Mahmud II

Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى, romanized: Mahmud-u s̠ānī, Turkish: II. Mahmud; 20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.

Mahmud II
محمود ثانى
Ottoman Caliph
Amir al-Mu'minin
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Kayser-i Rûm
Mahmud II by Henri-Guillaume Schlesinger (1839)
30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Padishah)
Reign28 July 1808 1 July 1839
PredecessorMustafa IV
SuccessorAbdulmejid I
Born20 July 1785
Topkapı Palace, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Died1 July 1839(1839-07-01) (aged 53)
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Tomb of Sultan Mahmud II, Fatih, Istanbul
Issuesee below
Mahmud Han bin Abdülhamid
FatherAbdul Hamid I
MotherNakşidil Sultan
ReligionSunni Islam

His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated in the Decree of Tanzimat ("reorganization") that was carried out by his sons Abdulmejid I and Abdülaziz. Often described as "Peter the Great of Turkey",[1] Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire. The reforms he instituted were characterized by political and social changes, which would eventually lead to the birth of the modern Turkish Republic.[2] Mahmud II is the last sultan who used his political (non-judgmental) execution authority.[clarification needed]

Notwithstanding his domestic reforms, Mahmud's reign was also marked by nationalist uprisings in Ottoman-ruled Serbia and Greece, leading to significant loss of territory for the Empire following the emergence of an independent Greek state.

In the general structure of the Ottoman Empire, Mahmud's reign was characterized by showing major interest to Westernization; institutions, palace order, daily life, clothing, music and many other areas saw radical reform as the Ottoman Empire opened up to the modernisation.[3]