Mamluk Sultanate

The Mamluk Sultanate (Arabic: سلطنة المماليك, romanized: Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant and Hejaz that established itself as a caliphate. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Historians have traditionally broken the era of Mamluk rule into two periods, one covering 1250–1382 (the "Baḥrī" period) and the other 1382–1517 (the "Burjī" period), named after the ruling dynasties of the respective eras. Modern sources also refer to the same divisions as the "Turkish" and "Circassian" periods to stress the change in the ethnic origins of most Mamluks.[5][6][7][8][9]

Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt
سلطنة المماليك  (Arabic)
Salṭanat al-Mamālīk (Mamluk Sultanate)
دولة الاتراك‎  (Arabic)
Dawlat al-Atrāk (Turkish State)
دولة الجراكسة  (Arabic)
Dawlat al-Jarākisa (Circassian State)
1250–1517
Flag according to the Catalan Atlas of c. 1375
Attributed arms of the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt
(by Mecia de Viladestes map, 1413)
Extent of the Mamluk Sultanate under Sultan an-Nasir Muhammad
CapitalCairo
Common languages
Religion
GovernmentSultanate under ceremonial Caliphate[4]
Caliph 
 1261
Al-Mustansir (first)
 1262–1302
Al-Hakim I
 1406–1414
Abū al-Faḍl Al-Musta'in
 1508–1516
Al-Mutawakkil III (last)
Sultan 
 1250
Shajar ad-Durr (first)
 1250–1257
Izz al-Din Aybak
 1260–1277
Baibars
 1516–1517
Tuman bay II (last)
History 
 Murder of Turanshah
2 May 1250
22 January 1517
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Abbasid Caliphate
Ayyubid dynasty
Kingdom of Jerusalem
Principality of Antioch
County of Tripoli
Kingdom of Makuria
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Ottoman Empire

The term "Mamluk Sultanate" is a modern historiographical term.[10] The sultanate's ruling caste was composed of Mamluks, soldiers predominantly of Cuman-Kipchaks (from Crimea),[11] Circassian, Abkhazian,[12] Oghuz Turks[13] Albanian, Slavic, Greek, Armenian and Georgian slave origin.[14][15] While Mamluks were purchased, their status was above that of ordinary slaves, who were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks. Mamluks were considered to be "true lords", with social status above citizens of Egypt. Though it declined towards the end of its existence, at its height the sultanate represented the zenith of medieval Egyptian and Levantine political, economic, and cultural glory in the Islamic Golden Age.[16]