List of special elections in the Philippines

These are the special elections in the Philippines. The Philippines holds two types of special elections: those that were supposed to be held on election day but were delayed, and those held after an office has become vacant. This article describes the second type, which is also known outside the Philippines and the United States as "by-elections". This includes special elections to Congress and its predecessors: the Philippine Legislature, National Assembly of the Philippines, Commonwealth Congress and the Batasang Pambansa, to local legislatures and executive offices, if applicable.

Most special elections are for vacancies in Congress.


In Republic Act (R.A.) No. 180, or the Revised Election Code of 1947, if a vacancy in either chamber of Congress occurs at least 10 months or before a regular election, the president shall call a special election as soon as the chamber where the vacancy occurred of the existence of such vacancy notified him.[1]

In Batas Pambansa Bilang (B.P. Blg.; National Law No.) 881, or the Omnibus Election Code of the Philippines, approved on December 3, 1985, in case of a vacancy in the Batasang Pambansa (National Parliament) 18 months or more before a regular election, the Commission on Elections shall call a special election to be held within sixty days after the vacancy occurs; in case parliament is dissolved, the President shall call an election which shall not be held earlier than forty-five nor later than sixty days from the date of such dissolution.[2] Several weeks earlier, President Ferdinand Marcos ordered the Batasang Pambansa to call a special snap election a year prior to the regularly-schedule election. B.P. Blg 883 called the special presidential election on the same day B.P. Blg 881 was passed. Marcos was then ousted after the People Power Revolution when it was alleged he won that election via massive election fraud. The new government headed by President Corazon Aquino restored the presidential system with a bicameral Congress.

The constitution ratified in 1987 provided Congress to convene on the third day on the vacancy in the both the presidency and vice presidency to enact a law calling for a special election for both offices, with the exception that no election will be called if the next scheduled election is 18 months away. If only one of the offices is vacant, the vice president becomes president, or the president appoints a member of Congress as vice president, with both chambers voting separately to confirm the appointment, as the case may be.[3]

Later, as stipulated in R.A. No. 6645 approved on December 28, 1987, once a vacancy occurs in the Senate at least 18 months, or in the House of Representatives at least (1) year, before the next scheduled election, the Commission on Elections, upon receipt of a resolution from the chamber where the vacancy occurred, shall schedule a special election. The special election will then be held not earlier than 45 days and not later than 90 days from the date of the resolution.[4]

However, R.A. No. 7166 approved on November 26, 1991, amended parts of R.A. No. 6645. When a vacancy in the House of Representatives occurs before one year before the expiration of the term, the special election shall be held not earlier than 60 days and not later than 90 days after occurrence of the vacancy. For the Senate, if the vacancy occurs one year before the expiration of the term, the special election shall be held on the day of the next succeeding regular election.[5]

With the passage of Republic Act No. 8295 in 1997, if there is only one candidate running for the position, that candidate would be proclaimed as the winner, and an election would no longer be held.[6] This is unlike in regularly scheduled elections where voting would still be held, and the candidate has to get one vote in order to be elected. Since the enactment of this law, no special election has seen only one candidate.

Not all vacancies that occurred a year before the next regular election resulted in a special election. To save money, the Speaker appoints a caretaker representative from a nearby district. In same cases a caretaker representative was appointed while an election date was considered.

As with general elections, special elections are usually scheduled on a Monday. During the Third Republic, special elections were held concurrently with midterm elections. However, special elections held during the 15th Congress were done on Saturdays. In some cases, election days are declared as holidays.

Lack of special elections

In accordance with current laws, the decision to call a special election to fill permanent vacancies is not mandatory, and is solely at the discretion of Congress, which has received criticism for not quickly acting to fill such vacancies.[7] Despite many vacancies occurring well before a year from the end of a congressional term, Congress has left many such seats unfilled. In more extreme examples some even remained vacant for two years or more:[8]

Since the independence in 1946, no special elections were called during the presidencies of Carlos P. Garcia, Corazon Aquino and Joseph Estrada; the 4th Congress, during the Garcia presidency, notably did not have deaths in the lower house. During the first half of the presidency of Diosdado Macapagal, and the latter half of the presidencies of Fidel V. Ramos and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, and from the beginning of the second presidential term of Ferdinand Marcos in 1969 until his removal from office in 1986, no special elections were called. During the current presidency of Rodrigo Duterte, no special elections have been called to date.

1986 snap election

In 1985, the Batasang Pambansa called a special election for the offices of president and vice president on February 7, 1986; unlike special elections elsewhere when it was called due to a vacancy, incumbent president Ferdinand Marcos did not relinquish his office, and that the winners will serve a full six-year term, instead of the remainder of the current term. The vice presidency, which was vacant after it was restored when a constitutional amendment was approved in a 1984 plebiscite, was also at stake. Marcos and his running mate, MP from Manila Arturo Tolentino, won their respective elections against Corazon Aquino and Salvador Laurel, but allegations of massive fraud led to the People Power Revolution a couple of weeks later that led to his ouster.


Ferdinand MarcosKilusang Bagong Lipunan10,807,19753.62
Corazon AquinoUnited Nationalist Democratic Organization9,291,71646.10
Reuben CanoySocial Democratic Party34,0410.17
Narciso PadillaMovement for Truth, Order and Righteousness23,6520.12
Valid votes20,156,60697.30
Invalid/blank votes559,4692.70
Total votes20,716,075100.00
Registered voters/turnout26,278,74478.83
Source: Annex XXXVIII of the report by the International Observer Delegation

Vice President

Arturo TolentinoKilusang Bagong Lipunan10,134,13050.66
Salvador LaurelUnited Nationalist Democratic Organization9,173,10545.85
Eva Estrada KalawLiberal Party (Kalaw wing)662,1853.31
Roger AriendaMovement for Truth, Order and Righteousness35,9740.18
Valid votes20,005,39496.57
Invalid/blank votes710,6813.43
Total votes20,716,075100.00
Registered voters/turnout26,278,74478.83
Source: Annex XXXVIII of the report by the International Observer Delegation

House of Representatives

Since the 1998 elections, there have been two types of elected representatives, those who represent single-member districts and those elected via the party-list system. When a vacancy occurs for a party-list representative, the next-ranked nominee from the party replaces his predecessor. For district representatives, a special election will be held to determine who shall succeed the predecessor. During the Third Philippine Republic, where representatives had four-year terms, the special election was held together with the mid-term election.

A special election will not be held if the vacancy occurred less than a year before the next regularly scheduled election.

In the tables below, special elections where a change of party occurs have its leftmost cell shaded.

Malolos Congress

Philippine Legislature

District Leg. Date Predecessor Political party Winner Political party Cause
Manila–1st 1st March 30 and August 11, 1908 Dominador Gomez Nacionalista Dominador Gomez Nacionalista Expelled
Nacionalista Justo Lukban Liga Popular Resigned rights to sit
CaviteJanuary 19, 1909Rafael Palma Nacionalista Emiliano Tria Tirona Independent Appointed to the Philippine Commission
SurigaoOctober 14, 1910Manuel Gavieres Nacionalista Inocencio Cortes Nacionalista Died
La Laguna–1st 2nd December 13, 1910 Potenciano Malvar Nacionalista Marcos Paulino Progresista Appointed governor of La Laguna.
Batanes September 5, 1911 Teofilo Castillejos Nacionalista Vicente Barsana Progresista Died
Zambales October 3, 1911 Alberto Barreto Nacionalista Gabriel Alba Nacionalista Appointed judge of the Rizal Court of First Instance
Ilocos Sur–1st 3rd October 13, 1913 Vicente Singson Encarnacion Progresista Alberto Reyes Progresista Appointed to the Philippine Commission
Mindoro March 26, 1914 Macario Adriatico Nacionalista Mariano Leuterio Liga Popular Resigned
Bulacan–1st May 15, 1914 Aguedo Velarde Nacionalista Ambrosio Santos Nacionalista Died
Zambales July 22, 1914 Rafael Corpus Nacionalista Gabriel Alba Nacionalista Appointed Director of Lands
Iloilo–4th August 28, 1914 Amando Avanceña Nacionalista Tiburcio Lutero Progresista Resigned
Negros Oriental–2nd October 1, 1914 Teofisto Guingona Sr. Progresista Leopoldo Rovira Progresista Resigned
Capiz–2nd October 10, 1914 Simeon Dadivas Nacionalista Emilio Acevedo Progresista Died
Cebu–7th November 21, 1914 Eulalio Causing Nacionalista Tomas Alonso Nacionalista Resigned
Leyte–4th September 18, 1915 Francisco Enage Nacionalista Ruperto Kapunan Progresista Resigned
Rizal–2nd Sixto de los Angeles Nacionalista Leandro Jabson[9] Nacionalista Resigned[10]
Cebu–3rd 4th 1916 Filemon Sotto Nacionalista Vicente Urgello Nacionalista Elected senator from the 10th district
Cavite 7th August 15, 1925 Augusto Reyes Nacionalista Antero Soriano Nacionalista Died
Nueva Ecija March 22, 1926 Isauro Gabaldon Nacionalista Feliciano Ramoso Nacionalista Disqualified
Tayabas–2nd 8th October 6, 1928 León Guinto Nacionalista Marcelo Boncan Nacionalista Appointed governor of Tayabas
Cavite 1929 Antero Soriano Nacionalista Fidel Ibañez Nacionalista Died
Albay–1st 9th September 29, 1931 Froilan Paverico Demócrata Exequiel Kare[note 1] Nacionalista Died
Mindoro June 4, 1932 Mariano Leuterio Nacionalista Juan L. Luna Nacionalista Died
Batangas–1st February 18, 1933 Antonio de las Alas Nacionalista Ramón Diokno Nacionalista Appointed Secretary of Public Works and Communications

National Assembly (Commonwealth)

District Leg. Date Predecessor Political party Winner Political party Cause
Ilocos Norte–2nd 1st July 22, 1936 Julio Nalundasan Nacionalista Ulpiano Arzadon Nacionalista Died prior to taking office
Samar–2nd 1936 Serafin Marabut Nacionalista Pascual Azanza Nacionalista Appointed Secretary of Budget
Leyte–4th 1936 Francisco Enage Nacionalista Norberto Romualdez Nacionalista Appointed technical adviser to President Manuel L. Quezon
Albay–3rd 2nd December 10, 1940 Pedro Sabido Nacionalista Marcial O. Rañola Nacionalista Appointed manager of the National Abaca and other Fibers Corporation
Iloilo–2nd Ruperto Montinola Nacionalista Oscar Ledesma Nacionalista Died
Leyte–5th Ruperto Kapunan Nacionalista Atilano R. Cinco Nacionalista Died
Nueva Ecija–2nd Felipe Buencamino Nacionalista Gabriel Belmonte Nacionalista Resigned

National Assembly (Second Republic)

Commonwealth Congress

  • No special elections were called for the Commonwealth Congress; the much-delayed elections of 1945 were held in 1946.

Congress of the Philippines

District Leg. Date Predecessor Political party Winner Political party Cause
Pangasinan–5th 1st March 3, 1947 Narciso Ramos Liberal Cipriano Alas Liberal Appointed Minister-counsellor to the United Nations
Bukidnon March 11, 1947 Carlos Fortich Sr. Liberal Remedios Fortich Liberal Died
Iloilo–1st Jose Zulueta Liberal Mateo Nonato Liberal Resigned
Cebu–6th November 11, 1947 Nicolas Rafols Nacionalista Manuel Zosa Nacionalista Died
Iloilo–4th March 23, 1948 Mariano Peñaflorida Nacionalista Gaudencio Dimaisip Nacionalista Elected governor of Iloilo
Leyte–1st Carlos S. Tan Liberal Jose Martinez Liberal Elected senator
Rizal–2nd 2nd November 13, 1951 Emilio de la Paz Nacionalista Isaias R. Salonga Nacionalista Died
Occidental Mindoro Raul Leuterio[note 2] Liberal Jesus V. Abeleda Nacionalista Division of Mindoro province
Albay–1st 3rd November 8, 1955 Lorenzo P. Ziga Liberal Tecla San Andres Ziga Liberal Died
Samar–1st Gregorio Tan Nacionalista Eladio Balite Nacionalista Died
Negros Occidental–1st 5th November 12, 1963 Vicente Gustillo Sr. Nacionalista Armando Gustillo Nacionalista Died
Batangas–1st November 12, 1963 Apolinario Apacible Nacionalista Luis Lopez Liberal Died
Iloilo–3rd November 9, 1965 Ramon Tabiana Liberal Gloria Tabiana Liberal Died
Davao del Sur 6th November 14, 1967 Lorenzo Sarmiento[note 3] Liberal Artemio Loyola Nacionalista Division of Davao province
Davao Oriental Liberal Constancio P. Maglana Nacionalista
South Cotabato Salipada Pendatun[note 4] Liberal James L. Chiongbian Nacionalista Division of Cotabato province
Ilocos Norte–1st Antonio Raquiza Liberal Roque Ablan Jr. Nacionalista Appointed Secretary of Public Works
Northern Samar Eladio Balite Nacionalista Eusebio Moore Nacionalista Died
Agusan del Norte–2nd 9th August 30, 1993 Edelmiro Amante Lakas Edelmiro Amante Lakas Resigned
Capiz–1st Gerardo Roxas Jr. Liberal Mar Roxas Liberal Died
Rizal–1st March 7, 1994 Manuel Sanchez Lakas Gilberto Duavit Sr. NPC Disqualified
Zamboanga del Norte–1st 12th August 26, 2002 Romeo Jalosjos Lakas Cecilia Jalosjos Carreon Reporma Dropped from the rolls
Isabela–4th May 12, 2003 Antonio Abaya Lakas Giorgidi Aggabao NPC Died
Cebu–5th 13th May 30, 2005 Joseph Ace Durano Lakas Ramon Durano VI NPC Appointed Secretary of Tourism
Cagayan–2nd 15th March 12, 2011 Florencio Vargas Lakas–Kampi Baby Aline Vargas-Alfonso Lakas–Kampi Died prior to taking office
Ilocos Sur–1st May 28, 2011 Ronald Singson Nacionalista Ryan Luis Singson Biled Resigned
Zambales–2nd February 4, 2012 Antonio M. Diaz PMM Jun Omar Ebdane PMM Died
Negros Occidental–5th June 2, 2012 Iggy Arroyo Lakas–Kampi Alejandro Mirasol Liberal Died

Batasang Pambansa


By reason

The most common reason for the vacancies which were filled by special elections since 1907 is resignation (a total of 27 instances) — both from leaving office to assume another position (20), and for other reasons (7). Died of the incumbent representative is the second most common, accounting for more than two-fifths of instances. Other reasons for holding special elections were to fill new seats created upon the establishment of new provinces (4 instances), and to fill the seats vacated after: a winning candidate was disqualified post-election (2), a representative was expelled from the legislature (1), or a representative was "dropped from the rolls" over a criminal conviction (1).

Reason for vacancyTotal %
Left office to assume another position2032%
Resignation for a reason other than leaving office to assume another position711%
Creation of a new province46%
Dropped from the rolls 1 2%
By legislative era

Most of the special elections — 33, or more than half of the 61 conducted as of 2017 — were held before the Second World War (1907–1941). In the space of 27 years after the war and before Ferdinand Marcos disbanded Congress and assumed dictatorial powers in 1972, a total of 18 special elections were held. In contrast, since the restoration of Congress in 1987 only 10 special elections have been held in the space of 30 years.

Legislative eraTotal %
Philippine Assembly (lower house of Philippine Legislature, 1907–1916)1829%
House of Representatives (lower house of Philippine Legislature, 1916–1935)813%
National Assembly of the Commonwealth (unicameral body, 1935–1941)711%
National Assembly of the Second Republic (unicameral body, 1943–1944)00%
House of Representatives (lower house of Congress post-war period, 1945–1972)1829%
Batasang Pambansa (unicameral body, 1978–1986)00%
House of Representatives (lower house of Congress post-restoration, 1987–present)1118%


In the tables below, special elections where a change of party occurs have its leftmost cell shaded.

Philippine Legislature

From 1917 to 1934, senators are elected via senatorial districts; a vacancy mid-term had been filled up by a special election.

District Leg. Date Predecessor Political party Winner Political party Cause
2nd 4th May 5, 1917 Aquilino Calvo Nacionalista Matias Gonzales Nacionalista Resigned
3rd 5th October 25, 1919 Francisco Liongson Nacionalista Ceferino de Leon Nacionalista Died
4th 6th October 3, 1923 Pedro Guevara Nacionalista Ramon J. Fernandez Nacionalista Elected resident commissioner
3rd 7th March 23, 1926 Santiago Lucero Demócrata Luis Morales Demócrata Died
9th 1926 Tomas Gomez Nacionalista Pastor Salazar Nacionalista Died
7th July 21, 1927 Jose Ma. Arroyo Nacionalista Jose B. Ledesma Nacionalista Died
6th 9th 1931 Juan B. Alegre Demócrata Jose Vera Nacionalista Died prior to taking office

Commonwealth Congress

  • No special elections were called for the Commonwealth Congress.

Starting from 1941, senators elected at-large nationwide, have 6-year terms, with senators elected via staggered elections: every two years, eight out of the 24 senators were elected from 1940 to 1972, and 12 out of 24 senators every three years since 1987. In cases where a senator left office before the expiration of his term, a special election on the day of the next regularly scheduled Senate election was held to fill up the vacancy, as long as the seat per se won't be contested on that election day. There had been three cases where that happened.


District Leg. Date Predecessor Political party Winner Political party Cause
Nationwide at-large 2nd November 13, 1951 Fernando Lopez Liberal Felixberto Verano Nacionalista Elected vice president
Nationwide at-large 3rd November 8, 1955 Carlos P. Garcia Nacionalista Roseller T. Lim Nacionalista Elected vice president
Nationwide at-large 12th May 14, 2001 Teofisto Guingona Jr. Lakas Gregorio Honasan Independent Appointed vice president


Death and leaving office for another position are the most frequent reasons why there are senatorial special elections:

Reason for vacancyTotal %
Left office to assume another position440%

Per election


In 1949, Senator Fernando Lopez (who was on his second year of service in the Senate) was elected Vice President of the Philippines. To fill the vacancy, a special election was held separately with Senators whose terms ended in that year:[11]

e  d Summary of the November 13, 1951 Philippine Senate special election result
Rank Candidate Party Votes %
1.Felixberto Verano Nacionalista873,45747.7%
2.Cornelio Villareal Liberal609,30333.3%
3.Prospero Sanidad Liberal (Independent)223,81012.2%
4.Carlos Tan Liberal (Independent)124,9756.8%
Note: A total of 5 candidates ran for senator.

In 1953, Senator Carlos P. Garcia (who was on his second year of service in the Senate) was elected Vice President of the Philippines. To fill the vacancy, a special election was held separately with Senators whose terms ended in that year:[12]

e  d Summary of the November 8, 1955 Senate special election result
Rank Candidate Party Votes %
1.Roseller T. Lim Nacionalista1,102,97961.4%
2.Simeon Toribio Liberal688,91338.4%
3.Avelino P. Garcia Independent4,3780.2%
Total valid votes1,796,270100.0%
Source: Commission on Elections

In 2001, Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo succeeded Joseph Estrada after the 2001 EDSA Revolution, leaving the office of the vice president vacant. Arroyo appointed Teofisto Guingona (who was serving his second year as senator) as vice president later that year but prior to the 2001 Senate election. The Commission on Elections ruled that instead of twelve, the electorate will vote for thirteen senators, with the thirteenth-placed candidate serving Guingona's unexpired term of three years. For purposes of term limits, that senator was deemed to have served a full six-year term.

e  d Summary of the May 14, 2001, Philippine Senate election results
Rank Candidate Coalition Party Votes %
1.Noli de CastroPuwersa ng Masa1 Independent16,237,38655.09%
2.Juan FlavierPPC Lakas11,735,89739.82%
3.Serge OsmeñaPPC PDP–Laban11,593,38939.33%
4.Franklin DrilonPPC Independent11,301,70038.34%
5.Joker ArroyoPPC Lakas11,262,40238.21%
6.Ramon Magsaysay Jr.PPC Independent11,250,67738.17%
7.Manuel VillarPPC Independent11,187,37537.96%
8.Francis PangilinanPPC Liberal10,971,89637.23%
9.Edgardo AngaraPuwersa ng Masa LDP10,805,17736.66%
10.Panfilo LacsonPuwersa ng Masa LDP10,535,55935.74%
11.Loi EjercitoPuwersa ng Masa Independent10,524,13035.71%
12.Ralph RectoPPC Lakas10,480,940235.56%
13.Gregorio Honasan3Puwersa ng Masa Independent10,454,52735.47%
14.Juan Ponce EnrilePuwersa ng Masa LDP9,677,20932.83%
15.Miriam Defensor SantiagoPuwersa ng Masa PRP9,622,74232.65%
16.Dong PunoPuwersa ng Masa LDP8,701,20529.52%
17.Wigberto TañadaPPC Liberal8,159,83627.68%
18.Orlando S. MercadoPuwersa ng Masa Independent7,395,09225.09%
19.Roberto PagdangananPPC Lakas7,185,41524.38%
20.Ernesto HerreraPPC Lakas6,801,86123.08%
21.Winnie MonsodPPC Aksyon6,728,72822.83%
22.Nina RasulPuwersa ng Masa Independent5,222,49017.72%
23.Jamby MadrigalPuwersa ng Masa LDP5,043,04317.11%
24.Liwayway Vinzons-ChatoPPC Independent4,831,50116.39%
25.Perfecto Yasay Independent4,557,36415.46%
26.Ombra TamanoPuwersa ng Masa LDP3,548,48012.04%
27.Reuben CanoyPuwersa ng Masa LDP3,542,46012.02%
28.Homobono Adaza Nacionalista770,6472.61%
29.Rod Navarro Independent652,0122.21%
30.Manuel Morato Independent625,7892.12%
31.Moner Bajunaid PDSP503,4371.71%
32.Oliver Lozano KBL470,5721.60%
33.Melchor Chavez KBL244,5530.83%
34.Camilo Sabio Independent230,7590.78%
35.Norma Nueva KBL83,7000.28%
37.Juan Casil KBL74,4810.25%
38.Eddie Gil Partido Isang Bansa, Isang Diwa15,5220.05%
Note: A total of 38 candidates ran for senator. Source: Comelec (vote totals), NCSB (turnout)
^1 Guest candidate
^2 18,000 votes deducted from Ralph Recto from Zamboanga del Norte as per Resolution No. NBC 01-003
^3 Elected to serve the unexpired term (until 2004) of Teofisto Guingona Jr., who was appointed Vice President in February 2001.

Former senator Arturo Tolentino and others sued the Commission on Elections (Comelec) to set aside the proclamation of the thirteen senators in 2001. In Tolentino vs. Comelec, the Supreme Court ruled that the commission did not comply with the requirements of R.A. 6645, nor did the commission "give formal notice that it would proclaim as winner the senatorial candidate receiving the 13th highest number of votes in the special election." However, the court ruled that while the commission failed to give notice of the time of the special election, it did not negate the calling of such election, "indispensable to the elections validity." Since R.A. 6645 as amended "charges the voters with knowledge of this statutory notice and Comelec's failure to give the additional notice did not negate the calling of such special election, much less invalidate it", the court dismissed the petition for lack of merit and allowed the result of the election to stand.[13]

The "thirteenth" senator

There had been four instances in the Fifth Republic where a seat was vacated exactly midway through the senators term due to election to another office. In all cases, the thirteenth-placed senator in the immediately preceding election was not given the formers seat since the vacancy occurred after the election.

In all of those cases, the thirteenth-placed candidate was not given the vacant seat as the voters elected for only twelve senators.[14]

This was not a problem for senators elected from 1946 to 1971, as long as they were elected to a new position prior to the second Senate election of their terms; a senator is expected to see two Senate elections in a six-year term instead of just one post-1987:

  • In 1949, two years in to his term, Senator Fernando Lopez was elected vice president. A special election was called in 1951 for a successor to serve out the final two years of the term. Felixberto Verano was elected in the special election. Verano was subsequently defeated in the next regular election in 1953.
  • In 1953, two years in to his term, Senator Carlos P. Garcia was elected vice president. A special election was called in 1955 for a successor to serve out the final two years of the term. Roseller T. Lim was elected in the special election. Lim was able to defend his seat in the next regular election in 1957.

For senators elected since 1987, their seats will be vacant until the end of their terms since there will be no intervening Senate elections from the day they gave up their seat up to the expiration of their term, unless it becomes vacant prior to election day, as shown in the four examples above.

Special elections elsewhere

Local legislatures

Legislatures under the Local Government Code

For permanent vacancies in the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (provincial boards), Sangguniang Panlungsod (city councils) of highly urbanized and independent component cities and Sangguniang Bayan (municipal councils) of component municipalities in Metro Manila (currently just Pateros), the president through the Executive Secretary appoints someone from the same political party where the person who caused the vacancy belonged. If the person who vacated the post did not belong to a political party, the local chief executive (the governor or mayor, as the case may be) appoints upon the recommendation of the sanggunian concerned. For vacancies in the city and municipal councils for component cities and municipalities outside Metro Manila, the same process applies, with the local chief executive appointing the replacement. For the Sangguniang Barangay (barangay councils) and Sangguniang Kabataan (youth councils), it shall be filled by the official next in rank.[15] This means no special elections are held for local legislatures under the Local Government Code.

Bangsamoro Parliament

In the upcoming Bangsamoro Parliament created via the Bangsamoro Organic Law, a special election may be called if the vacating seat is from an unaffiliated member of parliament, and the vacancy happened at least one year before the next general election. If the vacancy is from an affiliated member of parliament, the party shall nominate a new member, and if it is on a proportional seat, the party names the replacement.[16]

Chief executives

The vice president, vice governor and vice mayor shall replace the president, governor and mayor, as the case may be, upon permanent vacancy, and shall serve until the next general election. For permanent vacancy for the barangay chairman, the highest ranking member of the Sangguniang Barangay (the barangay councilor that received the most votes in the preceding election) shall replace the predecessor. No special election shall be called.[15]

If a permanent vacancy for the president and vice president at the same time occurs, a special election will be called. An extraordinary special election was called in 1986.

Deputy of chief executives

Once a vacancy for the vice governor or vice mayor occurs, the highest ranking member of the local legislature (the member that received the most votes in the preceding election) shall replace the predecessor. If that member belongs to a political party, that party will nominate a new member to the legislature. If that member is an independent, the governor or mayor will nominate a new member. No special election shall be called.

Delayed elections

On the first type of special elections, the Commission on Elections usually sets the vote a day later, or up to several weeks later. The latest date the commission set a delayed special election is a more than year later after the regular election, when it held the elections for provincial government officials of Sulu in October 1996 after being delayed since May 1995.[17]

In 2018, the barangay elections in Marawi originally scheduled in May 2018 was done in September due to the aftermath of the Battle of Marawi.[18]


  1. Julian Locsin originally declared the winner, but Kare won election protest.
  2. Leuterio was the representative from the undivided Mindoro province.
  3. Sarmiento was the representative from the undivided Davao province.
  4. Pendatun was the representative from the undivided Cotabato province.


  1. "Revised Election Code".
  2. "Batas Pambansa Blg. 881, s. 1985 | GOVPH". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 2021-03-24.
  3. "THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES – ARTICLE VII | GOVPH". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 2021-04-13.
  4. "REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6645 – AN ACT PRESCRIBING THE MANNER OF FILING A VACANCY IN THE CONGRESS OF THE PHILIPPINES". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. July 19, 1998. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
  8. Congressional Library Bureau. "Roster of Philippine Legislators". Republic of the Philippines, House of Representatives. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  9. Tiangco, Cesar S. (1967). Rizal Province: A Political History. Rizal Cultural Committee. p. 189.
  10. Executive Orders and Proclamations Issued by the Governor-general. Bureau of Printing. 1916. pp. 278–279.
  11. "Clam Victory Amid Violence". The Milwaukee Journal. Associated Press. November 17, 1951. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
  12. "List of Previous Senators". Archived from the original on April 23, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
  13. "ARTURO M. TOLENTINO and ARTURO C. MOJICA, petitioners, vs. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, SENATOR RALPH G. RECTO and SENATOR GREGORIO B. HONASAN, respondents". Supreme Court of the Philippines. January 21, 2004. Retrieved November 25, 2010.
  14. Coronel Ferrer, Miriam (June 17, 2010). "Senate facts – Miriam Coronel Ferrer". Retrieved November 22, 2010.
  15. "Book I - Title Two - Chapter 2". 2012-05-02. Retrieved 2020-04-09.
  16. "Republic Act No. 11054" (PDF). Official Gazette. Retrieved 2020-04-09.
  17. "Manila Standard - Google News Archive Search". Retrieved 2021-04-13.
  18. "Barangay, SK elections in Marawi set on September 22". Rappler. Retrieved 12 August 2018.