Mande languages

The Mande languages are spoken in several countries in West Africa by the Mandé peoples and include Maninka, Mandinka, Soninke, Bambara, Kpelle, Dioula, Bozo, Mende, Susu, and Vai. There are "60 to 75 languages spoken by 30 to 40 million people",[1] chiefly in Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, the Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Ivory Coast, and also in northwestern Nigeria and northern Benin.

Western Sudanic
EthnicityMandé peoples
West Africa
Linguistic classificationNiger–Congo?
  • Mande
  • Western Mande
  • Eastern Mande
ISO 639-5dmn
Linguasphere00- (phylozone)

The Mande languages show lexical similarities with the Atlantic–Congo language family, and the two have been classified together as a Niger–Congo language family since the 1950s. However, the Mande languages lack the noun-class morphology that is the primary identifying feature of the Atlantic–Congo languages. Without the help of that feature, a demonstration of the validity of Niger–Congo will require reconstructing both Proto-Mande and Proto-Niger–Congo. Until that work is done, linguists have increasingly decided to treat Mande and Atlantic–Congo as independent language families.


Valentin Vydrin concluded that "the Mande homeland at the second half of the 4th millennium BC was located in Southern Sahara, somewhere to the North of 16° or even 18° of Northern latitude and between 3° and 12° of Western longitude.".[2] That is now Mauritania and/or southern Western Sahara.


The group was first recognized in 1854 by Sigismund Wilhelm Koelle, in his Polyglotta Africana. He mentioned 13 languages under the heading North-Western High-Sudan Family, or Mandéga Family of Languages. In 1901, Maurice Delafosse made a distinction of two groups.[3] He speaks of a northern group mandé-tan and a southern group mandé-fu. The distinction was basically done only because the languages in the north use the expression tan for ten, and the southern languages use fu. In 1924, Louis Tauxier noted that the distinction is not well founded and there is at least a third subgroup he called mandé-bu. It was not until 1950 that André Prost supported that view and gave further details.

In 1958, Welmers published an article called "The Mande Languages," where he divided the languages into three subgroups: North-West, South and East. His conclusion was based on lexicostatistic research. Joseph Greenberg followed that distinction in his The Languages of Africa (1963). Long (1971) and Gérard Galtier (1980) follow the distinction into three groups but with notable differences.

Various opinions exist as to the age of the Mande languages. Greenberg has suggested that the Niger-Congo group, which in his view includes the Mande language family, began to break up at around 7000 years BP. Its speakers practised a Neolithic culture, as indicated by the Proto-Niger-Congo words for "cow", "goat" and "cultivate".[4]

The Mande languages are considered to be an independent language family by Dimmendaal (2011).[5]


Relation to Niger-Congo

Mande does not share the morphology characteristic of most of the Niger–Congo family, such as the noun-class system. Blench regards it as an early branch that, like Ijoid and perhaps Dogon, diverged before this morphology developed. Dwyer (1998) compared it with other branches of Niger–Congo and finds that they form a coherent family, with Mande being the most divergent of the branches he considered. Vydrin (2016) similarly concludes that Mande is a member of Niger–Congo, having split off when the noun-class system was minimal at most, and that arguments to the contrary are based on a typological feature, an ancestral morphology that is not shared with the mostly isolating Mande languages.[6]

However, Dimmendaal (2008) argues that the evidence for inclusion is slim, and that for now Mande is best considered an independent family.[7] The same view is held by Güldemann (2018).[8]

Internal classification

The diversity and depth of the Mande family is comparable to that of Indo-European. Eleven low-level branches of Mande are nearly universally accepted: Southern Mande (Dan etc.), Eastern Mande (Bisa, Boko etc.), Samogo, Bobo, Soninke–Bozo, Southwestern Mande (Mende, Kpelle, Loma etc.), Soso–Jalonke, Jogo, Vai–Kono, Mokole and Manding (Bambara, Djula etc.). It is also widely accepted that these form two primary branches, the first two as Southeastern Mande and the rest as Western Mande.[1]

Most internal Mande classifications are based on lexicostatistics. See, for example, based on the Swadesh list).[9] An alternative classification from Kastenholz (1996) is based on lexical innovations and comparative linguistics. Note however that Kastenholz warns that this is not based on objective criteria and thus is not a genealogical classification in the narrow sense.[10] The following classification is a compilation of both.

 Southeast Mande  

Southern Mande (Dan, Mano, etc.)

Eastern Mande (Bisa, Busa, etc.)

West Mande 
Central West 
Central Mande

Jogo languages




Manding languages

Mokole languages


 Southwest Mande

 Northwest  proper



Samogo languages (partial: Duun–Sembla)


Vydrin (2009) differs somewhat from this: he places Soso-Jalonke with Southwestern (a return to André Prost 1953); Soninke-Bozo, Samogho and Bobo as independent branches of Western Mande, and Mokole with Vai-Kono. Most classifications place Jo within Samogo.

Languages in Nigeria

Mande languages spoken in Nigeria belong to the Busa subgroup. Below is a list of language names, populations, and locations (in Nigeria only) from Blench (2019).[11]

LanguageAlternate spellingsOwn name for languageEndonym(s)Other names (location-based)Other names for languageExonym(s)SpeakersLocation(s)
Sorko (extinct)Bozo (not recommended)SarkanciSarkawaMost Sorko now speak only Hausa. Mainly in MaliNiger, Kwara and Kebbi States; fishermen on Kainji Lake
BusaBoussaBìsã́sg. Busa, pl. BusanoBusagwe, Busanse, Boussanse, Busanci11,000 in Nigeria (1952 W&B); 50,000 in Nigeria, 50,000 in Benin (1987 UBS)Kwara State; Niger State, Borgu LGA; Kebbi State, Bagudo LGA; also in Benin Republic
KyengaKyangganyaKyanggani pl. KyangganaKenga, Tyengafive villages on Nigeria side which speak the language; 7,591 (1925 Meek); 10,000 including Shanga (1973 SIL)Niger State, Borgu LGA, north of Illo; also in Benin and Niger Republics
ShangaShonga10,000 including Kyenga (1973 SIL): language dying outKebbi State, Bagudo and Yauri LGAs
BokoBooBoko120,000 all populations (2004 est.)Niger State, Borgu LGA. Nikki–Kande area, Benin Republic.
Bokobarusg. Busa, pl. BusanoKaama, Zogbme, Zugweya, ZogbeyaKaiama30–40,000 (est. 2004)Kwara State. Kaiama town and surrounding villages


Mande languages do not have the noun-class system or verbal extensions of the Atlantic–Congo languages and for which the Bantu languages are so famous, but Bobo has causative and intransitive forms of the verb. Southwestern Mande languages and Soninke have initial consonant mutation. Plurality is most often marked with a clitic; in some languages, with tone, as for example in Sembla. Pronouns often have alienable–inalienable and inclusive–exclusive distinctions. Word order in transitive clauses is subjectauxiliaryobjectverbadverb. Mainly postpositions are used. Within noun phrases, possessives come before the noun, and adjectives and plural markers after the verb; demonstratives are found with both orders.[12]

Comparative vocabulary

Below is a sample basic vocabulary of reconstructed proto-forms:

Proto-Mande[13]*ɲíŋ*lɛɓ̰́ Ṽ*yíti
Proto-West Mande[14]*túli*sʸúN*ɲíN**nɛ̌N*dá ~ ɗá*jío ~ yío*gúri ~ wúri*jío ~ yío*tɔ́ko
Proto-Manding (Mandekan)[15]*nya*tulo*nun*nyin*nɛn(e)*da*joli*kolo*yiri*ji*domo(n)*tɔgɔ
Proto-East Mande (Niger-Volta)[16]*jɛN (< *gɛN)*toro*N-jẽ*soN(-ka)*N-lɛ*lɛ*(N-)wa(-ru)*(N-)gero*li/*da*jiN*be(-le)*tɔ
Proto-South Mande[17]*yũ̀ã́*tɔ́lɔ́ŋ*yṹã̄*sɔ̃̀ɛ̃́*nã̄nɛ̃́*ɗé*yɔ̃̀mũ̄*wɔ̃́nɛ̃́*yílí*yí*ɓɪ̀lɪ̀*tɔ́

Below are some cognates from D. J. Dwyer (1988) (j is [dʲ] or [d͡ʒ]):[18]

MandingKono-VaiSusuMandé (SW)Soninké SemblaBoboSanBusaManoDanGuroMwa
'mouth'*dadadalalaqqe jodoleleleDilele, di
'saliva'*da-yida-jida-sɛ-yela-yilaxan-ji jon-fagodibesele-ile-yiDi-lileriliri
'water'*yijeyiyiyaji joji, ziomuniyiyiyiyi
'breast'*n-koŋsinsususisiŋenikonbe kyeɲiŋiɲoɲoɲoŋɲoŋɲoŋɲoŋ
'milk'*n-kon-yinɔnɔsusu-jixin-yɛgen-iya-xatti kye-n-dyon-yan-niŋin-yo-n-yoŋ-yin-yoŋ-yi
'goat'*bo(re)babaɓolisugo bigwabweblebori
'buck'*bore-gurenba-korodiggeh gu-gurable-sabɔ-gonbɔ-gongyagyabɔ-guren
'sheep'*sagasagabara-wayexeɓarajaxe segasɛgeseresabaablaberabla
'ram'*saga-gurensaga-koro jaxampadekekyeresi-gulada-gubla-gonbra-gonbla-gure
'head'*Koun-kolo yin-kola

Note that in these cognates:

  • 'saliva' = 'mouth'+'water'
  • 'milk' = 'breast'+'water'
  • 'buck (he-goat)' = 'goat'+'male'
  • 'ram' = 'sheep'+'male'


Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[19]

BissaBissa (Bisa)díípíjàkakʊ́sɪ̀sɔ́ɔ̀sòàtɪ (5 + 1)sáápra (5 + 2)síɲe (2 x 4) ?nɛfʊ̀ (10 -1) ?bʊ̀
BusaBokodoplaʔààɔ̃sííɔ̃sɔ́osoolo (5 + 1)sopla (5 + 2)swaàɔ̃ (5 + 3)kɛ̃̀okwi [ litː tear away 1 (from) 10 ]kwi
BusaBokobaru (Zogbẽ)dopláaʔààɡɔ̃sííɡɔ̃sɔ́ɔ́roswɛ́ɛ̀do (5 + 1)swɛ́ɛ̀pláa (5 + 2)sɔ́rààɡɔ̃ (5 + 3)kɛ̃́ndo (10 - 1)kurì
BusaIllo Busadopiaʔààkɔ̃ʃííkɔ̃sɔ́osóodo (5 + 1)soopia (5 + 2)swààkɔ̃ (5 + 3)kĩ́ṇdokwi [litː tear away 1 (from) 10]kwi
BusaBusadoplaʔààkɔ̃sííkɔ̃sɔ́ɔ́rosúddo (5 + 1)súppla (5 + 2)sɔ́rààkɔ̃ (5 + 3)kɛ̃́ndo (10 - 1)kurì
KyangaKyanga (Kyenga) (1)dúúfʸáāˀāàːʃíísɔ́ɔ́rūsɔ̄ɔ̄dū (5 + 1)sʷāhʸáā (5 + 2)sōōwà (5 + 3)sòòʃí (5 + 4)kōōrì
KyangaKyanga (Kyenga) (2)dūːfʲâːʔàːʃíːsɔ̂ːwûsɔ̂ːdū (5 + 1)sɔ̂ːfʲá (5 + 2)sōːuwà (5 + 3)sōwēʃíː (5 + 4)kōːlì
KyangaKyenga (3)dohia / fiaʔàʃísɔɔlusɔɔdu (5 + 1)sɔɔhia (5 + 2)soowà (5 + 3)sooʃí (5 + 4)korì
KyangaShangadoʍaʔàʃísɔ́ɔsɔbodo (5 + 1)sɔhia (5 + 2)sɔboʔà (5 + 3)sɔdoʃí (5 + 4)wókòì
SamoMatya Samoɡɔ̀rɔ́prátjɔwɔsɔ́rɔ́sɛ̀rɛ́ (5 + 1)tjʊ́sʊ́ (5 + 2)tjisí (2 x 4)ménaŋɡɔrɔ (10 - 1)flè / fʊ̀
SamoMaya Samodɛ́nɛ́fúrákàakúsíirísɔ́ɔrɔ́sɔ̀rɔ̀ (5 + 1)sɔ̀frá (5 + 2)cíɡísí (2 x 4 ) ?sóosí (5 + 4) ?
Guro-TuraGurofíéyaázĩ̀ɛ̃́sólúsʊɛdʊ / sʊɛlʊ (5 + 1)sʊlàyíé (5 + 2)sʊlaá (5 + 3)sʊlàzĩ̀ɛ̃́ (5 + 4)vu
Guro-TuraYaourétʊ̀fli̋yaaɡasĩjɛ̃ = sĩɟɛ̃ or sĩd͡ʒɛ̃sóoluʃɛ́dʊ (5 + 1)sɔ́ravli (5 + 2)sɔ́ra (5 + 3)sɔ́rasiɛ̃ (5 + 4)
Guro-TuraMann (Mano)doópèèlɛyààkayììsɛsɔ́ɔ́lisáláádo (5 + 1)sálápèèlɛ (5 + 2)sálàka (5 + 3)sɛ́lɛ̀ìsɛ (5 + 4)vũ̀
Nwa-BenBengdoplaŋŋaŋsiéŋsɔ́ŋsɔ́do (5 + 1)sɔ́pla (5 + 2)sɔ́wa (5 + 3)sisi (5 + 4)ebu
Nwa-BenGagufɪ́nyíaziésúusɛ́dò (5 + 1)sɛ́fɪ́n (5 + 2)sɛà (5 + 3)tízie (5 + 4)
Nwa-BenMwan (Muan)doplɛyaɡayiziɛsóósrɔádo (5 + 1)srɔáplɛ (5 + 2)srɔ́a (5 + 3)srɔáyiziɛ (5 + 4)vu
Nwa-BenWandopilɔŋʔã́sijásɔ̀lúwáŋ́séaʔã́ (5 + 2)séjãŋ́ (5 + 3)sɔlásijá (5 + 4)sɔ́jɔlú
Jogo-JeriJalkunandúlìfìlɑ̀siɡ͡bùnɑ̄ːnīsōːlōmìːlùmɑ̀ɑ́lɑ̀mɑ̀sīɡ͡bū (5 + 3)mɑ́nɑ̄nì (5 + 4)tɑ̄
Jogo-JeriLigbidíén / díyéfàlà / fàlásèɡ͡bá / siɡ͡bánáánè / náanisóólò / sóolomɔ̀ɔ̀dó / mooró (5 + 1)màúlà / mafála (5 + 2)másèɡ͡bá / masiɡ͡bá (5 + 3)màdááné / maráni (5 + 4)táàn / táa
MandingMarka (Dafing)kyen / kyerenfila / filasaba / sabanɛi / naaniluu / luuruwɔɔ / wɔɔrɔwəna / wonlasii / siɡikonon / kondontan / tan
MandingBambarakélen [kélẽ́]fìla [fìlá]sàba [sàbá]náani [náːní]dúuru [dúːrú]wɔ́ɔrɔ [wɔ́ːrɔ́]wólonwula [wólṍwulá]sèɡin [sèɡĩ́]kɔ̀nɔntɔn [kɔ̀nɔ̃̀tɔ̃́]tán [tã́]
MandingJula (1)kelen [ké.lẽ́]filà [fì.là] ~ [flà]sàbà [sà.bà]nàànìn [nàːnĩ̀]dùùrù [dù.ɾù]wɔ̀ɔ̀rɔ̀ [wɔ̀ːɾɔ́]wolon fìlà [wò.lṍ.fi.̀là]sieɡi [sí.é.ɡí]kɔ̀nɔ̀ndon [kɔ.̀nɔ̃.ⁿdṍ]tan [tã́]
MandingJula (2)kelen [kélẽ́]fila [fìlá] / fla [flá]saba [sàbá]naani [náːní]looru [lóːrú]wɔɔrɔ [wɔ́ːrɔ́]wolonfila [wólṍfìlá] / wolonflaseɡin [sèɡĩ́] / seeɡi [sèːɡí]kɔnɔntɔn [kɔ̀nɔ̃̀tɔ̃́]tan [tã́]
MandingSankaran Maninkakɛlɛnfilasawanaaniloolu / looliwɔɔrɔnwɔɔrɔn (fi)lasenkonondotan
MokoleKakabekélenfìlasàbanáanilɔ́ɔluwɔ́ɔrɔwɔ́rɔwila (6 + 1)sáɡinkɔ̀nɔntɔtán
MokoleKurankokelenfilasawa / sabananiloliwɔrɔwɔrɔnfila (6 + 1) ?seɡinkɔnɔnttan
MokoleLelekelɛŋfelasawananiluuliwɔɔrɔwɔrɔŋ kela (6 + 1)seŋkɔnɔndɔtaŋ
Vai-KonoKononcélen / ncéle, dɔ́ndofèasàwanáanidúʔuwɔ́ɔlɔwɔ́nfèa / ɔ́ɱfèaséi / séinkɔ̀nɔ́ntɔntán
Vai-KonoVailɔ̀ndɔ́fɛ̀(ʔ)ásàk͡pánáánìsóó(ʔ)úsɔ̂ŋ lɔ̀ndɔ́ (5 + 1)sɔ̂ŋ fɛ̀(ʔ)á (5 + 2)sɔ̂ŋ sàk͡pá (5 + 3)sɔ̂ŋ náánì (5 + 4)tâŋ
Susu-YalunkaSusukérén [kɛ́rɛ̃́]fìrín [fìrĩ́]sàxán [sàxã́]náánísúlísénní [sẽní] (5 + 1)sólófèré (5 + 2)sólómásàxán (5 + 3)sólómánáání (5 + 4)fuú
Susu-YalunkaYalunka (1)kèdéfìríŋsàkáŋnànìsùlùsènì (5 + 1)fòlófɛ̀rɛ́ (5 + 2)fòlòmàsàkáŋ (5 + 3)fòlòmànànì (5 + 4)
Susu-YalunkaYalunka (Jalonke) (2)kedenfidinsaxannaanisuulisɛnni (5 + 1)solofɛdɛ (5 + 2)solomasɛɡɛ (5 + 3)solomanaani (5 + 4)fuu
KpelleGuinea Kpelletááŋhvèèlɛ̌ / hvèèlɛ́hààbǎ / hààbánááŋ́lɔ́ɔ́límɛ̀í dà (5 + 1)mɛ̀ì hvéélɛ̀ (5 + 2)mɛ̀ì háábà (5 + 3)mɛ̀ì nááŋ́ (5 + 4)pòǔ
KpelleLiberia Kpelletaaŋ / tɔnɔ / dɔnɔfeerɛsaaɓanáaŋnɔ́ɔlu / lɔ́ɔlumɛi da (5 + 1)mɛi feerɛ (5 + 2)mɛi saaɓa (5 + 3)mɛi náaŋ (5 + 4)puu
Mende-LomaLooma (Toma) (1)ɡílàɡfélé(ɡɔ̀)sáwà(ɡɔ̀)náánĩ̀(ɡɔ̀)dɔ́ɔ́lù̀(ɡɔ̀)dòzìtà (5 + 1)dɔ́fèlà (5 + 2)dɔ́sáwà (5 + 3)tàwù̀(ɡɔ̀) (10 - 1) ?pù̀(ɡɔ̀)
Mende-LomaLoma (2)ɡilafeleɡɔsaaɡɔnaaɡɔdooluodɔzita (5 + 1)dɔfela (5 + 2)dɔsava (5 + 3)taawu (10 - 1) ?puu
Mende-LomaBandi (1)ìtá(ŋ), hítà(ŋ)fèlé(ŋ)sàwá(ŋ), sàá(ŋ)náánì(ŋ)ndɔ̀ɔ́lú(ŋ)nɡɔ̀hítá(ŋ) (5 + 1)ŋɡɔ̀félà(ŋ) (5 + 2)ŋɡɔ̀hák͡pá(ŋ), ŋɡwahák͡pá(ŋ) (5+ 4)tààwú(ŋ), tààvú(ŋ) (10 - 1) ?pû(ŋ), púù(ŋ)
Mende-LomaBandi (2)iitáfeelésaawánaánindɔɔ́lunɡɔhíta (5 + 1)nɡɔféla (5 + 2)nɡwahák͡pa (5 + 3)taávu (10 - 1) ?púu
Mende-LomaLoko (1)íla(ŋ)félé(ŋ), féé(ŋ)sáwá(ŋ), cáwá(ŋ)nááí(ŋ)ńdɔu(ŋ)ŋɡɔhita (5 + 1)ŋɡɔfɛla (5 + 2)ŋɡɔsaak͡pakaraabu, raabupuu(ŋ), kapuu(ŋ)
Mende-LomaLoko (2)ilafeleitʃawanaiŋndɔunɡɔita (5 + 1)nɡɔfla (5 + 2)nɡɔsaɡ͡ba (5 + 3)karabu (10 - 1) ?kapu
Mende-LomaMendeyilá / itááfelésawánáánilɔ́ɔ́luwɔ́íta (5 + 1)wɔ́fíla (5 + 2)wáyák͡pá (5 + 3)táálú (10 - 1) ?puú
SamogoDzùùngoosōː ́ / sōːrēfíː / fíːkíʒìːɡī ́nàːlẽ́nũ̀tsũ̀mɛ̃̄ ́ɲɛ̃̀ːnṹŋáːlõ̀kjèːrṍtsjéù
SamogoJowulu (Jo)tẽẽnafuulibʒeipʃɪrɛᶦtããtãmãnɪ (5 + 1)dʒɔ̃mpʊn (3 + 4)fulpʊn (2 x 4)tẽmpʊn (5 + 4)bʒĩĩ
Soninke-BoboKonabérétálɪ̄pálànìã̄kʊ̄kʊ̀tã́nɪ̀ (5 + 1)kʊ̀rʊ̀párá (5 + 2)kʊ̀rʊ̀sɔ̄ʊ̀ (5 + 3)kʊ̀rʊ̀nɔ̂ŋ (5 + 4)m̥ḿ̩
Soninke-BoboSouthern Bobo Madaretèléplásáànáàkóòkònálá (5 + 1)kòk͡pùrá (5 + 2)kórósɔ̃̌ (5 + 3)kórónɔ̃̌ (5 + 4)fʊ̃̀
Soninke-BoboHainyaxo Bozo (Kelenga)sâ:nàfíenùsí:yùná:nàkɔ́lɔ́hɔ̀tú:mìdʒíenìsɛ́kìkáfìtã̄
Soninke-BoboTièmà-Cièwè Bozosàn:ápẽ̀ːndésì:yénà:rákɔ̀lɔ́tù:mìdʒiènĩ́tʃèkíkìáwí
Soninke-BoboTiéyaxo Bozo (Tigemaxo) (1)sánáfẽ́:ndèsí:yòkɔ́lɔ̀kɔ́lɔ̀tú:mĩ̀dʒê:nìsɛ̄kīkìáwìtã́
Soninke-BoboTiéyaxo Bozo (2)sanna / kuɔnfendeen / pendeensiiyonnaarankɔlɔntuumijeenisekiinkiawitan
Soninke-BoboJenaama Bozo (1)sànːápẽ̀ndéːsíkɛ̃̀ũnàtã́kɔ̀ːɡṍtǔːmíyíènísèkːíkàpːítʃɛ́mí
Soninke-BoboJenaama Bozo (2)sannapendesikɛũ / siɡɛũnataũkɔɡõtuumiyeenisekikapitʃɛmi / tʃami
Soninke-BoboSoninkebàanèfíllò / filːisíkkò / sikːináɣátò / naɣatikáráɡò / karaɡitṹmù / tũmiɲérù / ɲeriséɡù / seɡikábù / kabitã́mú / tãmi

See also


  1. Vydrin, Valentin. "Mande Languages". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics.
  2. Vydrin, Valentin. "On the Problem of the Proto-Mande Homeland" (PDF). Journal of Language Relationship. Journal of Language Relationship.
  3. Delafosse, Maurice (1901). Essai de manuel pratique de la langue mandé ou mandingue ... Institut national de langues et civilisations orientales. OCLC 461494818.
  4. D.F. McCall, "The Cultural Map and Time Profile of the Mande Speaking Peoples," in C.T. Hodge (ed.). Papers on the Manding, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1971.
  5. Dimmendaal, Gerrit J. (2011). Historical Linguistics and the Comparative Study of African Languages. John Benjamins. ISBN 978-90-272-8722-9.
  6. Valentin Vydrin. Toward a Proto-Mande reconstruction and an etymological dictionary. Faits de langues, Peter Lang, 2016, Comparatisme et reconstruction : tendances actuelles (Dir. K. Pozdniakov), pp.109-123. halshs-01375776
  7. Dimmendaal, Gerrit J. (2008). "Language Ecology and Linguistic Diversity on the African Continent". Language and Linguistics Compass. 2 (5): 840–858. doi:10.1111/j.1749-818x.2008.00085.x. ISSN 1749-818X.
  8. Güldemann, Tom (2018). "Historical linguistics and genealogical language classification in Africa". In Güldemann, Tom (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of Africa. The World of Linguistics series. 11. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 58–444. doi:10.1515/9783110421668-002. ISBN 978-3-11-042606-9. Overall, unless more robust and systematic evidence is brought forward, the long-standing but vague idea that Mande is distant from the rest of Niger-Kordofanian as one of its earliest offshoots should give way to the neutral assessment that it is a family without a proven genealogical affiliation (p. 192).
  9. "Mande language family". Retrieved 2019-03-25.
  10. Kastenholz, Raimund (1996). Sprachgeschichte im West-Mande : Methoden und Rekonstruktionen. Köln: Köppe. p. 281. ISBN 3896450719. OCLC 42295840.
  11. Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  12. Heine, Bernd; Nurse, Derek, eds. (2000). African languages : an introduction. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521661781. OCLC 42810789.
  13. Vydrin, Valentin. 2016. Toward a Proto-Mande reconstruction and an etymological dictionary. Faits de Langues 47: 109-124.
  14. Kastenholz, Raimund (1996). Sprachgeschichte im West-Mande: Methoden und Rekonstruktionen. Mande Languages and Linguistics / Langues et Linguistique Mandé, 2. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag. 281 p.
  15. Bimson, Kent (1976). Comparative reconstruction of Mandekan. In Studies in African Linguistics, Vol 7, No 3 (1976).
  16. Schreiber, Henning. 2008. Eine historische Phonologie der Niger-Volta-Sprachen: Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung der Sprachgeschichte der östlichen Ost-Mandesprachen (Mande Languages and Linguistics 7). Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
  17. Vydrin, Valentin. 2007. South Mande reconstruction: Initial consonants. In: Аспекты компаративистики 2. Orientalia et classica XI: Труды Института восточных культур и античн.
  18. Dwyer, David J. 1988. Towards Proto-Mande phonology. Mandenkan 14/15, p. 139-152. Paris.
  19. Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Niger-Congo Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.


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