Looking Backward

Looking Backward: 2000–1887 is a utopian novel by Edward Bellamy, a journalist and writer from Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts; it was first published in 1888.[1]

Looking Backward: 2000–1887
Cover of the Ticknor & Co. first edition of Looking Backward, 2000–1887
AuthorEdward Bellamy
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
GenreScience fiction
Utopian novel
Publisher• Ticknor & Co.
(Jan. 1888)
• Houghton Mifflin
(Sept. 1889)
Media typePrint (hardback)
Pagesvii, 470
Followed byEquality (1897) 

It was the third largest bestseller of its time, after Uncle Tom's Cabin and Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ.[2] It influenced many intellectuals, and appears by title in many socialist writings of the day. "It is one of the few books ever published that created almost immediately on its appearance a political mass movement".[3]

In the United States alone, over 162 "Bellamy Clubs" sprang up to discuss and propagate the book's ideas.[4] Owing to its commitment to the nationalization of private property and the desire to avoid use of the term "socialism", this political movement came to be known as Nationalism—not to be confused with the political concept of nationalism.[5] The novel also inspired several utopian communities.


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