Lower Lotharingia

The Duchy of Lower Lotharingia,[1] also called Northern Lotharingia,[2][3] Lower Lorraine or Northern Lorraine (and also referred to as Lothier or Lottier[4] in titles), was a stem duchy established in 959, of the medieval Kingdom of Germany, which encompassed almost all of the modern Netherlands (the region of Frisia was loosely associated with the duchy, but the dukes exercised no de facto control over the territory), central and eastern Belgium, Luxemburg, the northern part of the German Rhineland province and the eastern parts of France's Nord-Pas de Calais region.

Duchy of Lower Lotharingia
Neder-Lotharingen
959/977–1190
Coat of arms
Green: Lower (Northern) Lotharingia in 977 (borders of current states in purple)
StatusPart of East Francia until 962
Part of Holy Roman Empire
Common languagesOld Dutch
Old Frisian
Old French
Old Low German
Religion
Christianity
GovernmentFeudal Duchy
Duke 
 959–964
Godfrey I (first)
 1142–1190
Godfrey III (last)
Historical eraMiddle Ages
 Established
959
 Disestablished
1190
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Lotharingia
Prince-Bishopric of Liège
Electorate of Cologne
Bishopric of Cambrai
County of Cleves
Duchy of Limburg
County of Namur
Landgraviate of Brabant
County of Holland
Bishopric of Utrecht
County of Louvain
Duchy of Guelders
County of Hainaut
County of Jülich
County of Berg
County of Loon

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