Marshal (Italy)


The Italian military rank of maresciallo (marshal) is classified as a "sub-officer" and is the highest rank of non-commissioned officer in the Italian Armed Forces, higher than the rank of sergeant but lower than that of ensign/second lieutenant; there are from three to five grades within the rank, according to the different branches of the armed forces. The rank is achieved through merit or attending the Scuola Allievi Marescialli (School of Student Marshals). Marshal is an intermediate rank of the armed forces which is currently granted to NCOs with the training and technical competence to carry out specialised executive roles, and to command smaller and technically complex units.[1]

History


The rank of marshal in Italy was initially provided only as the marescialli d'alloggio (lodging marshals) of the Royal Carabinieri. In 1902 [2] the rank was established for the Royal Army. The rank was unique and higher than that of furiere maggiore (senior quartermaster). Subsequently in 1907 [3] the ranks of quartermaster and quartermaster were abolished and the rank of marshal was divided into three classes: 1st, 2nd and 3rd class marshal who were then renamed Maresciallo maggiore, Maresciallo capo and Maresciallo ordinario respectively. The badges of rank were regulated only on January 22, 1907 by a circular. In the Regia Marina the equivalent ranks were those of capo di 1ª, 2ª e 3ª classe.

At the entrance to the War of Italy in World War One the ranks of maresciallo ordinario, maresciallo capo and maresciallo Maggiore existed and were retitled as Maresciallo di Compagnia, Maresciallo di Battaglione, and Maresciallo di Reggimento. In 1916 the degree of "Aiutanti di Battaglia" was established, reachable from both the non-commissioned officers and troops solely for war merits, regardless of the previously covered degree. [4] Until 1972 the marshals were framed in three hierarchical levels: maresciallo ordinario, maresciallo capo and maresciallo maggiore and had a distinctive respectively one, two or three mottled golden stripes of black placed vertically on the shoulder straps. Later in the seventies, maresciallo maggiore aiutante was added, above the other degrees, but always subordinate to the degree of aiutante di battaglia. This degree was distinguished as it was reachable by promotion to choice and not for seniority, and had the same distinctive of Marshal Maggiore, but with the mottled rods of red. After 1972 for all marshal ranks were reoriented horizontally.

Insignia of the Royal Italian Army pre-World War One:

Shoulder strap
Grado Maresciallo maggiore Maresciallo capo Maresciallo ordinario

Insignia of the Royal Italian Army pre-World War One:


Insignia of grade (1916)
Insignia of grade (1915) Original insignia
Grado Aiutante di battaglia Maresciallo di reggimento Maresciallo di battaglione Maresciallo di compagnia


Insignia of the Maresciallo of the Royal Italian Army during World War II:

Italy
Aiutante di battaglia Maresciallo maggiore Maresciallo Capo Maresciallo Ordinario

Insignia 1945-1972:

Controspallina (since 1945)
Grade Aiutante di battaglia Maresciallo maggiore Maresciallo capo Maresciallo ordinario


Insignia 1972-current:

Italy
Primo Maresciallo Luogotenente Primo Maresciallo Maresciallo Capo Maresciallo Ordinario Maresciallo

New Maresciallo insignia added in 2018

Primo luogotenente q.s.[5][6]

Modern Italian military


Italian army insignia

In the Italian Army a marshal is a non-commissioned officer. The grades of marshal are as follows beginning with the lowest:[7]

  • maresciallo - marshal
  • maresciallo ordinario - ordinary marshal
  • maresciallo capo - chief marshal
  • primo maresciallo (before 2001 maresciallo aiutante) first marshal (until 2001 adjutant marshal)
  • luogotenente - sub-lieutenant (grade instituted in 2001).[8])

In the Italian Navy the grades of marshal are as follows:

  • capo di terza classe - chief third class
  • capo di seconda classe - chief second class
  • capo di prima classe - chief first class
  • primo maresciallo - first marshal (degree instituted in 2001[1])
  • luogotenente - sub-lieutenant (grade instituted in 2001).[9]

In the Italian Air Force the grades of marshal are as follows:

  • maresciallo di terza classe - marshal third class
  • maresciallo di seconda classe - marshal second class
  • maresciallo di prima classe - marshal first class
  • primo maresciallo - first marshal (until 2001[1] adjuvant marshal)
  • luogotenente - sub-lieutenant (grade instituted in 2001).[10]

Italian gendarmerie


Carabinieri insignia

In the uniformed sectors - the Carabinieri and Guardia di Finanza - those at the marshal level are called inspectors and are distinguished from supervisors and were once non-commissioned officers. Their grades resemble those in the Italian army:

  • maresciallo - marshal
  • maresciallo ordinario - ordinary marshal
  • maresciallo capo - chief marshal
  • primo maresciallo (before 2001 maresciallo aiutante) first marshal (until 2001 adjutant marshal)
  • luogotenente - sub-lieutenant (grade instituted in 2001).[11]

Adjutant marshal retains the rank of Official Substitute of Public Safety; lieutenant is not meaningfully a rank and dates from 2001.[12]

See also


References


  1. ^ Page of the Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) home site - http://www.esercito.difesa.it Archived 2017-07-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. Legge nº 266 del 3 luglio 1902
  3. Legge del 19 luglio 1906, esecutiva dal 1º gennaio del 1907.
  4. https://web.archive.org/web/20111018134049/http://www.esercito.difesa.it/Equipaggiamenti/Militaria/Gradi/Gradinonpi%C3%B9inuso/Leinsegnedigradonella1GuerraMondiale/Pagine/SottufficialieTruppa.aspx
  5. q.s. - (qualifica speciale - special rank)
  6. "Riordino delle carriere del 27/02/2018" (PDF).
  7. ^ ^ to b c d and f Decree legislative 28 February 2001, n. 82 - "integrating and corrective Dispositions of the 12 decree legislative May 1995, n. 196, in matter of the reordering of roles, modification of recruitment norms, state and advancement of the non-directing staff of the armed forces".
  8. ^ Page of the Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) home site - http://www.esercito.difesa.it Archived 2017-07-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ Page of the Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) home site - http://www.esercito.difesa.it Archived 2017-07-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Page of the Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) home site - http://www.esercito.difesa.it Archived 2017-07-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ Page of the Italian Carabinieri home site - http://www.carabinieri.it
  12. ^ Arm of the Police officers: legislative decree of 28 February 2001, n. 83 - "integrating and corrective dispositions of the legislative decree of 12 May 1995, n. 198, in the matter of the reordering of roles, modification of recruitment norms, state and advancement of the non-directing and non-managing staff of the police." Financial police: legislative decree of 28 February 2001, n. 67 - "integrating and corrective dispositions of the legislative decree of 12 May 1995, n. 199, in the matter of the new organization of the non-directing and non-managing staff of the financial police."