1802 was reconnected to the Trent via the Stainforth and Keadby Canal. Discharge is 89.5 m3/s for 80% of the catchment area.
  32. The catchment area and length exclude the Humber estuary, but the catchment area includes the River Don basin (1857 km2) (see River Trent).
  33. Catchment area and discharge include that of River Earn but exclude the Firth of Tay. It's unclear if the Firth is included in the length.
  34. The 1130 km long Vychegda joins the Northern Dvina 673 km from its mouth in the White Sea.
  35. The Northern Dvina (744 km) originates at the confluence of the Sukhona (558 km) and the Yug (574 km). The Sukhona starts at the small lake Kubenskoye (a ~15 km course), which is fed by the 368 km Kubena.
  36. The 231 km long Mekhrenga joins the 188 km Yemtsa, 68 km before it reaches the Dvina.
  37. The 477 km Ustya joins the 575 km Vaga 259 km before the Vaga flows into the Dvina.
  38. The 574 km long Luza joins the Yug 35 km before the Yug merges with the Sukhona to form the Northern Dvina.
  39. The name of this river changes from Kubena (368 km) to Sukhona (558 km) after the relatively small Lake Kubenskoye (a ~15 km crossing).
  40. Vozhega (140 km) runs into Lake Vozhe (<30 km straight crossing inflow to outflow), which is drained by the Svid (64 km), which flows into Lake Lacha (33 km long), where 416 km Onega originates.
  41. The Segezha, 329 km from its most distant source, flows into Lake Vygozero 18 km away from where the Lower Vyg (88 km) drains it.
  42. The 33 km long Umba flows in the 135 km Upper Vyg, 112 km before that flows into Lake Vegozero. This 80 km long lake is drained by the 88 km long Lower Vyg.
  43. Talgiesdegi (48 km) joins Voloma (138 km) 113 km before that flows into Lake Segozero (mean flow 20 m3/s). This lake, crossed in a straight line in 35 km, is drained by the Segezha (59 km), which flows into Lake Vygozero (mean flow 74 m3/s).
  44. Kem (18 km) and Čirka (16 km) form the headwaters of 220 km Čirka-Kem, which, confusingly, joins another much larger river named Kem 7 km below its origin from Kuyto Lake and 184 km before it streams into the White Sea.
  45. Pistojoki (Pista in Russian; 110 km) feeds the ca. 98 km Kuyto Lakes chain, which, on the other side, is drained by the Kem (191 km).
  46. River Kovda, flowing through many large lakes, has a given length of 233 km.[90] Kovda drains Lake Topozero from the northwest; at the very southeast of the lake, 76 and 79 km via a straight course, the small rivers Karango (16 km) and Kondoya (13 km) run in the lake and form the most distant sources of the river Kovda.
  47. Niva drains Lake Imandra, the longest distance over the complex network of lakes and rivers above it is unclear, though it is over 200 km.
  48. Abiskojokk (40 km) feeds lake Torneträsk, which is drained after a 55 km crossing by the Torne (470 km).
  49. Lake Kilpisjärvi is drained, about 30 km from its headwater's most distant source, by Könkämäeno. The Gobmeatnu tributary, which joins just below the lake, perhaps has a slightly more distant source. Könkämäeno (90 km) and Lätäseno (60 km) join to form Muonio (230 km).
  50. The southeastern end of the lake Rostojávri, some 26 km from its most distant source is drained by the 266 km long Rostoeatnu- Lainio river.
  51. Peranganjoki [sv]Alajoki [sv] (together well over 80 km) → Lake Kiantajärvi (50 km crossing) → Emäjoki [fi; sv]IijärviKiehimänjoki (these three 103 km together) → Oulujärvi (75 km course) → Oulujoki (107 km). The entire system above the lake Oulujärvi is also referred to as Hyrynsalmi.
  52. The length of this system is a rough estimate. The Peranganjoki-Alajoki system (>> 80 km) feeds Kiantajärvi. After a 50 km course, this lake is drained by the 105 km long Emäjoki-Kiehimäjnoki watercourse, which feeds Oulujärvi. The entire system above this lake is also referred to as Hyrynsalmi. After a 75 km course through Oulujärvi, Oulujoki (107 km) takes the water to the Bothnian Bay.
  53. Kokemäenjoki drains Kulovesi, the last of a large chain of lakes. The system starting with Keurusselkä, via Kuorevesi, Ruovesi, Palovesi, Näsijärvi, Tammerkoski, Pyhäjärvi, and Nokianvirta to Kulovesi is the central course, but its total length is tricky to define.
  54. The 204 km Kymi river drains Lake Päijänne, which 120 km further north near Jyväskylä is fed from a network of lakes further north. The sources that feed the lake Koivujärvi are the most distant for Kymi. From there, the shortest route over the so called Rautalammin route [fi] (including lakes Pielavesi, Nilakka, Iisvesi, Kiesimä, Konnevesi, Kynsivesi, and Kuusvesi) and via Saraavesi and Leppävesi to Päijänne is 230 km.
  55. The 844 km Volkhov system flows into Lake Ladoga ~92 km (shortest course) from where the Neva (74 km) drains it.
  56. The 806 km long Pielisjoki system flows into the northeastern end of lake Saimaa. A ~260 km course through this complex lake leads to the 156 km Vuoksi exit.
  57. Murdoyoki [ru] (41 km) → Roukkulanjärvi [fi; ru] (27 km) → Omelianjoki [ru] (7 km) → Torosozero [ru]-Leksozero (44 km) → Sula River [ru] (21 km) → Sula lake (7 km) → Lieksanjoki (132 km) → Pielinen Lake (44 km) → Pielisjoki (67 km) → Saimaa. The watershed area is a rough guess.
  58. The 358 km-long Vodla system feeds into Lake Onega. After a 96 km crossing, 224 km-long Svir drains this lake into Lake Ladoga.
  59. Olova (42 km) joins Ileksa (155 km) 135 km before that flows into Lake Vodlozero. After a 32 km direct crossing, this lake is drained by the Vodla (149 km).
  60. The Volkov river (224 km) drains Lake Ilmen from the delta of the 620-km Msta-Tsna system.
  61. Tsna (160 km) flows into Lake Mstino, which after 15 km is drained by 445 km Msta.
  62. The 192 km Oredezh joins the Luga 191 km upstream from the sea
  63. Väike Emajõgi (82 km) feeds the lake Võrtsjärv. After a 35 km crossing, Võrtsjärv is drained by Suur Emajõgi (101 km)
  64. The Pededze (159 km) flows into the Alviekste 22 km below Alviekste's source in Lake Lubāns and 95 km before it drains into the Daugava.
  65. The 264 km long Lyna/Lava joins the Pregolya 72 km before it reaches the sea
  66. The Angrapa (ca 170 km) is the longest source river of the Pregolya (123 km). The 89 km Gołdapa joins the Angrapa ca 100 km before the formation of Pregolya.
  67. HydroBasins data support the 264 km estimate by the Polish source over the 289 km estimate by the Russian source.
  68. The 772 km long Western Bug merges with the Narew and after a further 38 km flows into the Vistula 401 km above that river's discharge in the Baltic Sea. Though shorter, the Vistula has twice as high a volume at the meeting point.
  69. The commonly quoted 194,424 km2 catchment area probably includes coastal waters.
  70. The 772 km Bug joins the Narew 38 km before its confluence with the Vistula. The 38 km joined stretch used to be and locally still is known as Bugo-Narew.
  71. Hydrologically and historically, the Narew is a tributary of the Bug, but by a decree of the Polish regime in 1962 the roles were reversed.
  72. The 808 km Warta joins the 854 km Oder 237 km above the Oder's mouth.
  73. Canalization reduced the length of the Oder from ca 1040 km to the current 854 km.
  74. A 102 km long estuary is excluded from the length and catchment area; this estuary has a basin of 15,700-16,800 km2.
  75. The Three Sisters are the rivers Suir (184 km), Barrow (192 km) and Nore (140 km). Nore flows into Barrow, which 20 km later joins the Suir to form the estuary named Waterford Harbour
  76. Length and catchment area include the Mersey estuary, which constricts to 1 km width before entering the Irish Sea. River Mersey originates at the confluence of the 30 mile (ca 48 km) long River Tame and River Goyt
  77. The 516 km long Marne flows into the larger Seine 361 km before it drains in the English Channel.
  78. Seine's catchment area (75,374 km2)[139] excludes the Crique de Rouen estuary; this would add another ~2800 km2, including the Risle river basin
  79. The Aire (125 km) flows into the larger Aisne (356 km) 121 km below its source. The Aisne joins the smaller Oise about 94 km before it drains in the Seine.
  80. The Loir (317.4 km) flows in the Sarthe (314 km). 9.2 km later the Sarthe joins the Mayenne to form the short Maine river, which flows into the Loire after just 11.5 km.
  81. The 380 km Tarn flows into the Garonne about 230 km before it meets the ocean. As both its volume and catchment area are larger, the Tarn is hydrologically the upper part of the Garonne river.
  82. Starting from the Ruda-Garona, the longest headwater of the Garonne. Length (54 km in Spain, 521 km in France) and catchment area exclude the Gironde estuary.
  83. The 226 km Sil flows into the Minho about 135 km above the Minho reaches the ocean.
  84. The commonly given 80,000+ km2 for the drainage area includes the 7740 km2 basin of the Sorraia, here treated as a primary river.
  85. The 167 km Záncara joins the 155 km Cigüela (or Gigüela) and the 76 km Guadiana Alto in a trifurcation some 755 km before the Guadiana reaches the ocean. On some maps, the following 77 km are still called Cigüela. See the Spanish Guadiana article on the confusion in this river system.
  86. The Guadiana Alto/Viejo source river is 76 km long.
  87. Hydrologically the Guardiana Menor and its longest source river the Guardal (a.k.a. Barbata) form the true upper course of the Guadalquivir, which has a nominal length of 657 km. Barbata/Guardal - Guardiana Menor (206 km) meets the nominal Guadalquivir 138 km below its source.
  88. The 453 km long Doubs joins the upper Saône to form the 171 km long Grand Saône, which flows into the Rhône 333 km above its mouth in the Mediterranean.
  89. The furthest headstream of the Arno could be considered the 19th-century, 62 km Canale Maestro della Chiana [fr; it] that drains part of Valdichiana into the Arno about 30 km below its source for a total length of over 270 km. 306 km2 has been subtracted from the HydroBasins area for the endorheic Lake Trasimeno.
  90. The Tanaro (285 km including its Negrone source river) joins the Po 234 km below its source. A competing longest stretch is 691 km starting from the Maira. (see it:Po for references and discussion)
  91. The 9 km Negrino is the longer source stream of the 276 km Tanaro.
  92. Hydrologically, this is one river with the upper courses of the Rienz, Eisack and Adige/Etsch as tributaries, as it forms the longest course and has the largest discharge at each junction. The ca 130 km long Ahr->Rienz->Eisack originating under the Dreiherrnspitze joins the 409 km long Adige/Etch 103 km below the latter's nominal source.
  93. The 17 km long Karlinbach, originating under the Weißkugel, flows into the Reschensee, about 5 km below the official source under the Reschen Pass of the 409 km long Adige/Etsch.
  94. The Trebišnjica enters the Hutovo Blato marshland in Bosnia through a complex underground karst system. From here a portion of its waters continues the 9 km long Krupa to join the Neretva. Other portions appear as outlets on the coast, e.g. in Neum in Bosnia, in Slano and most significantly near Dubrovnik in Croatia as the 30 m short Ombla river into the Rijeka Dubrovačka ria.
  95. The Drin (343 km from its most distant source) drains partly in the Adriatic, but the main channel, called Drinasa, joins the 44 km Bojana 3 km after that emerges from Lake Skadar.
  96. The Sateska (38 km) flows into the Black Drin (149 km) less than 4 km after Black Drin's emergence from Lake Ohrid. Black Drin meets White Drin 145 km later to form the Drin proper (160 km). The drainage area (but not the length) includes the 1394 km2 Lake Prespa basin, which drains underground through very porous karst mountains into Lake Ohrid.
  97. The 132 km long Treska flows into the Vardar about 261 km above its mouth in the Aegean Sea.
  98. The often-mentioned 17,323 km2 drainage area is much too large, as the total area drained by the Meriç (including Ergene) in Turkey is only 14,560 km2.
  99. Including the 46 km Breg headstream
  100. The most distant source for the Prut may be via the 167 km Cheremosh tributary.
  101. Siret length estimates range from 559 km to 726 km. The shorter length is supported by HydroBasins data.
  102. The 237 km-long Dâmbovița forms at the confluence of 8 km Valea Vladului and 6.5 km Valea Otic .
  103. Hydrologically, this is a single river, as it follows at both junctions the river with the greatest length, drainage area and average discharge. The Great Morava (185 km) is formed by the merger of the West and South Morava. The 276 km Ibar joins the West Morava 89 km before it becomes the Great Morava.
  104. Drainage area is hard to estimate due to the connectivity of the karst system. The most detailed level of HydroBasins data gives a lower drainage area (87197 km2) as it excludes local basins connected as such.
  105. The 140 km Tara is the larger and longer of the two source rivers of the 346 km Drina. The most detailed level of HydroBasins data gives a lower drainage area (18820 km2) as it excludes local basins connected underground via the karst system.
  106. Drainage area is hard to estimate due to the connectivity of the karst system. The most detailed level of HydroBasins data gives a lower drainage area (8076 km2) as it excludes local basins connected underground as such.
  107. The 415 km Someș joins the Tisza 696 km before its mouth in the Danube.[2] The average discharge is that measured at Szeged, which is higher than at places downstream.
  108. The Tisza used to be 1,419 km long, but through canalization between 1846 and 1880 was reduced to its current length of 966 km. The average discharge is for that at Szeged, where it is higher than at places downstream.
  109. Average discharge as measured at Arad, where it is higher than at places downstream.
  110. The 286 km Hornád river joins the 229 km Sajó 32 km before the latter streams into the Tisza.
  111. Latorica (188 km) and Ondava (147 km) join to form the Bodrog (67 km)
  112. At the junction 47 km from its nominal source, the upper Drau is in every hydrological aspect a tributary of the Isel. The longer Isel, 65 km from the Schwarzach source under the Rötspitze, continues straight, is on average almost 3x larger in volume, and drains twice as large a basin. Below the junction the Drau/Drava is 663 km long.
  113. Zala (139 km) is the longest and primary inflow of Lake Balaton. 70 km across, Balaton is drained by the 121 km Sió, a water course created in the 3rd century CE.
  114. The 78 km Schwarza is the longest source river of the 180 km Leitha.
  115. The 311 km Thaya flows into the Morava 91 km before it joins the Danube
  116. The Austrian a.k.a. German Thaya (76 km) joins the Moravian Thaya (68 km) to form Thaya proper (235 km). The catchment area of 12,772 km2 given in the source[194] accidentally excludes the Kyjovka tributary.
  117. Leutascher Ache (30 km) joins the Isar (291.5 km) 26.1 km below its source.
  118. The Breitach (24.3 km from Turabach source) joins with the Trettach (15.6 km) to form the Iller (146 km).
  119. The Southern Bug is 857 km long when including its liman; the given drainage area does include the Inhul, which empties in this liman.
  120. Vovcha (323 km) joins the Samara 222 km below its source and 98 km before their discharge in the Dnieper.
  121. 327 km Uday flows into the Sula (363 km) about 120 km above Sula merges into the Dnieper.
  122. The 659 km Horyn joins the Pripyat 395 km above its confluence with the Dnieper
  123. The 520 km Voronezh (starting from the Polnoy Voronezh source) flows into the Don 1403 above its mouth in the Sea of Azov
  124. Kalaus (436 km) is the upstream section of Manych (nominally 420 km); Kalaus used to split up into the (West) Manych and East Kanych, but the east branch has been dammed off. The 78 km long Yankul joins the Kalaus 365 km before it changes its name to Manych.
  125. The 218 km long Yelan joins the 249 km Tersa 108 km before Tersa flows into the Medveditsa
  126. The Serdoba (160 km) joins the Khopyor (979 km) 128 km after Khopyor's source
  127. The Chembar (119 km including the upper Chembar) joins the Vorona (454 km) 392 km before the Vorona flows into the Khopyor.
  128. The 178 km Polnoy Voronezh joins the 164 km Lesnoy Voronezh to form the 342 km Voronezh proper
  129. Length includes the Ullukam source river, which at its confluence with Uchkulan forms the Kuban.
  130. The 22 km Bolshoy Pshish is the longer source river of the 258 km Pshish proper
  131. The discharge below the reservoir is reduced to 40 m3/s
  132. Discharge is that for the north and south arm of the delta combined.
  133. Many other sources, e.g. , give a 1515 km length, but this is not supported by the HydroBasins data.
  134. Many other sources, e.g. , give a 1264 km length, but this is not supported by the HydroBasins data. The combined length of the Araks-lower Kura system is nearly as long as the Kura itself.
  135. The discharge is for the middle part of the river; at the mouth it is only 9.8 m3/s due to agricultural use and divergence of water towards the Tbilisi reservoir. Before the completion of the Mingachevir reservoir it was a tributary of the Alazani.
  136. In Georgia, the Pirikiti Alazani (44 km) and Tushetis Alazani (48 km) form the Andi Koysu, which 144 km later joins the Avar Koysu (178 km) to form the 169 km long Sulak River.
  137. The Oka River, 1559 km starting from the Uperta source river, joins the Volga 1299 km below its source and 2231 km before its discharge in the Caspian Sea.
  138. The 1967 km Kama (1805 km river and 162 km fairway through a full Kuybyshev Reservoir) joins the Volga 1804 km above the mouth. The Kama has a nearly identical mean discharge and length as the Volga (it may have been significantly longer before the reservoirs were created),[259] while unlike the Volga it doesn't change direction at the meeting point, so that hydrologically the Volga could be considered a tributary of the Kama.
  139. Akhtuba is a distributary of Volga that flows parallel to it, joining at multiple places.
  140. Before the filling of the Volgograd Reservoir in 1961, the Yeruslan was at least 400 km long and had a catchment area of more than 12,000 km2.
  141. Bolshaya Glushitsa (65 km) joins Bolshoy Irgiz (675 km) 61 km below its source
  142. Chernava (75 km) joins Maly Irgiz (235 km) 48km below its source.
  143. Includes the 14 km Su-Elga source stream
  144. Bitkul (34 km) joins Tok (306 km) 28 km below its source.
  145. Before the filling of the Kuybyshev Reservoir in 1957, the Cheremshan was at least 440 km long and had a catchment area of more than 15,300 km2.
  146. The catchment area and length include the Kama-derived part of the Kuybyshev Reservoir. At full capacity, the reservoir extends to the junction with the Vyatka, shortening Kama as a river to 1805 km. Before the creation of the four large reservoirs in its course, the Kama was 2030 km long up to the junction with the Volga.[259]
  147. 56 km Lesnaya Sheshma joins 259 km Sheshma proper 47 km below Sheshma's source
  148. The 96 km Belaya source river joins the 1314 km Vyatka 92 km below Vyatka's source.
  149. 107 km Ut joins the 270 km Kilmez 188 km before Kilmez flows into Vyatka
  150. Palomka (44 km) joins the Moloma (419 km) 28 km below Moloma's source
  151. 127 km Loza joins the 501 km Cheptsa 102 km below Cheptsa's source
  152. The 91 km Tyatep joins the 535 km Dyoma 70 km below Dyoma's source.
  153. The 549 km long Ay joins the Ufa 382 km before that flows in to the Belaya.
  154. The 307 km Inzer joins the 239 km Sim just 6 km before that flows into the Belaya. Before their junction, Sim's discharge is >48 m3/s and Inzer's is 51 to 67 m3/s, but the 6 km joined stretch is named Sim.
  155. Includes the catchment area of the Sylva tributary. Since the building of the Kama Hydroelectric Station both rivers now feed into an arm of the Kama Reservoir.
  156. Typyl (68 km) joins Kosva (238 km), 53 km below the source of the Kosva.
  157. Drainage area but not the length includes the reservoir arm derived from the river.
  158. Kolva (460 km) joins the Vishera (415 km) just 34 km before the Vishera streams into the Kama.
  159. Discharge unknown; calculated from the fraction of the Vishera basin comprised by the Kolva basin.
  160. The 234 km Glukhaya Vilva joins the 176 km Yazva 38 km before that flows into the Vishera.
  161. The 41 km Malaya Sviyaga joins the 375 km Sviyaga 37 km after the latter's source.
  162. The 219 km Vokhma joins the 889 km Vetluga, 207 km below Veluga's source
  163. The Kadada (153 km from its Tahtala source) joins the 841 km Sura 137 km below the source of the Sura itself.
  164. The 70 km Cheka joins the 436 km Pyana 53 km below its source.
  165. The 168 km Cheka joins the 296 km Alatyr 160 km below the source of the Alatyr itself.
  166. The 63 km long Uperta joins the 345 km Upa 52 km below its source. Upa then flows into the 1504 km-long Oka 1203 km before the Oka joins the Volga.
  167. Azyas (40 km) joins Moksha (656 km) 36 km below Moksha's source
  168. Osinovka (37 km) joins Tsna (451 km) 31 km below Tsna's source.
  169. The 145 km Ruza joins the 473 km long Moskva 342 km before the Moskva flows into the Oka. Before canalization, the Moskva itself was 502 km long
  170. The 64 km Demina joins the 399 km Ugra 27 km below its source.
  171. The 63 km Uperta joins the 345 km Upa 293 km before that joins the Oka.
  172. The 426 km long Unzha originates at the confluence of the 105 km long Kema and 89 km long Lyndonga rivers.
  173. The Sheksna was about 700 km long and had a catchment area of ca 39,000 km2 before the creation of the Rybinsk Reservoir in 1947.
  174. The 184 km long Suda originates from the confluence of the Noshema (77 km) and the Koloshma (68 km)
  175. The Mologa was about 700 km long and had a catchment area of over 37,000 km2 before the creation of the Rybinsk Reservoir in 1947.
  176. The 146 km long Lid joins the 242 km Chagodoshcha 140 km before it flows into the Mologa.
  177. The average discharge is measured at stations in the upper part of the river.
  178. Discharge unknown; calculated from the fraction of the Ilek basin comprised by the Khobda basin.

References


SWRR = State Water Register of Russia; GSE = Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969–1978 edition; IEU = Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine.

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  4. "Kara". SWRR.
  5. "Korotaikha". SWRR.
  6. "Pechora". SWRR.
  7. "Pechora At Oksino". R-ArcticNet.
  8. "Sula (Pechora)". SWRR.
  9. "Shapkina". SWRR.
  10. "Tsilma". SWRR.
  11. "Pizhma (Komi Republic)". SWRR.
  12. "Izhma". SWRR.
  13. "Izhma At Izhma". R-ArcticNet.
  14. "Laya". SWRR.
  15. "Usa (Komi Republic)". SWRR.
  16. "Kolva (Usa)". SWRR.
  17. "Adzva". SWRR.
  18. "Kosyu". SWRR.
  19. "Bolshaya Rogovaya". SWRR.
  20. "Shchugor". SWRR.
  21. "Ilych". SWRR.
  22. "Voronya"., "Lake Lovozero". and "Kurga". SWRR.
  23. "Tuloma". SWRR.
  24. "Patso-Yoky At GES Rayakosky". R-ArcticNet.
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  26. "Icelandic Statistics". National Land Survey of Iceland.
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  28. Jacobus Hofstede. "Elbe Estuary" (PDF). Eurosion.
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  30. "Flusssystem der Weser". (German wikipedia article with many official sources)
  31. "Riverine Inputs and Direct Discharges to Convention Waters"., OSPAR Contracting Parties’ RID 2011 Data Report. Long-Term Average discharge (in 1000m3/day) and some catchment area data are in Annex 5, pp 68-76 (PDF file)
  32. Basin area from Nordrhein-Westfalen Flussgebietsverzeichnis (MS Excel; 2,3 MB)
  33. Hydrological trends IJsselmeer (in Dutch)
  34. Beheersgebied Oude Ijssel (in Dutch)
  35. See the references in the German wikipedia article de:Flusssystem der Mosel
  36. "Bach- und Flussgebiete in Bayern". Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt.
  37. See the references in the German wikipedia article de:Flusssystem des Neckar
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  39. "Hydrological Atlas of Switzerland - Characteristics of Basins". 1992.
  40. H.E.J. Berger, A.L. Mugie, Hydrologische systeembeschrijving Maas, Den Haag 1994
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  42. References in nl:Stroomgebied van de Schelde
  43. Bailey, David (15 May 2012). "Could the River Thames be longer than the River Severn?". BBC News.
  44. Discharge extrapolated from Ely Ouse at Denver Complex gauging station.
  45. Trent at North Muskham gaugin station
  46. Discharge extrapolated from Aire at Beal Weir, Ouse at Skelton, Derwent at Stamford Bridge, and Wharfe at Tadcaster gauge stations
  47. "Tweed Forum Catchment Facts".
  48. Discharge extrapolated from Tweed at Norham and Whiteadder Water at Hutton Castle gauging stations.
  49. Discharge extrapolated from Tay at Ballathie, Earn at Forteviot Bridge, and Almond at Almondbank gauging stations.
  50. Spey at Boat o Brig gauging station
  51. "Mezen". SWRR.
  52. "Pyoza". SWRR.
  53. "Peza At Igumnovo". R-ArcticNet. (at 80% of drainage area)
  54. "Vashka". SWRR.
  55. "Kuloy (White Sea)". SWRR.
  56. "Northern Dvina". SWRR.
  57. "Pinega". SWRR.
  58. "Yula". SWRR.
  59. "Yemtsa". SWRR.
  60. "Vaga". and "Ustya". SWRR.
  61. "Vaga". SWRR.
  62. "Ustya". SWRR.
  63. "Kokshenga". SWRR.
  64. "Vychegda". SWRR.
  65. "Viled". SWRR.
  66. "Yarenga". SWRR.
  67. "Vym". SWRR.
  68. "Yolva". SWRR.
  69. "Yelva At Meshura". R-ArcticNet.
  70. "Sysola". SWRR.
  71. "Susola At Pervomaisky". R-ArcticNet.
  72. "Lokchim". SWRR.
  73. "Vishera (Komi Republic)". SWRR.
  74. "Nem". SWRR.
  75. "Yug". and "Luza". SWRR.
  76. "Yug". SWRR.
  77. "Yug At Gavrino". R-ArcticNet.
  78. "Luza". SWRR.
  79. "Sukhona". SWRR.
  80. "Onega"., "Svid". and "Vozhega". SWRR.
  81. "Onega At Porog". R-ArcticNet.
  82. "Onega". SWRR.
  83. "Voloshka". SWRR.
  84. "Lower Vyg".
  85. "Nyzhny Vig (Soroka) At Vigostrov". R-ArcticNet.
  86. "Lower Vyg". and "Upper Vyg". SWRR.
  87. "Segezha". and "Voloma". SWRR.
  88. "Kem". and "Čirka-Kem". SWRR.
  89. "Kem". and "Pista". SWRR.
  90. "Kovda". SWRR.
  91. "Valasreka". SWRR.
  92. "Niva". SWRR.
  93. "Varzuga". SWRR.
  94. "Ponoy". SWRR.
  95. "Ponoy At Ponoy". R-ArcticNet.
  96. "Statistik om älvar". Archived from the original on 2007-03-11.
  97. "Hydropower Hotspots in the Baltic Sea Catchment Area" (PDF). Coalition Clean Baltic. March 2006.
  98. "Neva". SWRR.
  99. "Vuoksi". SWRR.
  100. "Svir".
  101. "Oyat". SWRR.
  102. "Shuya (Karelia)". SWRR.
  103. "Suna". SWRR.
  104. "Vodla"., "Ileksa". SWRR. and "Олова". SWRR.
  105. "Syas". SWRR.
  106. "Volkhov". SWRR.
  107. "Msta". and "Tsna". SWRR.
  108. "Pola". SWRR.
  109. "Lovat". SWRR.
  110. "Shelon". SWRR.
  111. "Luga". and "Oredezh". SWRR.
  112. "Luga". SWRR.
  113. "Plyussa". SWRR.
  114. "Velikaya". SWRR.
  115. "Эмайыги". GSE.
  116. "River Pärnu, Estonia" (PDF). Partnership for European Environmental Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-25. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
  117. Alviekste basin (in Latvian)
  118. "Pregolya". and "Lava". SWRR.
  119. "Pregolya". and "Angrapa". SWRR.
  120. "Łyna". Rzeki Polski.
  121. "Laba". SWRR.
  122. "Vistula". Rzeki Polski.
  123. "Wkra". Rzeki Polski.
  124. "Narew". Rzeki Polski.
  125. "Western Bug". Rzeki Polski.
  126. "Pilica". Rzeki Polski.
  127. "Wieprz". Rzeki Polski. & mean flow of Wieprz
  128. "San". Rzeki Polski.
  129. "Dunajec". Rzeki Polski.
  130. Piotr Kowalczak (2006). "Flood Risk Management in the Odra Basin" (PDF).
  131. "Noteć". Rzeki Polski.
  132. "Transnational Pilot River Basin: Lusatian Neisse" (PDF).
  133. "Bóbr". Rzeki Polski.
  134. Discharge extrapolated from Clyde at Daldowie, Kelvin at Killermont, White Cart Water at Hawkhead, and Black Cart Water at Milliken Park gauge stations
  135. South Eastern River Basin District Management System Physical Description Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
  136. "The Mersey Gateway Project - Hydrodynamics and Estuarine Processes" (PDF).
  137. "Wye". UK Environmental Change Network.
  138. Discharge extrapolated from Severn at Haw Bridge, Leadon at Wedderburn Bridge, and Frome at Ebley Mill gauge stations
  139. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Seine (----0010)".
  140. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Eure (H4--0200)".
  141. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Oise (H---0100)".
  142. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - L'Aisne (H1--0200)". and Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - L'Aire (H11-0400)".
  143. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Marne (F---0100)".
  144. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Yonne (F3--0200)".
  145. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Aube (F1--0200)".
  146. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Vilaine (J---006-)".
  147. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Loire (----0000)".
  148. La Loire à Saint-Nazaire
  149. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Maine (M4--0190)".
  150. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Mayenne (M---0090)".
  151. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Sarthe (M---0060)".
  152. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Loir (M1--0160)".
  153. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Vienne (L---0060)".
  154. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Creuse (L---0070)".
  155. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Indre (K7--0260)".
  156. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Cher (K---0090)".
  157. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Allier (K---0080)".
  158. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Charente (R---0000)".
  159. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Dordogne (P---0000)".
  160. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Isle (P---0150)".
  161. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Vézère (P---0100)".
  162. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Garonne (O---0000)".
  163. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Lot (O---0150)".
  164. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Tarn (O---0100)".
  165. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Aveyron (O5--0250)".
  166. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Ariège (O1--0250)".
  167. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Adour (Q---0000)".
  168. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Gave de Pau (Q---0100)".
  169. "Tagus Watershed". Rivers Network.
  170. "Ríos y Arroyos importantes". Confederacion Hidrografica del Guadiana.
  171. Delgado, F., Raya, E. y Nania, L. (2015): Determinación del cauce principal de un río mediante herramientas SIG y análisis multicriterio: aplicación al río Guadalquivir. En Simposio del Agua en Andalucía (SIAGA). Málaga.
  172. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Aude (Y1--0200)".
  173. "Rhône Watershed". Rivers Network.
  174. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Rhône (V---0000)".
  175. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Durance (X---0000)".
  176. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Isère (W---0000)".
  177. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Saône (U---0000)".
  178. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Doubs (U2--0200)".
  179. Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - Ain (V2--0200)".
  180. "Po Watershed". Rivers Network.
  181. "Zustand der Südtiroler Fließgewässer" (PDF). Südtiroler Landesverwaltung.
  182. "The coastline of Albania : morphology, evolution and coastal management issues" (PDF). ciesm.org. p. 8.
  183. Georgi Zhelezov, Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions: Southeastern Europe, Springer, 2015
  184. "Maritsa Watershed". Rivers Network.
  185. "Ergene river basin protection plan" (PDF). Turkish Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs.
  186. Biogeography and Ecology of Bulgaria. Springer Science & Business Media. 2007. ISBN 9781402044175.
  187. "Prut". IEU.
  188. Ecological state assessment of the Upper Dambovita River basin
  189. Danube Basin station Sremska Mitrovica
  190. "Danube Watershed". Rivers Network.
  191. "Sava River Basin Flood Study: HEC-HMS Technical Documentation Report" (PDF). 2017.
  192. "Serbian part of the Sava river basin" (PDF).
  193. Joint Drava River Corridor Analysis Report, 27 November 2014
  194. "Das Flächenverzeichnis - die Ordnung unserer Gewässer". Bundesministerium für Land - und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft.
  195. "Der Inn und sein Einzugsgebiet" (PDF).
  196. "Dniester". IEU.
  197. "Southern Bug". IEU.
  198. "Inhul". IEU.
  199. "Synyukha". IEU.
  200. "Synyukha". GSE.
  201. "Inhulets". GSE.
  202. "Samara". GSE.
  203. "Vovcha". GSE.
  204. "Vorskla". IEU.
  205. "Psel". IEU.
  206. "Khorol". IEU.
  207. "Sula". IEU. & "Сула (река, приток Днепра)". GSE.
  208. "Udai". IEU. & "Удай)". GSE.
  209. "Ros". IEU.
  210. "Desna". IEU.
  211. "Snov". GSE.
  212. "Seim". IEU.
  213. "Teteriv". IEU.
  214. "Pripyat". GSE.
  215. "Uzh". IEU.
  216. "Ptsich". GSE.
  217. "Ubort". GSE.
  218. "Horyn". IEU.
  219. "Southern Sluch". IEU. Archived from the original on 2019-09-28. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
  220. "Styr". GSE.
  221. "Sozh". GSE.
  222. "Iput". GSE.
  223. "Besed". GSE.
  224. "Ostyor". GSE.
  225. "Berezina". GSE.
  226. "Drut". GSE.
  227. "Don". SWRR.
  228. "Manych". and "Kalaus". SWRR.
  229. "Yegorlyk". SWRR.
  230. "Sal (Russia)". SWRR.
  231. "Donets". SWRR.
  232. "Kalitva". SWRR.
  233. "Aidar". SWRR.
  234. "Oskol". SWRR.
  235. "Chir". SWRR.
  236. "Ilovlya". SWRR.
  237. "Medveditsa (Don basin)". SWRR.
  238. "Tersa (Medveditsa)". SWRR.
  239. "Khopyor". and "Serdoba". SWRR.
  240. "Buzuluk (Volgograd Oblast)". SWRR.
  241. "Savala". SWRR.
  242. "Vorona (Russia)". and "Chembar". SWRR.
  243. "Bityug". SWRR.
  244. "Voronezh". SWRR.
  245. "Bystraya Sosna". SWRR.
  246. Shalva Jaoshvili. "The rivers of the Black Sea" (PDF). European Environment Agency.
  247. "Pshish". SWRR.
  248. "Belaya (Kuban)". SWRR.
  249. "Water quality in the Kura-Ara basin". UNDP. 2006.
  250. "Alazani/Ganikh River Basin" (PDF). Swedish Royal Institute of Technology.
  251. Rapid Assessment of the Rioni and Alazani-Iori River Basins of Georgia, 2011
  252. "Sulak". SWRR.
  253. "Terek". SWRR.
  254. "Sunzha". SWRR.
  255. "Malka". SWRR.
  256. "Kuma (Russia)". SWRR.
  257. "Volga". SWRR.
    Volgograd gauging station data Archived 2011-11-12 at the Wayback Machine
  258. "Oka". SWRR.
  259. Rivers of Europe, p. 61
  260. "Kama". SWRR.
  261. "Akhtuba (river)". SWRR.
  262. "Yeruslan". SWRR.
  263. "Tereshka". SWRR.
  264. "Bolshoy Irgiz". SWRR.
  265. "Maly Irgiz". and "ЧЕРНАВА". SWRR.
  266. "Chapayevka". SWRR.
  267. "Samara". SWRR.
  268. "Bolshoy Kinel". SWRR.
  269. "Tok". and "Bitkul". SWRR.
  270. "Sok". SWRR.
  271. "Kondurcha". SWRR.
  272. "Bolshoy Cheremshan". SWRR.
  273. "Sheshma". and "Lesnaya Sheshma". SWRR.
  274. "Vyatka". SWRR.
  275. "Kilmez". and "Ut River". SWRR.
  276. "Pizhma (Vyatka basin)". SWRR.
  277. "Moloma". SWRR.
  278. "Чепца". and "Лоза". SWRR.
  279. "Letka". SWRR.
  280. "Kobra (Viatka)". SWRR.
  281. "Ik". SWRR.
  282. "Izh". SWRR.
  283. "Belaya". SWRR.
  284. "Bystry Tanyp". SWRR.
  285. "Dyoma". SWRR.
  286. "Ufa". and "Ay River". SWRR.
  287. "Ufa". SWRR.
  288. "Yuryuzan". SWRR.
  289. "Ay". SWRR.
  290. "Sim". and "Inzer". SWRR.
  291. "Chusovaya". SWRR.
  292. "Sylva". SWRR.
  293. "Usva". SWRR.
  294. "Kosva". and "Typyl". SWRR.
  295. "Inva". SWRR.
  296. "Yayva". SWRR.
  297. "Vishera (Perm Krai)". SWRR.
  298. "Kolva". SWRR.
  299. "Kolva (Perm Krai)". SWRR.
  300. "Yazva". and "Glukhaya Vilva". SWRR.
  301. "Kosa". SWRR.
  302. "Veslyana". SWRR.
  303. "Sviyaga". SWRR.
  304. "Bolshaya Kokshaga". SWRR.
  305. "Vetluga". SWRR.
  306. "Usta (Russia)". SWRR.
  307. "Sura". and "Kadada". SWRR.
  308. "Pyana". and "Cheka". SWRR.
  309. "Alatyr". SWRR.
  310. "Kerzhenets". SWRR.
  311. "Upa". SWRR.
  312. "Klyazma". SWRR.
  313. "Nerl (Klyazma)". SWRR.
  314. "Tyosha". SWRR.
  315. "Moksha". and "АЗЯСЬ". SWRR.
  316. "Tsna (Moksha basin)". and "Osinovka". SWRR.
  317. "Pronya (Russia)". SWRR.
  318. "Moskva". and "Ruza". SWRR.
  319. "Protva". SWRR.
  320. "Ugra (Oka)". and "Demina". SWRR.
  321. "Unzha". SWRR.
  322. "Neya". SWRR.
  323. "Kostroma". SWRR.
  324. "Sheksna". SWRR.
  325. "Suda". and "Nozhema". SWRR.
  326. "Mologa". SWRR.
  327. "Chagodoshcha". and "Lid". SWRR.
  328. "Medveditsa (Volga basin)". SWRR.
  329. "Ural". SWRR.
  330. "Chagan". SWRR.
  331. "Ilek". SWRR.
  332. "Bolshaya Khobda". SWRR.
  333. "Sakmara". SWRR.
  334. "Bolshoy Ik". SWRR.
  335. "Or". SWRR.
  336. "European Rivers". worldatlas.com.
  337. "River Systems of the World". Archived from the original on 2009-09-19.
  338. danube.panda.org/wwf/web/search/details.jsp?pid=139
  339. Мезень (река). Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011.

See also