Manetho (/ˈmænɪθ/; Koinē Greek: Μανέθων Manéthōn, gen.: Μανέθωνος) is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytos (Coptic: Ϫⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩϯ, romanized: Čemnouti[2]) who lived in the Ptolemaic Kingdom in the early third century BC, during the Hellenistic period. He authored the Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt) in Greek, a major chronological source for the reigns of the kings of ancient Egypt. It is unclear if he wrote his history and king list during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter or Ptolemy II Philadelphos, but it was completed no later than that of Ptolemy III Euergetes.

Plutarch linked Manetho with the Ptolemaic cult of Serapis,[1] this is the head of an anonymous priest of Serapis - Altes Museum, Berlin

Two English translations of the fragments of Manetho's Aegyptiaca have been published, by William Gillan Waddell in 1940, later by Gerald P. Verbrugghe and John Moore Wickersham in 2001.[3]