Makemake

Makemake[19] (minor-planet designation 136472 Makemake) is a dwarf planet and perhaps the second-largest Kuiper belt object in the classical population,[lower-alpha 2] with a diameter approximately two-thirds that of Pluto.[24][25] It has one known satellite.[26] Its extremely low average temperature, about 40 K (−230 °C), means its surface is covered with methane, ethane, and possibly nitrogen ices.[21]

136472 Makemake
Makemake and its moon, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope
Discovery
Discovered by
Discovery dateMarch 31, 2005
Designations
(136472) Makemake
PronunciationUK: /ˌmækiˈmæki/, US: /ˌmɑːkiˈmɑːki/ or /ˌmɑːkˈmɑːk/ (listen)[lower-alpha 1]
Named after
Makemake
2005 FY9
Dwarf planet
cubewano[5]
scattered-near[lower-alpha 2]
AdjectivesMakemakean[6][7]
Orbital characteristics[8]
Epoch May 31, 2020
(JD 2458900.5)
Earliest precovery dateJanuary 29, 1955
Aphelion52.756 AU (7.8922 Tm)
Perihelion38.104 AU (5.7003 Tm)
45.430 AU (6.7962 Tm)
Eccentricity0.16126
306.21 yr (111,845 d)
4.419 km/s
165.514°
Inclination28.9835°
79.620°
17 November 2186[9]
294.834°
Known satellites1
Physical characteristics
Dimensions
(1434+48
−18
)
×projected (1420+18
−24
 km
)
[10]

(1502±45)×(1430±9 km)[11]

Mean radius
Flattening0.0098[lower-alpha 3]
0.048[lower-alpha 4]
6.42×106 km2[lower-alpha 5][12]
Volume1.53×109 km3[lower-alpha 5][13]
Mass≈3.1×1021 kg[14]
Mean density
≈1.7 g/cm3 (using Ortiz et al. 2012 radius)
≈2.1 g/cm3 (using Brown 2013 radius[10])[14]
Equatorial surface gravity
< 0.57 m/s2
Equatorial escape velocity
< 0.91 km/s
22.8266±0.0001 h[15]
0.82±0.02[15]
Temperature32–36 K (single-terrain model)
40–44 K (two-terrain model)[11]
B−V=0.83, V−R=0.5[16]
17.0 (opposition)[17][18]
−0.12[8]
0.049±0.020[15]

    Makemake was discovered on March 31, 2005 by a team led by Michael E. Brown, and announced on July 29, 2005. It was initially known as 2005 FY9 and later given the minor-planet number 136472. In July 2008, it was named after Makemake, a creator god in the Rapa Nui mythology of Easter Island, under the expectation by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) that it would prove to be a dwarf planet.[25][27][28][29]


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