Lusitania (/ˌlsɪˈtniə/; Classical Latin: [luːsiːˈtaːnia]) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province located where modern Portugal (south of the Douro river) and part of western Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a part of the province of Salamanca) lie. It was named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people (an Indo-European people).

Hispania Lusitana
Province of the Roman Empire
27 BC–AD 409/410

CapitalEmerita Augusta (Mérida)
Historical eraRoman Empire
27 BC
AD 409/410
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of the Suebi
Today part of Portugal
The Iberian peninsula in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117–138 AD), showing, in western Iberia, the imperial province of Lusitania (Portugal and Extremadura)

Its capital was Emerita Augusta (currently Mérida, Spain), and it was initially part of the Roman Republic province of Hispania Ulterior, before becoming a province of its own in the Roman Empire. Romans first came to the territory around the mid-2nd century BC.[1] A war with Lusitanian tribes followed, from 155 to 139 BC. In 27 BC, the province was created.[2]

Lusitania was and is often used as an alternative name for Portugal.