Loreto, Baja California Sur
Loreto (or Conchó) is a resort town and municipal seat of Loreto Municipality, located on the Gulf of California in eastern Baja California Sur state, Mexico. In 2019, the city of 20,385 inhabitants is located about 350 km (220 mi) north of La Paz, the capital of Baja California Sur state.
View of the town from the Chuenque Bay
|State||Baja California Sur|
|Founded||October 25, 1697|
|Founded as||Real de Loreto|
|Founded by||Juan María de Salvatierra|
|• Mayor||Arely Arce Peralta|
|Elevation||3 m (10 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC−7 (Pacific (US Mountain))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−6 (Pacific)|
The town was founded in 1697 by Jesuit missionaries, who found a steady spring of fresh water on this site, as the Misión Nuestra Señora de Loreto. The Jesuits were expelled in 1767, and control of the Baja California missions was given to the Franciscans. In 1769, the Franciscans were ordered to turn over the Baja missions to the Dominican Order and accompany the expedition of Gaspar de Portolá to establish new missions in the unexplored northern frontier that became Alta California. The expedition departed from Loreto on March 24, 1769.
The town served as the capital of the province of Las Californias from its founding until the capital was moved to Monterey on February 3, 1777. In 1768, the province had been split into Alta California (today's U.S. state of California) and Baja California. At first, the two provinces continued with a single governor. Later, the town became the headquarters for the Lieutenant Governor of California Viejo (the province of Baja California).
As of March 1, 2021, the municipality reported 1,134 recoveries, 39 active cases, and 35 deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico.
Loreto is located on the east coast of the Baja California Peninsula, at 26º00'46" N 111º20'36" W. It is bordered on the east by the Gulf of California, on the west by the Transpeninsular Highway, and on the south by the Arroyo Loreto, a dry creek bed that only fills with water after a heavy rainfall. The city is built on relatively flat land with an average elevation is 10 meters (33 ft) above sea level. "La Giganta" Mountain Range ("Sierra de la Giganta") lies to the west, extending along the center of the state of Baja California Sur, parallel to the gulf coast.
The geology and topography of the Loreto region, extending from Bahía Concepción to Agua Verde, is a coastal belt consisting "mainly of a narrow belt of ridges, valleys, and pediments adjacent to the escarpment, low- to moderate-elevation ranges transverse to the coast, and narrow coastal plains".
The city is a tourist resort, catering mostly to American travelers, with daily flights from California to Loreto International Airport. Many American tourists enjoy fishing in "pangas" for "dorado" (Mahi-mahi or Dolphin Fish). Local restaurants willingly prepare the daily catch of the tourists. Loreto has a museum that coexists alongside the historic, but still active, parish. Loreto has active sister city relationships with the California cities of Hermosa Beach, Cerritos, and Ventura.
Loreto has a tropical desert climate which is hot and humid, with abundant sunshine (desert with some rainfall in summer). The median temperature is 24.4 °C (76 °F). The temperatures are hot from June through October. These summer days have highs around 34 °C (93 °F) and high humidity. According to the National Meteorological Service, Loreto's highest official temperature reading of 44.2 °C (112 °F) was recorded on July 2, 2006; the lowest temperature ever recorded was 0.0 °C (32 °F) on December 15, 1987. In spring season, the temperatures are moderate and temperate. Autumn and winter months are usually windy.
|Climate data for Loreto, Baja California Sur (1951–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.0
|Average high °C (°F)||23.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||17.2
|Average low °C (°F)||11.0
|Record low °C (°F)||2.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||12.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.3||0.7||0.2||0.1||0.1||0.1||1.1||2.3||2.1||1.0||0.7||1.2||10.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||68||67||66||65||66||65||64||64||69||66||66||68||66|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||248||293||297||309||360||352||326||305||289||289||255||240||3,563|
|Source 1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (humidity, 1981–2000)|
|Source 2: Ogimet (sun 1981–2010)|
From January to March, winds blow from the NW (night hours) and the North (day hours), the rest of the year, the winds blow usually from the West. Loreto's yearly precipitation is low; averaging about 160 mm (6.3 in). The wettest months are August and September, when there are occasional short-lived rainfalls. One concern for Loreto is the Pacific hurricane season, which runs from June 1 to November 30, and some times causes heavy rainfall and floods in the area. The last time the town area was hit by a hurricane was on September 2 and 3, 2006, when the hurricane John hit the Baja California Peninsula.
According to INEGI, the 2015 city population was 18,535 people with 2565 households, with 77.67% male and 22.32% female householders. The population is young: 29.75% are from 0 to 14 years of age, 19.19% from 15 to 24, and only 6.42% are 60 years of age or older. For every 100 females there are 102.5 males, and for every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 100.5 males. The Municipality of Loreto (which includes Nopoló, Puerto Escondido, San Javier and the rest of the little villages from the coast and mountains) has a population of 21,071 people.
Due to Loreto's small population and low immigration, large families are characteristic, and residents often have the same last name, a phenomenon also found in other state localities. The two largest families are the "Davis", predominating in the east of the city, along the beach ("Calle Davis" is a street with this last name), and the "Murillo", predominating in the south along the Arroyo Loreto, in the neighborhood known as "barrio del Muro", named after the retaining wall built to hold flood waters from the creek. Other large families are the Amador, the Arce, the Cota, the Higuera, the Romero and the Villalejo.
There are seven buildings in Loreto from the 18th to the 20th century that are considered historical monuments by the federal government; the most important is the Mission of our Lady of Loreto, which is at the start of El Camino Real ("The Royal Road"), an historic corridor that follows north along the ancient route of the Spanish missions, to its ending in Sonoma, California, USA. In the neighboring town of San Javier are five historical buildings, most importantly the Mission of Saint Francis Xavier (Misión de San Francisco Javier), the best preserved mission in the peninsula. The ruins of Mission of San Bruno, the first mission of Baja California, founded in 1683 by Jesuit missionary explorer Padre Eusebio Kino. It was ordered abandoned by the Spanish Crown a mere two years later. It is located twenty kilometers north of Loreto.
The Jesuit Missions Museum (Museo de las Misiones Jesuíticas) is located beside the Mission of our Lady of Loreto. It has a collection of religious art, weapons and tools from the 17th and 18th centuries that were used in the Spanish missions in Baja California.
In the "La Giganta" Mountain Range ("Sierra de la Giganta"), there are cave paintings in canyons and rock shelters. The nearest sites to Loreto are "Cuevas Pintas" (15 km to the west) and "La Pingüica" (60 km to the North). The cave paintings from the indigenous groups of Baja California are well-known and some of them have been added to UNESCO's list of world heritage sites.
Loreto has a reputation as an excellent sport fishing location. This is its main tourist attraction, as well as the main source of employment in the area, thus linking Loreto's economy closely to fishing. There are two well-defined fishing seasons: summer features "dorado" and species like marlin (black marlin, Atlantic blue marlin, striped marlin) and sailfish, which are ideal for fly fishing; winter fishing features "yellow tail" (jurel) and other species that usually are deep in the sea rocks. In addition to these seasonal species, Loreto's waters are home to other species like snapper and seabass, which are found all year long. Thanks to this abundance, Loreto has been home of several IGFA records. The two "foundations" of Loreto's sport fishing are the "dorado" and the "yellow tail" (Seriola lalandi dorsalis). The dorado is the emblematic species of Loreto's warm waters, its season beginning in late May, peaking from July to September, and ending in November, with two important tournaments, in July and September. The yellow tail is one of the strongest species; its season begins in November, peaks from March to April, and comes to an end in late May.
|Yellow Tail (Jurel)|
|Sailfish (Pez Vela)|
The city has two public schools of superior studies:
- The Regional Center of Normal Education "Marcelo Rubio Ruiz" (CREN) is an undergraduate school of education that offers two bachelor's degree programs in education and in special education.
- The Baja California Sur Autonomous University campus Loreto (UABCS) offers two bachelor's degree programs in alternative tourism and in political science and public administration.
The Catholic private school Colegio Calafia offers one associate degree in commerce.
High school students (10th to 12th grade) are served by two public schools:
- Centro de Estudios de Bachillerato.
- Colegio de Bachilleres (former Preparatoria Federal por Cooperación "Manuel Davis Ramírez").
Middle school students (7th to 9th grade) are served by two public schools:
- Escuela Secundaria Estatal "Benito Juárez".
- Escuela Secundaria Estatal "Modesto Sánchez Mayón".
Elementary school students (1st to 6th grade) are served by six public schools and one catholic private school. There are five kindergarten schools. Boarding School Number 8 (Albergue Escolar Número 8 "General Venustiano Carranza") serves children from the mountain villages who attend school, away from their homes and families. It serves approximately sixty five students.
Festivities and events
- Fiestas de la Virgen de Loreto. The Our Lady of Loreto Festivities are celebrated on September 8. It's a series of religious, civic and cultural events.
- Fiestas de la Fundación de Loreto. The foundation of the city is celebrated from October 19 to 25. It's one of the most important cultural events in the state.
- Fiestas de San Javier. The festivities from December 1 to 3 are in honor of Saint Francis Xavier, patron saint from the neighbor town of San Javier. These festivities attract a lot of pilgrims from the peninsula.
- Loreto 400. An off-road racing event that takes place in September. The course is a classic desert offroad race which route includes Comondú, San Javier and the old towns of La Giganta mountain range.
- Loreto 300 milles. Off-road racing event. December.
- Torneo de las Mision Fishing Charity Tournament that started in 1993. The 2007 edition will be July 12–14.
- Loreto Dorado International Fishing Tournament. Takes place in July.
- Copa Dorado Tournament. State tournament in September.
- Governor's Cup Fishing Tournament. May
The city of Loreto is the seat of the Municipality of Loreto, which is governed by a City Council (Ayuntamiento), consisting of a Mayor or Municipal President (Presidente Municipal), a Syndic (Síndico), and six City Councilors (Regidores), all eight elected by direct popular vote for a mandatory single term limit of three years. The Mayor is a voting member of the council, and as head of the public municipal administration is directly responsible for actual implementation of the City Council's decisions, somewhat analogous to a City Manager. The Mayor of Loreto is Darryn Murphy, whose term runs until April 2021.
The Syndic (or Trustee), also a voting member, is responsible for the legal representation of both the council itself and of the municipal government more generally, and monitors municipal assets and supervises public servants conduct, similar to a US Inspector General.
The other six City Councilors are voting members whose principal function is analysis and overall direction, rather than direct implementation of the council's decisions. The Mayor is represented at the community action level by seven subdelegates (Subdelegados Municipales), who are appointed by the City Council to perform certain functions: presently serving are Agua Verde, San Javier, Ligüi, Colonia Zaragoza, San Nicolás, Tembabiche, and San Juan.
|2014–2018||Prof. Arely Arce Peralta||PAN|
|2011–2014||Jorge Alberto Avilés Pérez||PRI|
|2008–2011||Prof. Yuan Yee Cunningham||PRD|
|2005–2008||Rosalía Romero de Aguiar (2007–2008)|
Rodolfo Davis Osuna (2005–2007)
|2002–2005||Lic. Homero Davis Castro||PAN|
|1999–2002||Lic. Antonio Verdugo Davis||PRI|
|1996–1999||Ramón Davis Drew||PRI|
|1993–1996||Alfredo García Green||PAN|
|2006||45.88% 2,315||14.47% 730||35.41% 1,787|
|2000||43.80% 2,149||41.99% 2,060||11.84% 581|
|1994||37.07% 1,671||57.72% 2,602||1.91% 86|
|2008||20.7% 1,362||54.23% 3,569||23.58% 1,552|
|2005||36.3% 2,121||27.4% 1,597||28.8% 1,680|
|2002||38.83% 2,125||23.00% 1,259||34.65% 1,896|
|1999||40.3% 2,122||44.8% 2,364||11.0% 579|
|1996||43.7% 2,003||51.3% 2,351|
|1993||50.1% 1,735||49.9% 1,728|
The Municipality was created in 1992 and Loreto citizens elected their first Mayor (Municipal President) in 1993. The Federal Electoral Institute, as of February 3, 2008, recorded 9,073 registered voters for the Municipality of Loreto. In Loreto, the main political parties are:
- The National Action Party (PAN), a conservative party which was formed locally in the early 1990s by small merchants and Cursillos de Cristiandad members (a Catholic movement), as a political opposition to the then undefeatable PRI.
- The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), which ruled the country from 1929 to 2000, and was mainly formed by public employees and labor union members.
- The Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), a left-wing party which gained a presence within the State in 1998 when many local PRI members changed their political affiliation.
- The New Alliance Party (PANAL), the political wing of the National Education Workers' Union (SNTE), a corporatist union led by Elba Esther Gordillo. The party began activities in the municipality in 2007, when PAN members, including several members of the Davis Family changed their political affiliation. The SNTE provided funds and political activists.
Loreto politics has demonstrated two characteristics: high voter participation and differentiated voting.
Baja California Sur State has high voter participation than the rest of the country, and within the State, Loreto is the Municipality with the highest turnout. Local elections have generally had higher participation than General Elections (Elecciones Federales) for President, Senators and Deputies. Local election participation was as low as 48.2% in 1993 and as high as 83% in 1996 while participation in the last General Election was 62.42%.
Differentiated voting means that the citizens' vote for the candidates rather than the political party, and thus often chose candidates of diverse political affiliation at the same election. Examples of differentiated voting are the 2005 State and local election, and the 2006 General Election. In the 2005 State and local elections, three different political parties won on the same election day, one for each of three offices: the winning candidates in Lareto were the PRI candidate Rodimiro Amaya for State Governor (but he lost the rest of the State), the PAN candidate Rodolfo Davis for Mayor, and the PRD candidate Antonio Olachea for State Representative (the current XII District State Representative). In 2006, Loreto voters elected Felipe Calderón, the winning PAN candidate, for President, and PRD candidates Francisco Obregón Senators and Juan Adolfo Orci Martínez Deputies. This differentiated voting pattern began in 1993, the year that the PRI was first defeated in a local election: PRI won the Governor election, but lost the Municipalities of La Paz, Comondú and Loreto, as well as the State Congress. Each election has had winners of dissimilar political affiliation. From 1999 to 2005, even though the PRD won almost all the local elections across the State, the Loreto Municipality was carried by either the PRI or the PAN, while the PRD won the Governor's election and State Representative Election. In 2008, however, the PRD won both Mayor and State Representative offices.
The city has one local radio station, XHLBS 92.5 FM Estéreo Loreto, which plays popular music and offers local news.
The city is served by Loreto International Airport, offering domestic flights on carriers Aeromexico, AeroCalafia, and Aeroservicio Guerrero. It is also one of the few places to get aviation fuel in the Baja area. International service is currently provided by Alaska Airlines and Horizon Air to Los Angeles. Beginning in 2015, WestJet has also offered seasonal weekly direct flights to Calgary. American Airlines has announced seasonal service to both Phoenix PHX and Dallas Ft. Worth DFW starting in 2021
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 21, 2018. Retrieved January 20, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Bolton, Herbert E. (1927). Fray Juan Crespi: Missionary Explorer on the Pacific Coast, 1769-1774. HathiTrust Digital Library. University of California Press. pp. 62–63. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
- "Coronavirus – Baja California Sur Situation Report – Información de Coronavirus". coronavirus.bcs.gob.mx (in Spanish). Gobierno de Baja California Sur. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
- Paul J. Umhoefer (July 2002). "Evolution of the margin of the Gulf of California near Loreto, Baja California Peninsula, Mexico" (PDF). Geological Society of America Bulletin. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(2002)114<0849:eotmot>2.0.co;2. Archived from the original (pdf) on June 21, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2007.
- Aspectos geográficos de BCS. Temperatura media anual Archived 2007-06-10 at the Wayback Machine, INEGI
- "Estacion Loreto (DGE)". Normales climatológicas 1951-2010 (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Loreto (DGE) 1940-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on February 16, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
- "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1981–2000" (PDF) (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 30, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
- "CLIMAT summary for 76305: Loreto, B.C.S (Mexico) – Section 2: Monthly Normals". CLIMAT monthly weather summaries. Ogimet. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
- "Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México". Secretaría de Gobernación. Archived from the original on January 10, 2007. Retrieved January 10, 2007. Cite journal requires
- Pam Bolles. "What's the weather going to be like tomorrow?". The Baja Big Fish Company Loreto. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Cite journal requires
- Alberto Hernández Unzón. (September 2006). "Resumen del huracán "John" del Océano Pacífico" (PDF). Comisión Nacional del Agua. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 4, 2006. Retrieved January 18, 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Hurricane John hits Loreto". The Baja Big Fish Company Loreto. 2006. Archived from the original on February 16, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 15, 2014. Retrieved September 15, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Vid. Francisco Davis Murillo Genealogía Familia Loretana Archived 2007-05-25 at the Wayback Machine
- Harry Crosby (1977). "El Camino Real in Baja California: Loreto to San Diego". The Journal of San Diego History. 23. Archived from the original on December 30, 2006. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
- "Inauguration of the Binational Historic Corridor "El Camino Real Misionero de las Californias"" (Press release). California State Parks. April 27, 1996. Archived from the original on October 1, 2006. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
- "Camino Real Misionero de las Californias. Proyecto de Recuperación Patrimonial" (Press release). Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes. July 27, 2001. Archived from the original on October 12, 2006. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
- David Rojas. "Loreto, Baja California Sur, Museo de las Misiones". Instituto Cultural "Raices Mexicanas". Archived from the original on June 6, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Zonas arqueológicas". Dirección de Turismo Municipal de Loreto. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2007. Cite journal requires
- Gene Kira. "Loreto Fishing Vacation & Travel Information". Mexico Fishing News. Archived from the original on October 17, 2006. Retrieved January 18, 2007. Cite journal requires
- Pam Bolles (July 1998). "Loreto: Alive and Well". The Baja Big Fish Company Loreto, reedited from Pacific Fisherman Magazine. Archived from the original on December 6, 2006. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Cite journal requires
- Mark Malkin. "Head to Baja's Loreto for Hot Summer Fishing Action". BoatersWorld.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved January 18, 2007. Cite journal requires
- Pam Bolles. "IGFA World Record Game Fish taken off Loreto". The Baja Big Fish Company Loreto. Archived from the original on December 6, 2006. Retrieved January 18, 2007. Cite journal requires
- "Última llamada para pilotos". Esto. December 10, 2006. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
- Pato Rojo (December 10, 2006). "Resultados oficiales Loreto 300 millas". Desert Baja. Archived from the original on September 7, 2007. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
- Pallesen, Kristian (July 18, 2005). "Mexico 14th Annual Fishin for the Mission Tournament Report". Mexico Fishing News. Archived from the original on October 17, 2006. Retrieved January 23, 2007.
- Reglamento Interior de Cabildo Archived 2007-06-21 at the Wayback Machine Ayuntamiento de Loreto
- Reglamento Interior de la Administración Pública Municipal Archived 2007-06-21 at the Wayback Machine Ayuntamiento de Loreto
- Alfonso Gavito González, Desbandada de priístas en BCS y Quintana Roo tras la elección interna Archived 2007-05-24 at the Wayback Machine, La Jornada, Cd. de México, D.F., September 22, 1998.
- Desbandada panista en BCS para afiliarse al PANAL Archived 2010-11-16 at the Wayback Machine Revista Dossier Político Archived 2008-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
- El PANAL fortalecido por la fractura perredistaLa Jornada Archived 2006-08-07 at the Wayback Machine
- de las Elecciones Federales de México 2006. Baja California Sur. Elección de Presidente, Instituto Federal Electoral
- Local Election Database. Baja California Sur Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback MachineCenter of Research for Development Archived 2007-06-06 at the Wayback Machine
- SIEM. Sistema Electoral Mexicano. Resultados Baja California Sur Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine Instituto de Mercadotecnia y Opinión Archived 2007-03-23 at the Wayback Machine
- Resultados Electorales 1998-2005 Baja California Sur Archived 2007-05-19 at the Wayback MachineInstituto Estatal Electoral de Baja California Sur
- "CRM3 Delivers ABC's 'The Bachelor' to Loreto Bay". SiteSeek. Archived from the original on February 2, 2013. Retrieved June 19, 2007. Cite journal requires
- Hoddenbach, Jim (9 April 2015) "Baja Bound, a Video" Reference contained in video. Disciples of Flight. Retrieved 21 August 2015)
- "WestJet launches service to Loreto". Calgary International Airport. February 14, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- 2010 census tables: INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática
- Morales Polo, Sergio, THE MISSION OF SAN JAVIER. A beautiful link of Jesuit Missions chain in the Royal Road of the Californias. Edit. Londó, México 2007
- Ann O'Neil and Don O'Neil (2001), Loreto, Baja California: First Mission and Capital of Spanish California, Tio Press, ISBN 0-9708541-0-2.
- Alan Axelrod, David Axelrod and Aaron Bodansky (2007), Best Guide: Loreto, Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico; ISBN 978-0-9700455-8-4.
- Brett Alan Wyatt (2005), You Decide Travel Guide:Loreto, Riley Books, ISBN 0-9708898-5-2.
- Conservación del Territorio Insular Mexicano, A.C., Estudio socioeconómico de las comunidades costeras El Juncalito, Ligui, Ensenada Blanca y Agua Verde, Municipio de Loreto, B.C.S.
- Hiking Loreto,Hikes, Walks and Explorations in Loreto and the Sierra Giganta (2019) Fourth Edition; DeeDee Kelly, Dave Kelly and Ed Nugent.
- Miguel León-Portilla (1997), Loreto's key role in the early history of the Californias (1697–1773), California Mission Studies Association, OCLC 37842990.
- Paul Gangster, Oscar Arizpe and Antonina Ivanova (2007), Loreto - The future of the first capital of the Californias, ISBN 978-0-925613-52-3
- Sergio Morales Polo (1993), Loreto : some relevant facts about the history of the keystone of California culture, Editorial Londó, OCLC 39034134.
- Nicole Dyan Peterson (2005), Casting a wide net decision-making in a Mexican marine park, Ph.D. dissertation, UCSD, OCLC: 64507505.
- Loreto: Baja California, Mexico fishing chart and guide (1999), Baja "Directions", Inc., ISBN 1-929394-05-5, ISBN 978-1-929394-05-0.