Mahsa Amini protests

Civil unrest and protests against the government of Iran associated with the death in police custody of Mahsa Amini (Persian: مهسا امینی) began on 16 September 2022 and are ongoing as of early December 2022. Amini had been arrested by the Guidance Patrol for allegedly violating Iran's mandatory hijab law by wearing her hijab "improperly" while visiting Tehran from Saqqez. According to eyewitnesses, she had been severely beaten by Guidance Patrol officers.[15] As the protests spread from Amini's hometown of Saqqez to other cities in the province of Kurdistan and throughout the country, the government responded with widespread internet blackouts, nationwide restrictions on social media usage,[16][17] tear gas and gunfire.[18][19][20]

Mahsa Amini protests
Part of the 2021–2022 Iranian protests, Iranian protests against compulsory hijab, and the aftermath of the death of Mahsa Amini
Date16 September 2022 – present (2022-09-16 – present)
(2 months, 3 weeks and 3 days)
Location
Iran, with solidarity rallies worldwide[1]
Caused by
Goals
Methods
StatusOngoing
ConcessionsGuidance Patrol disbanded per Attorney General Mohammad Jafar Montazeri
Parties to the civil conflict

Iranian protesters

Support by most anti–Islamic Republic organizations
Lead figures
No centralized leadership[8]
Casualties
Death(s)At least 448 protesters including 60 minors killed (Iran Human Rights) as of 29 November[9]

470 protesters including 64 minors killed, as well as 61 security force members (HRANA), as of 3 December[10]
More than 300 protesters killed, including more than 30 minors, in 25 out of 31 provinces (United Nations), as of 22 November[11]

200 killed (state media) as of 3 December[12]

See casualties for details.
Injuries898+ as of 26 September[13]
Arrestedestimated 18,210 (HRANA, as of 3 December).[10]
As of 4 November, over 14,000 were arrested throughout 134 cities and towns, and at 132 universities (HRANA).[14]
See detainees for notable cases.

Although the protests have not been as deadly as those in 2019 (when more than 1,500 were killed),[21] they have been "nationwide, spread across social classes, universities, the streets [and] schools", and called the "biggest challenge" to the government of Iran since the Islamic Revolution in 1979.[22] as of 29 November 2022 at least 448 people, including 60 minors, had been killed as a result of the government's intervention in the protests;[note 1] an estimated 18,210 have been arrested [note 2] throughout at least 134 cities and towns, and at 132 universities.[note 3][14][23]

Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei dismissed the widespread unrest not only as "riots" but also as a “hybrid war" caused by foreign states and dissidents abroad.[24][25][26] Women, including schoolchildren, have played a key role in the demonstrations. In addition to demands for increased rights for women, the protests have demanded the overthrow of the Islamic Republic, setting them apart from previous major protest movements in Iran, which have focused on election results or economic woes.[27] The government's response to the protests has been widely condemned.


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