Manchester

Manchester (/ˈmænɪstər, -ɛs-/)[5][6] is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. The city has the country's fifth-largest population at 547,627 (as of 2018)[7] and lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.7 million,[8] third most-populous county, at around 2.8 million,[9] and third-most populous metropolitan area, with a population of 3.3 million.[10] It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation.[11] The local authority for the city is Manchester City Council.

Manchester
City of Manchester
Clockwise from top: Manchester city centre as seen from a distance of approximately 12 miles (19.5 kilometres) in Alderley Edge, Beetham Tower, Manchester Civil Justice Centre, Midland Hotel, One Angel Square, Manchester Town Hall
Nickname(s): 
Motto(s): 
Latin: "Concilio Et Labore" "By wisdom and effort"
Shown within Greater Manchester
Manchester
Location within England
Manchester
Location within the United Kingdom
Manchester
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 53°28′46″N 2°14′43″W
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Country England
RegionNorth West England
City regionManchester
Metropolitan and ceremonial countyGreater Manchester
Historic countiesLancashire (north of the River Mersey)
Cheshire (south of the River Mersey)
Founded1st century
Town charter1301
City status29 March 1853
Administrative HQManchester (Town Hall)
Government
  TypeMetropolitan borough
  BodyManchester City Council
  LeadershipLeader and Cabinet
  ExecutiveLabour
  LeaderSir Richard Leese
  Lord MayorAbid Latif Chohan[1]
  Chief ExecutiveJoanne Roney
Area
  City115.6 km2 (44.6 sq mi)
  Urban
630.3 km2 (243.4 sq mi)
Area rank199th
Elevation
38 m (125 ft)
Population
 (mid-2019 est.)
  City552,858
  Rank5th
  Density4,735/km2 (12,260/sq mi)
  Urban
2,705,000 (List of urban areas in Europe)
  Urban density4,051/km2 (10,490/sq mi)
  Metro
3,348,274[2] (List of metropolitan areas in Europe)
  Ethnicity[3]
White groups (66.7% )
Asian (14.4%)
Black (8.6%)
Mixed (4.7%)
Chinese (2.7%)
Arab (1.9%)
Other (1.2%)
DemonymsMancunian
Manc (colloq.)
Time zoneUTC+0 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST)UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Postcode areas
Dialling code0161
ISO 3166 codeGB-MAN
GSS codeE08000003
NUTS 3 codeUKD33
OS grid referenceSJ838980
MotorwaysM56
M60
A57(M)
A635(M)
Trunk primary routesA5103
Major railway stationsManchester Airport (B)
Manchester Oxford Road (C1)
Manchester Piccadilly (A)
Manchester Victoria (B)
TramwaysMetrolink
International airportManchester (MAN)
GDPUS$ 113.3 billion[4]
– Per capitaUS$ 38,233[4]
MPsGraham Stringer (L)
Lucy Powell (L)
Afzal Khan (L)
Jeff Smith (L)
Mike Kane (L)
Councillors96
PoliceGreater Manchester
Fire and RescueGreater Manchester
AmbulanceNorth West
Websitewww.manchester.gov.uk

The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, which was established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. Although historically and traditionally a part of Lancashire, areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated into Manchester in the 20th century. The first to be included, Wythenshawe, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution,[12] and resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.[13] Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles (58 km) to the west. Its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration.[14] Following successful redevelopment after the IRA bombing, Manchester was the host city for the 2002 Commonwealth Games.

The city is notable for its architecture, culture, musical exports, media links, scientific and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. At the University of Manchester, Ernest Rutherford first split the atom in 1917, Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn and Geoff Tootill developed the world's first stored-program computer in 1948, and Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov isolated the first graphene in 2004.