Maine

Maine (/mn/ (listen)) is a state in the New England and Northeastern regions of the United States. It borders New Hampshire to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest, respectively. The largest state by total area in New England, Maine is the 12th-smallest by area, the 9th-least populous, the 13th-least densely populated, and the most rural[13] of the 50 U.S. states. It is also the northeasternmost among the contiguous United States, the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes, the only state whose name consists of a single syllable, and the only state to border exactly one other U.S. state. Approximately half the area of Maine lies on each side of the 45th parallel north in latitude. The most populous city in Maine is Portland, while its capital is Augusta.

Maine
State of Maine
Nickname(s): 
"The Pine Tree State"
"Vacationland"[1]
Motto(s): 
"Dirigo"
(Latin for "I lead", "I guide", or "I direct")
Anthem: "State of Maine"
Map of the United States with Maine highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodDistrict of Maine (Massachusetts)
Admitted to the UnionMarch 15, 1820 (23rd)
CapitalAugusta
Largest cityPortland
Largest metro and urban areasPortland
Government
  GovernorJanet Mills (D)
  Senate PresidentTroy Jackson (D)[nb 1]
LegislatureMaine Legislature
  Upper houseSenate
  Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciaryMaine Supreme Judicial Court
U.S. senatorsSusan Collins (R)
Angus King (I)
U.S. House delegation1. Chellie Pingree (D)
2. Jared Golden (D) (list)
Area
  Total35,385 sq mi (91,646 km2)
  Land30,862 sq mi (80,005 km2)
  Water4,523 sq mi (11,724 km2)  13.5%
  Rank39th
Dimensions
  Length320 mi (515 km)
  Width205 mi (330 km)
Elevation
600 ft (180 m)
Highest elevation5,270 ft (1,606.4 m)
Lowest elevation0 ft (0 m)
Population
 (2020)
  Total1,362,359
  Rank42nd
  Density43.8/sq mi (16.9/km2)
   Rank38th
  Median household income
$56,277[4]
  Income rank
35th
Demonyms
  • Mainer
  • Maine-iac (colloquial)[5]
Language
  Official languageNone[nb 3]
  Spoken language
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
  Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
ME
ISO 3166 codeUS-ME
Traditional abbreviationMe.
Latitude42° 58′ N to 47° 28′ N
Longitude66° 57′ W to 71° 5′ W
Websitewww.maine.gov
Maine state symbols
Living insignia
BirdBlack-capped chickadee
Cat breedMaine Coon
CrustaceanLobster
FishLandlocked Atlantic salmon
FlowerWhite pine cone
InsectHoney bee
MammalMoose
TreeEastern white pine
Inanimate insignia
BeverageMoxie[12]
FoodBlueberry pie Whoopie pie
FossilPertica quadrifaria
GemstoneTourmaline
MottoDirigo
ShipBowdoin
SloganThe Way Life Should Be
SoilChesuncook soil
SongState of Maine
State route marker
State quarter
Released in 2003
Lists of United States state symbols

Maine has traditionally been known for its jagged, rocky Atlantic Ocean and bayshore coastlines; smoothly contoured mountains; heavily forested interior; picturesque waterways; and its wild lowbush blueberries and seafood cuisine, especially lobster and clams. Coastal and Down East Maine have emerged as important centers for the creative economy,[14] especially in the vicinity of Portland, which is also bringing gentrification.[15]

The territory of Maine has been inhabited by aboriginal populations for thousands of years after the glaciers retreated during the last ice age. At the time of European arrival, several Algonquian-speaking nations governed the area and these nations are now known as the Wabanaki Confederacy. The first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, founded by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local indigenous people caused many to fail.

As Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution. During the War of 1812, the largely undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces with the goal of annexing it to Canada via the Colony of New Ireland, but returned to the United States following failed British offensives on the northern border, mid-Atlantic and south which produced a peace treaty that restored the pre-war boundaries. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820 when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.


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