Marcelino Oreja, 1st Marquis of Oreja
Marcelino Oreja y Aguirre, 1st Marquis of Oreja (born 13 February 1935) is a Spanish lawyer, diplomat and politician of the People's Party. He served as Foreign Minister of Spain between 1976 and 1980. Between 1984 and 1989 he was Secretary General of the Council of Europe. In 1989 he became member of the European Parliament and he served until 1993. In 1994 he was appointed European Commissioner for Transport and Energy and then European Commissioner for Institutional Relations and Communication Strategy.
Oreja was born on 13 February 1935 in Madrid, his father was Marcelino Oreja Elósegui.
In May 1973 he and a number of Madrid-based individuals founded the Grupo Tácito, a group of intellectuals, politicians and journalists, some of them coming from the Franco regime and others from the democratic and monarchist opposition to the dictatorship. They - by the prospect of Franco’s death - advocated a democratic solution to the dictatorial regime and had influence in different sectors linked to the system, and where active during the period of the Spanish Transition between 1973 and 1976. Oreja came up with the name after the Roman historian Tacitus, meaning that due to government censorship not everything could be said. The Grupo Tácito had its origins in a meeting of the Asociación Católica Nacional de Propagandistas’ (Catholic National Association of Propagandists) and group’s early influence was largely determined by its access to the Catholic press.
Oreja served as Spanish minister of foreign affairs from 5 July 1976 to 1980. July 1976 Oreja set out to reform Spain’s 1953 Concordat with the Vatican, which resulted the same month in agreements with the Vatican laying out the separation of church and state. The Spanish chief of state no more had the right to nominate Roman Catholic bishops, in exchange the Vatican dropped its right of “ecclesiastical forum”. Two months later Oreja signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on behalf of Spain.
He was Secretary General of the Council of Europe from 1984 to 1989.
He was elected to the European Parliament in 1989. His membership ended on 28 June 1993.
In 1994 Oreja was appointed European Commissioner for Transport and Energy and then European Commissioner for Institutional Relations and Communication Strategy.
At the end of his mandate, Oreja retired from political life, returning to Spain. He continued to be active in many fields, being appointed Head of the Institute for European Studies at the CEU San Pablo University Foundation, Vice-Chair of the BBV Foundation (1996) and Doctor Honoris Causa at Zaragoza and Seville Universities (1996).
- Elcano Royal Institute for International and Strategic Studies, Member of the Board of Trustees
- Spanish Royal Academy of Moral and Political Sciences (RACMP), Member
- Spanish Royal Academy of Jurisprudence and Legislation (RAJL), Member
- https://www.ru.nl/publish/pages/816038/oreja-m-19april2017.pdf Marcelino Oreja Aguirre Bio, Université du Luxembourg CVCE.EU
- Vatican, Spain Sign Pact Affecting Naming of Bishops The New York Times, 29 July 1976.
- Marcelino Oreja and Georg Kahn-Ackermann at the signing
- Spain and the Council of Europe
- "Commission Member Biographies". Independent Commission on Turkey. British Council and the Open Society Foundation–Turkey. 2009. Archived from the original on 13 September 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- "Marcelino Oreja Aguirre". European Parliament. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- "Biography of Marcelino Oreja Aguirre" (PDF). CVCE.eu. 10 September 2012. p. 2. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- Board of Trustees Elcano Royal Institute for International and Strategic Studies.
- R., Juan Carlos (9 April 2010). Caamaño Domínguez, Francisco (ed.). "Real Decreto 430/2010, de 8 de abril, por el que se concede el título de Marqués de Oreja a don Marcelino Oreja Aguirre" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish) (86): 32247. ISSN 0212-033X. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
The Count of Motrico
| Minister of Foreign Affairs
7 July 1976 – 8 September 1980
José Pedro Pérez-Llorca