Lords Justices of Ireland


The Lords Justices (more formally the Lords Justices General and General Governors of Ireland) were deputies who acted collectively in the absence of the chief governor of Ireland (latterly the Lord Lieutenant) as head of the executive branch of the Dublin Castle administration. Lords Justices were sworn in at a meeting of the Privy Council of Ireland.

Sir William Pelham, Lord Justice of Ireland

History


A January 1919 proclamation relating to the Soloheadbeg ambush, issued in the absence of the Lord Lieutenant (Viscount French) by the Lords Justices — James Campbell (Lord Chancellor), Frederick Shaw (Commander-in-Chief) and James Wylie (Land Court judge).[1] Only Campbell signed the proclamation.

After the Norman Conquest of Ireland, the chief governor of the Lordship of Ireland was appointed by the King of England via letters patent; in medieval times under his privy seal,[2] and later under the Great Seal of England. The patent usually allowed the chief governor to nominate a deputy, though sometimes the King nominated a deputy, and if the chief governor died in office the Privy Council of Ireland would elect a deputy until the King nominated a successor.[3] The title (originally French or Latin) of the chief governor depended on his power, from most to least: King's (or Lord) Lieutenant; (Lord) Deputy; Justiciar (or Lord Justice); and Keeper. The chief governor's deputy would have a lower title than the chief governor, and was appointed under the Great Seal of Ireland unless by the King. By the time of Henry VII, the Lord Deputy was the resident chief governor (or rarely the resident deputy of a non-resident Lord Lieutenant) and, in case of the Lord Deputy's temporary absence or vacancy, there was one or, later, two Lords Justices appointed by the Privy Council of Ireland. An Irish act of Poynings' Parliament specified that the Treasurer of Ireland would be "Justice & Governoure" until the King send a "lieutenunt or deputye".[4] This was repealed three years later, but the statute roll was subsequently lost.[5][6] A 1542 act formalised how the privy council would elect from among its members one or, if necessary, two Lords Justices, each of whom had to be a layman born in England.[6] The same year the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 changed the Lordship into the Kingdom of Ireland.

In the 17th century the King often left the chief governorship vacant for months or years and instead appointed multiple Lords Justices. This was so almost continuously from 1690 to 1700.[7] Shortly before his 1696 death Lord Deputy Henry Capel nominated Murrough Boyle, 1st Viscount Blesington and William Wolseley to be Lords Justices; Charles Porter, Capel's rival and Lord Chancellor of Ireland, persuaded the Privy Council of Ireland that the deputies' commission expired on Capel's death, whereupon the council elected Porter as sole Lord Justice.[8] Prior to 1767 the chief governor (now styled Lord Lieutenant or viceroy) was often absent in England unless the Parliament of Ireland was in session, typically eight months every two years.[9] Whereas the Lord Lieutenant was a British peer, the Lords Justices were mostly Irishmen;[10] they were influential and the English government needed their support.[9] There were always three, typically the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, another member of Irish Commons or Lords, and a senior bishop of the Church of Ireland.[9] After 1767 the viceroy was resident as a rule, and the practical importance of Lords Justices diminished.[9] They were still required during vacancies between the death or departure of one viceroy and the arrival of his successor. A 1788 act repealed and replaced long-disregarded provisions of the 1542 act regarding election of Lords Justices, allowing up to three, who need not be laymen or English-born.[11]

After the Acts of Union 1800, de facto executive power shifted from the viceroy to the Chief Secretary for Ireland, and the Lords Justices like the viceroy exercised only formal power. A newly arrived Lord Lieutenant would be escorted in state from Dunleary (later Kingstown) harbour to the Presence Chamber of Dublin Castle, where the Lords Justices were seated. The party would proceed to the Council Chamber, where the Lord Lieutenant would present his letters patent to the Privy Council, and another letter to the Lords Justices demanding the handover of the sword of state.[12] Up to the mid nineteenth century the usual Lords Justices were the Lord Chancellor, Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh or of Dublin, and Commander-in-Chief, Ireland.[13] In 1868 it was ruled that a warrant signed in 1866 by only one of the three then Lords Justices was valid, because the patent appointing them allowed for this in case of absence "occasioned by sickness or any other necessary cause", and the cause did not have to be stated.[14] After the Church of Ireland was disestablished in 1871, its prelates were no longer made Lords Justices, and usually only two were sworn in or the third was a second senior judge. Increasingly as the 19th century progressed, Lords Justices were sworn in during short absences from Dublin of the Lord Lieutenant, avoiding delay in validating the growing number of orders in council for routine administration. From 1890 to 1921 such absences averaged eight a year, lasting from days up to more than a month.[15] For example, there were eleven occasions in 1897 in which various subsets of six men were sworn Lords Justices — usually three at a time, but four on two occasions and two on one occasion — the six being Somerset Lowry-Corry, 4th Earl Belmore, Commander-in-Chief Earl Roberts, and four members of the Court of Appeal in Ireland (the Lord Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, and Master of the Rolls, and Gerald FitzGibbon).[16] In the Irish revolutionary period the Conscription Crisis of 1918 led prime minister David Lloyd George to suggest replacing the Lord Lieutenant on an emergency basis with three Lords Justices.[17] It proved impossible to find three willing to serve; St John Brodrick, 1st Earl of Midleton was prepared to preside but demanded more control of policy than Lloyd George would cede.[18]

After the Anglo-Irish Treaty and partition of Ireland, the Lord Lieutenancy of Ireland was abolished by the Irish Free State (Consequential Provisions) Act 1922 and replaced by the Governor-General of the Irish Free State and Governor of Northern Ireland, which latter had deputies appointed by the Privy Council of Northern Ireland. The Irish Free State had no privy council: the Governor-General's default replacement would be the Chief Justice, but the sole suggestion of invoking this provision, at James McNeill's 1932 resignation, was not taken up.[19]

List of Lords Justices


Until 1689

10 February–2 July 1616:[21]

2 May–8 September 1622:[21]

10 February 1641–January 1644:[22]

26 October 1660–July 1662:[23]

1690–1800

18th century

Date appointedDate sworn inLord JusticeLord JusticeLord JusticeLord Justice
9 Mar 17262 Apr 1726Hugh Boulter, Archbishop of ArmaghRichard West, L.C.William Conolly

1801–1847

DateLord ChancellorCommanderLord PrimateRef
13 March 1815Thomas Manners-Sutton, 1st Baron MannersSir George HewettWilliam Stuart[31]
11 May 1821Thomas Manners-Sutton, 1st Baron MannersSir David BairdWilliam Stuart[31]
January 1829Anthony HartJohn Byng, 1st Earl of StraffordJohn Beresford[32]

From 1848

Lords Justices of Ireland, 1848–1920
Date[n 1] Judges[n 2] Commander Bishop[n 3] Others
20 October 1848 Maziere Brady C Edward Blakeney Richard Whately
21 March 1849 Brady C Blakeney
19 May 1849
Blakeney
15 February 1850 Brady C Blakeney Whately
25 July 1851 Brady C Blakeney
8 January 1853 Thomas Langlois Lefroy LCJ Blakeney Whately
25 July 1853 Brady C Blakeney Whately
16 March 1855 Brady C John Colborne, 1st Baron Seaton Whately
8 November 1855 Brady C Seaton Whately
23 October 1856 Brady C Seaton Whately
4 May 1857 Brady C Seaton Whately
22 October 1857 Brady C Seaton Whately
10 March 1858 Blackburne LJAC Seaton Whately
11 April 1859 Joseph Napier C Seaton Whately
4 June 1859 Napier C Whately
5 July 1859 Brady C Seaton
12 April 1860 Brady C George Brown
12 December 1860 Brady C Brown Whately
17 October 1861 Brady C Brown Whately
13 August 1862 Brady C Brown
6 March 1863 Brady C Brown Whately
16 October 1863 Brady C Brown Beresford (Armagh)[n 4]
11 April 1864 Brady C Brown Richard Chenevix Trench
3 October 1865 Brady C Hugh Rose (later 1st Baron Strathnairn)
5 May 1866 Brady C Rose Trench
17 July 1866 Blackburne C Trench
15 December 1868 Jonathan Christian LJAC Strathnairn Trench
24 December 1868 Strathnairn Trench
13 June 1870 Edward Sullivan MR Maziere Brady (ex-C)
20 August 1870 William Mansfield (later 1st Baron Sandhurst) Brady
9 September 1878 John Michel
7 March 1879
  • Ball C
  • Chatterton VC
3 January 1894 Samuel Walker C Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley
19 March 1894 Walker C Wolseley
4 June 1894 Walker C Wolseley
30 July 1894 Walker C Wolseley
9 July 1895
11 September 1895
  • Ashbourne C
  • Chatterton VC
Somerset Lowry-Corry, 4th Earl Belmore (Irish representative peer)
5 November 1895
Belmore
4 February 1896
9 March 1896
  • Porter MR
  • Chatterton VC
20 March 1896 Chatterton VC Frederick Roberts, 1st Baron Roberts of Kandahar (later 1st Earl Roberts)
22 April 1896
  • Porter MR
  • Chatterton VC
Roberts
2 May 1896
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
Roberts
26 May 1896 FitzGibbon LJA Roberts
12 September 1896
  • Ashbourne C
  • Chatterton VC
Belmore
7 December 1896
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
Roberts
5 January 1897
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
12 January 1897
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
22 February 1897
  • Ashbourne C
  • Chatterton VC
Roberts
4 March 1897
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
19 March 1897
  • Ashbourne C
  • Porter MR
  • Chatterton VC
4 May 1897
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
26 May 1897
  • Porter MR
  • Chatterton VC
9 September 1897
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
Roberts Belmore
12 November 1897
  • Ashbourne C
  • Chatterton VC
Roberts Belmore
26 November 1897
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
Roberts
16 December 1897
  • Ashbourne C
  • Chatterton VC
Belmore
8 January 1898
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
Roberts
12 February 1898 Ashbourne C Roberts
22 February 1898
  • Ashbourne C
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
11 March 1898
  • Porter MR
  • Chatterton VC
19 March 1898
  • Ashbourne C
  • Porter MR
  • Chatterton VC
Roberts
18 April 1898
  • Ashbourne C
  • Porter MR
  • Chatterton VC
9 May 1898
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
13 August 1898
  • Ashbourne C
  • Chatterton VC
29 August 1898
  • Ashbourne C
  • Chatterton VC
14 September 1898 FitzGibbon LJA Roberts
29 October 1898
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
9 November 1898
  • Ashbourne C
  • Porter MR
  • Chatterton VC
Roberts
19 November 1898
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
5 December 1898
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
20 January 1899
  • Porter MR
  • Chatterton VC
Roberts
13 February 1899
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
Roberts
20 March 1899
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
Roberts
1 May 1899
  • Ashbourne C
  • Porter MR
5 May 1899
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
2 June 1899
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
4 July 1899
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
28 August 1899
  • Ashbourne C
  • Porter MR
  • Chatterton VC
1 November 1899
  • Ashbourne C
  • Chatterton VC
Roberts
10 November 1899
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
21 November 1899
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Chatterton VC
25 January 1900
  • Ashbourne C
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
28 February 1900
  • Ashbourne C
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
9 March 1900 Porter MR
22 March 1900 Porter MR
  • Powerscourt
  • Clonbrock
27 April 1900
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
Clonbrock
26 May 1900
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
3 September 1900 Ashbourne C
  • Powerscourt
  • Clonbrock
17 November 1900 FitzGibbon LJA Clonbrock
19 November 1900 Ashbourne C
3 December 1900
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
17 December 1900
  • Ashbourne C
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
17 January 1901
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
18 January 1901 Clonbrock
1 February 1901
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
Clonbrock
13 February 1901
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
19 March 1901
  • Ashbourne C
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
31 August 1901
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
Powerscourt
31 August 1901
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
Powerscourt
28 October 1901
18 November 1901
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
20 November 1901 Ashbourne C Powerscourt
5 December 1901
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Holmes LJA
18 December 1901
  • Porter MR
  • FilzGibbon LJA
13 January 1902
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Holmes LJA
13 February 1902
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Holmes LJA
10 March 1902
  • Porter MR
  • Holmes LJA
19 March 1902
  • Porter MR
  • Holmes LJA
7 April 1902
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Holmes LJA
10 July 1902
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
24 July 1902
  • Ashbourne C
  • Porter MR
6 August 1902
  • Porter MR
  • FitzGibbon LJA
13 August 1902 Ashbourne C Powerscourt
18 August 1902 Ashbourne C Powerscourt
5 November 1902
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
3 January 1903
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
Dermot Bourke, 7th Earl of Mayo (Irish representative peer)
20 March 1903
5 May 1903
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Holmes LJA
8 June 1903
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Holmes LJA
29 June 1903
9 November 1903
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Holmes LJA
29 January 1904
  • FitzGibbon LJA
  • Andrews J
5 April 1904 Holmes LJA Mayo
7 July 1904
  • Ashbourne C
  • Holmes LJA
Francis Grenfell, 1st Baron Grenfell Ormonde
4 October 1904
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
Grenfell
8 December 1904
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
25 January 1905
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
20 March 1905 Grenfell Ormonde
22nd April 1905
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
Grenfell
12 October 1905
  • Ashbourne C
  • FitzGibbon LJA
4 November 1905 Holmes LJA Grenfell
13 December 1905 Walker C Grenfell
29 March 1906 Grenfell Charles Hemphill, 1st Baron Hemphill (Former Solicitor General for Ireland)
9 June 1906
  • Walker C
  • Johnson J
Hemphill
4 August 1906
  • Walker C
  • Johnson J
4 September 1906 Walker C Hemphill
19 December 1906
  • Walker C
  • Johnson J
Hemphill
22 February 1907 Johnson J Hemphill
22 February 1907 Johnson J Hemphill
25 October 1907
  • Walker C
  • Johnson J
15 September 1908
  • Walker C
  • Johnson J
28 June 1908
  • Walker C
  • Johnson J
7 August 1909 Walker C Neville Lyttelton
6 October 1909 Johnson J Lyttelton
15 December 1909 Walker C Lyttelton William Moore Johnson (ex-J)
21 July 1910 Walker C Johnson
13 August 1910 Richard Cherry LJA Johnson
15 September 1910 Walker C Johnson
16 December 1910
  • Walker C
  • Cherry LJA
Johnson
9 June 1911
  • Walker C
  • Cherry LJA
Johnson
18 July 1911 Walker C Johnson
1 September 1911 Cherry LJA Johnson
19 February 1912 Cherry LJA Lyttelton
25 June 1912
  • Holmes LJA
  • Cherry LJA
28 December 1912
  • Cherry LJA
  • James Owens Wylie J
Arthur Paget
15 March 1913 Paget Johnson
7 May 1913
  • Cherry LJA
  • Wylie J
21 May 1913 Wylie J Paget
6 June 1913
  • Cherry LJA
  • Wylie J
26 June 1913
  • Cherry LJA
  • Wylie J
4 October 1913 Cherry LJA
16 December 1913
  • Holmes LJA
  • Cherry LJA
26 January 1914
  • Holmes LJA
  • Cherry LJA
17 February 1914 Wylie J Paget
1 May 1914
  • Cherry LCJ
  • Wylie J
Paget
22 December 1915
  • Cherry LCJ
  • Wylie J
David Harrel (Former Under-Secretary for Ireland)
10 May 1915
  • Cherry LCJ
  • Wylie J
Harrel
4 December 1915
  • Cherry LCJ
  • Wylie J
12 February 1916
  • Cherry LCJ
  • Wylie J
11 July 1916[n 5]
11 September 1916 Cherry LCJ Harrel
11 November 1916
  • Wylie J
  • Pim J
29 January 1917
  • Wylie J
  • Pim J
19 March 1917 Wylie J Richard Cherry (ex-LCJ)
14 May 1917 Pim J Cherry
13 August 1917
Bryan Mahon
24 July 1918
  • Campbell C
  • Wylie J
l2 November 1918
  • Campbell C
  • Wylie J
  • Pim J
28 January 1919
  • Campbell C
  • Wylie J
Frederick Shaw
28 January 1919
  • Campbell C
  • Wylie J
Shaw
12 June 1919
Shaw
21 October 1919 Campbell C Shaw
14 November 1919
  • Campbell C
  • Ross J
26 November 1919
  • Campbell C
  • Ross J
24 April 1920
  • Campbell C
  • Ross J
Nevil Macready
13 May 1920
  • Campbell C
  • Ross J
18 May 1920 Pim J Macready
Notes
  1. Link is to gazette announcement of the appointments, from The Edinburgh Gazette unless stated.
  2. Postnominal letters indicate judicial office as follows:
  3. See is Dublin unless indicated otherwise.
  4. Dublin vacant, Whately having died
  5. From The London Gazette. These five were appointed by letters patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom in Whitehall rather than the Irish seal in Dublin.[33] They served between the resignation of Lord Lieutenant Viscount Wimborne after the Easter Rising and his reappointment on 11 August 1916 with a new Chief Secretary (Henry Duke replacing Augustine Birrell).[34] Since martial law was in place under the Defence of the Realm Act 1914, General Sir John Maxwell wielded more power as General Officer Commanding in Ireland.[35]

5 May 1921:

  • Six Lords Justices were sworn in, including the first three Catholics[36]

27 June 1921:

  • Nevil Macready, General Officer Commanding in Ireland, was sworn in as a Lord Justice in order to swear in Sir John Ross as Lord Chancellor. The Lords Justice previously appointed were all unavailable owing to the Anglo-Irish War.[37]

28 June 1921:

See also


Various deputies for the British monarch:

Sources


  • Agnew, David Carnegie A. (1864). Henri de Ruvigny, Earl of Galway: A Filial Memoir. Edinburgh: William Paterson.
  • Bagwell, Richard (1909), Ireland under the Stuarts and under the Interregnum, London: Longmans, Green I: 1603–1642; II: 1642–1660; III: 1660–1690
  • Edmond, J. P.; Guppy, Henry; Phillips, Arthur, eds. (1910). "Chief Governors of Ireland". Handlist of proclamations issued by royal and other constitutional authorities, 1714–1910, George I to Edward VII. Bibliotheca Lindesiana. VIII. Wigan: Roger and Rennick. pp. xviii–xix. Retrieved 16 February 2021 via National Library of Scotland.
  • Madden, Richard Robert (1845). The Connexion Between the Kingdom of Ireland and the Crown of England. Dublin: James Duffy.
  • Moody, T.W.; Martin, F.X.; Byrne, F.J., eds. (24 March 2011). "Chief Governors". Maps, Genealogies, Lists: A Companion to Irish History, Part II. A New History Of Ireland. IX. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199593064.
  • Quekett, Arthur S. (1928). The Constitution Of Northern Ireland. Part I: The Origin and Development of the Constitution. Belfast: HMSO.
  • Quinn, David. B. (1941). "The Bills and Statutes of the Irish Parliaments of Henry VII and Henry VIII". Analecta Hibernica (10): 71–169. ISSN 0791-6167. JSTOR 25510968.
  • Steele, Robert (1910). "Chief Governors of Ireland". Bibliography of royal proclamations of the Tudor and Stuart sovereigns and of others published under authority, 1485-1714; Vol. I: England and Wales. Bibliotheca Lindesiana. V. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. ccii–ccvi. Retrieved 16 February 2021 via National Library of Scotland.
  • Sturgis, Mark (1999). Hopkinson, Michael (ed.). The Last Days of Dublin Castle: The Mark Sturgis Diaries. Dublin: Irish Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-7165-2626-1.
  • Travers, Pauric (March 1981). The last years of Dublin Castle: The Administration of Ireland 1890–1921 (PhD). Australian National University. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  • Wood, Herbert (8 February 1923). "The Office of Chief Governor of Ireland, 1172-1509". Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Section C. 36: 206–238. ISSN 0035-8991. JSTOR 25504230.
  • Wood, Herbert (1 June 1935). "The Titles of the Chief Governors of Ireland". Historical Research. 13 (37): 1–8. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.1935.tb00065.x.

Citations


  1. Taylor, J. J. (31 January 1919). "Privy Council Office, Dublin Castle". The Edinburgh Gazette (13396): 582.
  2. Wood 1923 p.213
  3. Wood 1923 p.212
  4. Quinn 1941 p.93; 10 Hen. 7 c.26 [Rot. Parl] — printed as Conway, Agnes Ethel (1932). "Appendix XXVII". Henry VII's relations with Scotland and Ireland, 1485–1498. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 212–213 via Internet Archive.
  5. Quinn 1941; p.96 item (b) and p.100
  6. Quinn 1941 p.157 item [4]; 33 Hen.8 sess.2 c.3 [Rot. Parl] / c.2 [Stat. at L.]
  7. McGrath, Charles Ivar. "Late Seventeenth- and Early Eighteenth-Century Governance and the Viceroyalty". In Gray, Peter; Purdue, Olwen (eds.). The Irish Lord Lieutenancy c.1541–1922. University College Dublin Press. ISBN 978-1-910820-97-1.
  8. "Boyle, Murrough" by T. G. Doyle DIB CUP
  9. Bartlett, Thomas. "Townshend, George". Dictionary of Irish Biography. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  10. Miller, John (2011). "Review of The Conolly Archive by Patrick Walsh and A.P.W. Malcomson; and The Making of the Irish Protestant Ascendancy: the Life of William Conolly, 1662–1729 by Patrick Walsh". Eighteenth-Century Ireland. 26: 198–199. ISSN 0790-7915. JSTOR 23365321.
  11. 1788 [28 Geo. 3] c. 24
  12. Travers 1981 pp.2–3
  13. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1851). "Justices, Lords". Penny Cyclopaedia. Supplement. C. Knight. p. 129. In modern times the ... lords justices have usually been the lord primate, the lord chancellor, and the commander of the forces.; Abhba (4 April 1863). "Knighthood Conferred by the Lords Justices of Ireland". Notes and Queries. ser.3 v.III (66): 279. doi:10.1093/nq/s3-III.66.279b.
  14. Mulholland, W. (1871). "Rex v. Nugent [February 20, 1868]". In Cox, Edward William (ed.). Reports of Cases in Criminal Law, Argued and Determined in All the Courts in England and Ireland (Cox's Criminal Cases). IX. London: Horace Cox. pp. 64–69.
  15. Travers 1981 p.27
  16. The Edinburgh Gazette 1897 pp. 25, 53, 185, 221, 273, 433, 511, 881, 1081, 1193, 1260
  17. Travers 1981 pp.35, 85
  18. Travers 1981 pp.36, 38
  19. McMahon, Deirdre (1982). "The Chief Justice and the Governor General Controversy in 1932". Irish Jurist (1966-). 17 (1): 145–167. ISSN 0021-1273. JSTOR 44026929.
  20. Hawkins, Richard. "Arnold, Sir Nicholas". Dictionary of Irish Biography. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  21. Thrush, Andrew (2010). "Appendix I: Principal officeholders; Heads of the Irish administration 1603-29". In Thrush, Andrew; Ferris, John P. (eds.). The House of Commons 1604-1629. The History of Parliament. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 9 February 2021 via History of Parliament Online.
  22. Armstrong, Robert. "Borlase, Sir John". Dictionary of Irish Biography. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  23. Boyle, Roger by T. C. Barnard DIB CUP
  24. Agnew 1864 pp.193, 197
  25. "Massue de Ruvigny, Henri" by Raymond Pierre Hylton DIB CUP
  26. Agnew 1864 p.71
  27. Agnew 1864 p.85
  28. Agnew 1864 p.72
  29. Agnew 1864 p.88–89
  30. Marsh, Narcissus by Muriel McCarthy DIB CUP
  31. Madden 1845 p.179 "Appendix: Return of the Names of Lords Lieutenants, Lords Justices, and Chief Secretaries of Ireland; 1801-1821"
  32. Madden 1845 p.302
  33. "Whitehall, July 11, 1916". The London Gazette (29660): 6851. 11 July 1916.
  34. "The Government of Ireland". The Irish Times. 1 August 1916. p. 4 cols 3–4.; "Irish Viceroyalty; Lord Wimborne Re-Appointed". The Irish Times. 7 August 1916. p. 4 col. 5.
  35. "Government of Ireland; Executive". Hansard. 24 July 1916. HC Deb ser 5 vol 84 c1322.
  36. Sturgis 1999 p.172
  37. Sturgis 1999 p.193
  38. Quekett 1928, p.18 fn.2
  39. Quekett 1928 p.20