M1 Garand

The M1 Garand or M1 Rifle[nb 1] is a .30-06 caliber semi-automatic battle rifle that was the standard U.S. service rifle during World War II and the Korean War and also saw limited service during the Vietnam War. Most M1 rifles were issued to U.S. forces, though many hundreds of thousands were also provided as foreign aid to American allies. The Garand is still used by drill teams and military honor guards. It is also widely used by civilians for hunting, target shooting, and as a military collectible.

U.S. Rifle, Caliber .30, M1
M1 Garand rifle from the collection of the Swedish Army Museum, Stockholm
TypeSemi-automatic rifle
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In service
  • 1936–1958 (as the standard U.S. service rifle)
  • 1940s–present (other countries)
Used bySee Users
Production history
DesignerJohn C. Garand
Unit costAbout $85 (during World War II) (equivalent to $1,270 in 2020)
No. built5,468,772[9]
VariantsSee Variants
Mass9.5 lb (4.31 kg) to 11.6 lb (5.3 kg)
Length43.5 in (1,100 mm)
Barrel length24 in (609.6 mm)

ActionGas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fire40–50 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity2,800 ft/s (853 m/s)
Effective firing range500 yd (457 m)[10]
Feed system8-round en bloc clip, internal magazine
  • Rear: adjustable aperture
  • Front: wing protected post

The M1 rifle was named after its Canadian-American designer, John Garand. It was the first standard-issue semi-automatic military rifle.[11] By most accounts, the M1 rifle performed well. General George S. Patton called it "the greatest battle implement ever devised".[12][13] The M1 replaced the bolt-action M1903 Springfield as the standard U.S. service rifle in 1936,[14] and was itself replaced by the selective fire M14 rifle on March 26, 1958.[15]

Although the name Garand is frequently pronounced /ɡəˈrænd/, the preferred pronunciation is /ˈɡærənd/ (to rhyme with errand), according to experts and people who knew John Garand, the weapon's designer.[16][17] Frequently referred to as the "Garand" or "M1 Garand" by civilians, its official designation when it was the issue rifle in the U.S. Army and the U.S. Marine Corps was "U.S. Rifle, Caliber .30, M1" or just "M1" and Garand was not mentioned.