Madeira

Madeira (/məˈdɪərə/ mə-DEER, US also /-ˈdɛər-/ -DAIR-,[2][3][4] Portuguese: [mɐˈðejɾɐ, -ˈðɐj-]), officially the Autonomous Region of Madeira (Portuguese: Região Autónoma da Madeira), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal, the other being the Azores. It is an archipelago situated in the North Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia, just under 400 kilometres (250 mi) to the north of the Canary Islands and 520 kilometres (320 mi) west of Morocco.[5][6] Madeira is geologically located on the African Tectonic Plate, though the archipelago is culturally, economically and politically European.[7][8][9] Its total population was estimated in 2016 at 289,000. The capital of Madeira is Funchal, which is located on the main island's south coast.

Madeira
Autonomous Region of Madeira
Região Autónoma da Madeira  (Portuguese)
Etymology: madeira, Portuguese word for wood
Nickname(s): 
Pearl of the Atlantic
Motto: 
Das Ilhas as Mais Belas e Livres
(English: Of all islands, the most beautiful and free)
Anthem: "A Portuguesa"
Regional anthem: Anthem of the Autonomous Region of Madeira
Location of Madeira
Sovereign statePortugal
Discovery1418-1419
Settlementc. 1425
Political Autonomy30 April 1976
CapitalFunchal
Official languagesPortuguese
Demonym(s)Madeirense
(English: Madeiran)
GovernmentAutonomous Region
 Representative of the Republic
Irineu Barreto
Miguel Albuquerque
José Manuel Rodrigues
 Vice-President of the Regional Government of Madeira
Pedro Calado
LegislatureLegislative Assembly of the Autonomous Region of Madeira
National and European Representation
6 Deputies
2 MEPs
Area
 Total
801 km2 (309 sq mi)
Highest elevation1,861 m (6,106 ft)
Lowest elevation0 m (0 ft)
Population
 2016 estimate
289,000
 2011 census
267 785
 Density
334/km2 (865.1/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
 Total
€4.6077 billion
 Per capita
€18,096
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
 Total
4.5364 billion
 Per capita
€18,100[1]
CurrencyEUR (€) (EUR)
Time zoneUTC (WET)
  Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (WEST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+351 (291)
ISO 3166 codePT-30
Internet TLD
Usual abbreviationRAM
Websitewww.madeira.gov.pt

The archipelago includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, and the Desertas, administered together with the separate archipelago of the Savage Islands. The region has political and administrative autonomy through the Administrative Political Statute of the Autonomous Region of Madeira provided for in the Portuguese Constitution. The autonomous region is an integral part of the European Union as an outermost region.[10] Madeira generally has a very mild and moderated subtropical climate with mediterranean summer droughts and winter rain. Many microclimates are found at different elevations.

Madeira was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator in 1419 and settled after 1420. The archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Age of Discovery.

As of 2017, it was a popular year-round resort, being visited every year by about 1.4 million tourists,[11] almost five times its population. The region is noted for its Madeira wine, gastronomy, historical and cultural value, flora and fauna, landscapes (laurel forest) that are classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and embroidery artisans. The main harbour in Funchal has long been the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings, receiving more than half a million tourists through its main port in 2017, being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe, the Caribbean and North Africa.[12][13] In addition, the International Business Centre of Madeira, also known as the Madeira Free Trade Zone, was created formally in the 1980s as a tool of regional economic policy. It consists of a set of incentives, mainly tax-related, granted with the objective of attracting foreign direct investment based on international services into Madeira.[14]